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Cornell University Library 
E 174.L88 1909 
Harper's encyclopdia of Unt 

3 1924 024 922 316 

Cornell University 

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the Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 




From 458 a.d. to 1906 







WM. R. HARPER, Ph.D., LL.D., D.D. 






























Copyright, 1905, by Harper & Brothers. 

Copyright, 1901, by Harper & Brothers. 

All rights rcscrvtd, 


President George Washington 'Frontispiece 

President Martin Van Buren Facing page 8 

The Inauguration of Washington " " 160 

Major-General Anthony Wayne " "250 

The White House . . : " " 342 

The Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown . . " . " 480 




Vail, Alfsed, inventor; born in Mor- party in 1901. He wrote Modern Social- 
ristown, N. J., Sept. 25, 1807; graduated ism; Socialism: What It Is and What It 
at the University of the City of New 7s Not; The Trust Question, etc. 
York in 1837; became interested in the Vail, Stephen, manufacturer; born 
experiments of Prof. Samuel F. B. Morse near Morristown, N. J., June 28, 1780; 
{q. v.), whom he greatly aided in the per- received a common school education; be- 
fection of the telegraph. In 1837 he con- came owner of the Speedwell iron works 
structed a miniature telegraph line on near Morristown, N. J., in 1804, where 
the plan of Morse's invention, which was the engine of the Savannah, the first 
pronounced practicable by a committee steamship that crossed the Atlantic, was 
of Congress in 1838. On May 1, 1844, he built. He contributed money to aid Pro- 
received from Annapolis the first news fessor Morse in the construction of the 
message sent over telegraph wires. His electric telegraph, and the first practical 
inventions include the lever and grooved exhibition of the new invention was made 
roller; the alphabetical application of the at his works. He died in Morristown, 
Morse dot-and : dash system; the first com- N. J., June 12, 1864. 
bination of the horizontal lever to move Vail, Stephen Montfobd, clergyman; 
a pencil, pen, or stylus ; a telegraphic born in Union Dale, Westchester co., N. Y., 
alphabet of dots, spaces, and dashes; and Jan. 10, 1818; graduated at Bowdoin 
the finger-key. He also invented a print- College in 1838, and at the Union Theo- 
ing telegraph, but took out no patent, logical Seminary in 1842; began to preach 
He was assistant superintendent of the in the Methodist Episcopal Church and) 
first telegraph line built. He published founded the first church of that denomi- 
The American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, nation in Brunswick, Me.; was Professor 
He died in Morristown, N. J., Jan. 18, of Languages in Amenia Seminary in 
1859. 1843; held pastorates in Fishkill, N. Y., 

Vail, Charles H., clergyman; born in Sharon, Conn., and Pine Plains, N. Y.; 

Tully, N. Y., April 28, 1866; received a Professor of Oriental Languages in the 

common school education; studied music General Biblical Institute of the Metho- 

in New York and taught; graduated dist Episcopal Church, Concord, N. H, 

at St. Lawrence University, Canton, in in 1849; and became United States con- 

1892; and later studied theology. He sul for Rhenish Bavaria in 1869. He 

was pastor of All Saints' Church, Albany, wrote for the Methodist press; and pub- 

N. Y., in 1893-94; and of the First Uni- lished essays on slavery and church 

versalist Church, Jersey City, N. J., in polity. He died in Jersey City, N. J., 

1894-1901; was nominated for governor Nov. 26, 1880. 

of New Jersey by the Social Democratic Vale, Gilbert, author; born in London, 
X.— A J 


England, in 1788; received a classical edu- 
cation; came to the United States in 1829; 
engaged in literary work in New York and 
Brooklyn; editor of the Citizen and of the 
World for several years, and later of the 
Beacon, a scientific and literary journal; 
invented a combined celestial sphere and 
terrestrial globe as a model for instruc- 
tion in astronomy. His publications in- 
clude Fanaticism, Its Source and Influ- 
ence; and the Life of Thomas Paine. He 
died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Aug. 17, 1866. 

Vale-Blake, Euphemia, author; born 
in Eye, Sussex, England, May 7, 182.4; 
came to the United States early in life; 
received a private education; and mar- 
ried Daniel S. Blake in 1863. She wrote 
History of Newbury port, Mass.; Arctic 
Experiences, etc. 

Valentine, David Thomas, historian; 
born in East Chester, N. Y., Sept. 15, 
1801; received an academic education; re- 
moved to New York City in 1817; ap- 
pointed clerk to the marine court in 1823 ; 
was deputy clerk to the common council 
in 1831-37; published an annual Manual 
of the Corporation and Common Council 
of New York in 1842-67, which is highly 
prized for its historical collections. He 
also wrote a History of New York (2 
volumes). He died in New York City, 
Feb. 25, 1869. 

Valentine, Edward Virginius, sculp- 
tor; born in Richmond, Va., Nov. 12, 
1838; received a private education; 
studied drawing and modelling in Rich- 
mond and went to Paris for further study 
in 1859. On his return to the United 
States he opened a studio in Richmond 
and exhibited a statuette of Robert E. 
Lee. Among his works are portrait 
busts of General Beauregard, Gen. James 
E. B. Stuart, " Stonewall " Jackson, 
Edwin Booth, and a marble figure of Gen. 
Robert E. Lee, in the mausoleum of the 
Memorial Chapel in Washington and 
Lee University. 

Vallandignam, Clement Laird, legis- 
lator; born in New Lisbon, 0., July 29, 
1820; was of Huguenot descent; studied 
at Jefferson College, Ohio; was principal 
of an academy at Snow Hill, Md.; and 
was admitted to the bar in 1842. In 1845- 
46 he was a member of the State legislat- 
ure, and for ten years afterwards edited 
the Dayton Empire. An earnest Democratic 

politician, he was sent to Congress in 
1857, in which body he was active until 
1863, opposing all war measures of the 
government, and openly showing sym- 
pathy with the Confederates. His utter- 
ances proclaiming him to be an enemy of 
his country, he was arrested at his own 
house, near Dayton, May 4, 1863, under a 
military order, on a charge of " treason- 
able conduct." He was tried by a court- 
martial at Cincinnati, convicted, and sen- 
tenced to close confinement in a fortress 
for the remainder of the war. This sen- 
tence was modified by President Lincoln, 
who directed him to be sent within the 
Confederate lines, and, in the event of his 
returning without leave, to suffer the 


penalty prescribed by the court. On his 
release he went to Canada, and while there 
was the Democratic candidate for governor 
of Ohio in 1863, but was defeated by John 
Brough by 100,000 majority. He was 
permitted to return to his home, and was 
a member of the national Democratic con- 
ventions in Chicago in 1864 and in New 
York in 1868. While engaged in e suit in 
court in Lebanon, O., he was mortally 
wounded by a pistol which he was handling 
in explaining an alleged fact to the jury, 
and died there, June 17, 1871. 

Valley Forge. Washington's aimy en- 
camped at Whitemarsh, in a beautiful 
valley about 14 miles from Philadelphia, 
where he remained until Dee. 11, 1777, 
and proceeded with his half-clad, half-bars- 


footed soldiers to Valley Forge, about 20 winding Schuylkill, they were encamped, 
miles northward from Philadelphia. These with no shelter but rude log huts which 
numbered about 11,000 men, of whom not they built themselves. The winter that en- 
more than 7,000 were fit for field duty, sued was severe. The soldiers shivered with 


The place was chosen because it was 
farther from the danger of sudden attacks 
from the foe, and where he might more 
easily afford protection for the Congress 
sitting at York. Blood-stains, made by 
the lacerated feet of his barefooted sol- 
diers, marked the line of their march to 
Valley Forge. There, upon the slopes of 
a narrow valley on the borders of the 

cold and starved with hunger, and there 
their genuine patriotism was fully tested. 

The British under Howe had full pos- 
session of Philadelphia and of the Dela- 
ware below, and Pennsylvania was divided 
among its people and in its legislature 
by political factions. General uneasiness 
prevailed; and when Washington sought 
refuge at Valley Forge, the Pennsylvania 

VAttEtf tOlL&S 

legislature adopted a remonstrance against 
that measure. To this cruel missive 
Washington replied, after censuring the 
quartermaster-general (Mifflin), a Penn- 
sylvanian, for neglect of duty : " For the 
want of a two-days supply of provisions, 
an opportunity scarcely ever offered of 
taking an advantage of the enemy that 
has not been either totally obstructed or 
greatly impeded. Men are confined in 
hospitals or in farmers' houses for want 
of shoes. We have this day [Dec. 23] no 
less than 2,873 men in camp unfit for duty 
because they are barefooted and other- 
wise naked. Our whole strength in Con- 
tinental troops amounts to no more than 
8,200 in camp fit for duty." Since the 4th 
inst., our numbers fit for duty, from hard- 

ships and exposures, have decreased nearly 
2,000 men. Numbers are still obliged to 
sit all night by fires. Gentlemen repro- 
bate going into winter-quarters as much 
as if they thought the soldiers were made 
of sticks or stones. I can assure those 
gentlemen that it is a much easier and 
less distressing thing to draw remon- 
strances in a comfortable room by a good 
fireside than to occupy a cold, bleak hill, 
and sleep under frost and snow without 
clothes or blankets. However, although 
they seem to have little feeling for the 
naked and distressed soldiers, I feel super- 
abundantly for them; and from my soul 
I pity those miseries which it is neither 
in my power to relieve nor prevent." 
At the same time the British army was 





made as weak by indulgence in the city 
as were the American soldiers by physical 
privations, and Franklin was justified in 
saying, " Howe did not take Philadelphia ; 
Philadelphia took Howe." At Valley 
Forge Baron Steuben entered upon his 
duties as inspector-general of the Conti- 
nental army. There the joyful news 
reached the American army of a treaty 
of alliance with France. It was promul- 
gated by Washington in general orders on 
May .6, 1778. He set apart the next day 
as one of rejoicing and grateful acknowl- 
edgment of the divine goodness in raising 
up a powerful friend " in one of the 
princes of the earth." It was celebrated 
with tokens of delight. The several 
brigades were drawn up to hear discourses 
by their respective chaplains. The men 
were placed in specified positions to fire 
a feu de joie with muskets and cannon — 
three times three discharges of thirteen 
cannon. At the first the army huzzaed, 
" Long live the King of France " ; at the 
second, "Long live the friendly European 
powers"; and 9-t the third tHerp was a 

shout, " The American States." Washing- 
ton and his wife, and other officers and 
their wives, attended the religious services 
of the New Jersey brigade. Then the com- 
mander-in-chief dined in public with all 
the officers. Patriotic toasts were given, 
and loud huzzas greeted Washington when 
he left the table. As the season advanced 
comforts abounded at Valley Forge, the 
army increased, and on June 18 the en- 
campment broke up and the army began 
a chase of the British across New Jersey, 
when the latter had evacuated Philadel- 

A patriotic movement has been started 
to have the site of the Valley Forge en- 
campment preserved as a public reserva- 
tion, and on Oct. 19, 1901, the Daughters 
of the Revolution dedicated there a monu- 
ment to the memory of the revolutionary 
soldiers who died during the encampment. 
The monument is a handsome obelisk of 
granite, 50 feet high, and at its base ap- 
pear two bronze panels, one containing 
the seal of the society and the other rep- 
resenting a scene of camp-life at Valley 
Forge. Above these the original colonial 
flag with thirteen stars has been carved 
in the shaft. The inscription reads: "To 
the Soldiers of Washington's Army who 
Sleep in Valley Forge, 1777-78." 

Valverde, Battle at. General Canby, 
commander of the Department of New 
Mexico, was at Fort Craig, on the Bio 
Grande, early in 1862. At that time Col. 
II. H. Sibley, a Louisianian, had invaded 
New Mexico with 2,300 Texas Rangers, 
many of them veterans who had fought 
the Indians. Sibley issued a proclama- 
tion demanding from the inhabitants aid 
for and allegiance to his troops. Feeling 
confident of success, he moved towards 
Fort Craig to attack Canby. His light 
field-pieces could not injure the fort, so 
he crossed the Rio Grande below and 
out of reach of the guns of the fort for 
the purpose of drawing Canby out. In 
this he was successful. Canby threw a 
force across the river to occupy an emi- 
nence commanding the fort, which it was 
thought Sibley might attempt to gain. 
There a skirmish ensued, and the Nation- 
als retired to the fort. On the following 
day (Feb. 21) a considerable force of 
cavalry, artillery, and infantry, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Roberts, crossed the 



river, and at Valverde, 7 miles north of 
the fort, a severe battle occurred. Canby 
was about to make a general advance, 
when about 1,000 Texans, horse and foot, 
armed with carbines, revolvers, and bowie- 
knives, suddenly burst from a thick wood 
and attacked two of the National bat- 
teries, commanded respectively by Cap- 
tains MeRae and Hall. The cavalry were 
repulsed, but the infantry pressed for- 
ward, while the grape-shot were making 
fearful lanes in their ranks, and captured 
the battery of McRae. The brave captain 
defended his guns with great courage. 
Seated upon one of them, he fought the 
assailants with a pistol until he was shot 
dead. At length the Nationals, panic- 
stricken by the fierceness of the charge, 
broke and fled, and did not stop until 
they had reached the shelter of Fort 
Craig. That flight was one of the most 
disgraceful scenes of the war. Canby was 
compelled to see the victory snatched from 
him just as it seemed to be secured. Sib- 
ley, alarmed by the sudden development of 
Canby's strength by accessions to his 
ranks, hurried towards Santa F6, captured 
it, but could not hold it, and was soon 
afterwards driven over the mountains into 

Van Arsdale, John, military officer; 
born in Goshen, Orange co., N. Y., Jan. 
5, 1756; served throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War, first as sergeant and then 
as captain. He suffered unusual priva- 
tion and hardship in the expedition 
against Quebec; was wounded and taken 
prisoner at the capture of Fort Mont- 
gomery and Fort Clinton; and subse- 
quently was engaged in the war against 
the Indians. He died in New York City, 
Aug. 14, 1836. 

Van. Brunt, Gershom Jaqtjes, naval 
officer; born in Monmouth county, N. J., 
Aug. 28, 1708; entered the navy as mid- 
shipman in 1818; served in Com. David 
Porter's " Mosquito fleet " against pirates 

in the West Indies; was made lieutenant 
in 1827; had command of the brig Etna 
during the Mexican War; and took part 
in the expedition against Tuspan and 
in the second expedition against Tobasco. 
He was a commissioner to survey the 
boundary-line of California in 1848-50; 
was promoted captain in 1855; in the 
Civil War had command of the Minnesota 
and was active in the operations in the 
North Carolina Sound and in the block- 
ade of Hampton Roads, where he saved 
his ship from the Confederate ram, Merri- 
mac; and was promoted commodore in 
1862. He died in Dedham, Mass., Dec. 
17, 1863. 

Van Buren, Abraham, military officer; 
born in Kinderhook, N. Y., Nov. 27, 1807; 
son of President Martin Van Buren; 
graduated at the United States Military 
Academy in 1827; served on the Western 
frontier for two years; aide-de-camp to 
Gen. Alexander Macomb for seven years; 
made captain in the 1st Dragoons in 1836 ; 
and became private secretary to his father 
the same year. He re-entered the army at 
the beginning of the Mexican War as 
major and paymaster; was with Gen. 
Zachary Taylor at Monterey, and with 
General Scott in every engagement from 
Vera Cruz to the capture of the City of 
Mexico. He was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel for bravery at Contreras and 
Churubusco in 1847, and served in the 
paymaster's department till 1854, when 
he resigned. He died in New York City, 
March 15, 1873. 

Van Buren, John, lawyer; horn in 
Hudson, N. Y, Feb. 18, 1810; son of 
President Martin Van Buren; graduated 
at Yale College in 1828; admitted to the 
bar in Albany, N. Y., in 1830; attorney- 
general of New York State in 1845-46; 
and for the remainder of his life practised 
law. He was known as " Prince John," 
from his imposing figure and manners. 
He died at sea, Oct. 13, 1866. 


Van Buren, Martin, eighth President with William P. Van Ness; and was ad- 
of the United States, from March 4, 1837, mitted to the bar in 1803. Having a taste 
to March 4, 1841; Democrat; born in for politics, he early engaged in it, be- 
Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 5, 1782; was edu- ing a member of a nominating convention 
cated at the village academy; studied law when he was eighteen years of age. In 



1808 he was appointed surrogate of Co- 
lumbia county, and was sent to the State 
Senate in 1812. From 1815 to 1819 he 
was attorney-general of the State of New 
York; and was again Senator in 1816, 
holding both offices at the same time. He 
began a new organization of the Demo- 
cratic party in 1818, and became the lead- 
er of a body of politicians known as the 
Albany Regency ( q. v. ) . It held the 
political control of the State for nearly 
twenty years. Mr. Van Buren was elected 
to the United States Senate in 1821, and 
was also in the convention that revised 
the State constitution. In the latter body 
he was favorable to the extension of the 
elective franchise, but not of universal 
suffrage. He opposed a proposition to 
deprive colored people of the elective 
franchise, but voted in favor of requiring 
of them a freehold qualification of $250. 
He was again elected United States Sen- 
ator in 1827; governor of New York in 
1828; entered Jackson's cabinet as Sec- 
retary of State in March, 1829; but re- 
signed in 1831, when he was appointed 
minister to England. He arrived there in 
September, but in December the Senate 
rejected his nomination, and he returned. 
In May, 1832, he was nominated for 
Vice-President by the convention that re- 
nominated Andrew Jackson for the Presi- 
dency. He received all the electoral votes 
that were cast for Jackson excepting Penn- 
sylvania. In 1836 he was elected Presi- 
dent by 170 votes out of 283, and he was 
inaugurated March 4, 1837. The business 
of the country was in a depressed state 
during most of his administration, and 
his political opponents, unfairly holding 
him responsible for the grievance, accom- 
plished his defeat at the next Presidential 
election. When his name was proposed at 
the Democratic nominating convention at 
Baltimore in 1844 as a candidate for the 
Presidency, it was rejected, because Mr. 
Van Buren was opposed to the annexation 
of Texas to the Union. In 1848, when 
the Democrats had nominated General Cass 
to please the slave-holders, the friends of 
Mr. Van Buren, in convention at Utica, 
adopting as their political creed a phase 
of anti-slavery, nominated him as a Free- 
soil candidate for the Presidency, with 
Charles FranciB Adams, of Massachusetts, 
for Vice-President. In accepting the nom- 

ination, Mr. Van Buren declared his full 
assent to the anti-slavery principles of 
the platform. The convention declared 
that Congress had " no more power to 
make a slave than to make a, king " ar*! 
that it was the duty of the national gov- 
ernment to relieve itself of " all respon- 
sibility for the existence or continuance of 
slavery wherever the government possessed 
constitutional authority to legislate on 
that subject." General Taylor, candidate 
of the Whigs, was elected. Mr. Van Buren 
made a tour in Europe (1853-55). On 
the outbreak of the Civil War he took de- 
cided ground in favor of the national gov- 
ernment. He died in Kinderhook, N. Y., 
July 24, 1862. 

The Treasury and the Panic. — The fol- 
lowing is the text of President Van Bur- 
en's message to the Congress on the grave 
financial situation of the country: 

Washington, Sept. 4, 1837. 

Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and House 
of Representatives, — The act of June 23, 
1836, regulating the deposits of the pub- 
lic money and directing the employment 
of State, District, and Territorial banks 
for that purpose, made it the duty of the 
Secretary of the Treasury to discontinue 
the use of such of them as should at any 
time refuse to redeem their notes in specie, 
and to substitute other banks, provided a 
sufficient number could be obtained to re- 
ceive the public deposits upon the terms 
and conditions therein prescribed. The 
general and almost simultaneous suspen- 
sion of specie payments by the banks in 
May last rendered the performance of this 
duty imperative in respect to those which 
had been selected under the act, and made 
it at the same time impracticable to em- 
ploy the requisite number of others upon 
the prescribed conditions. The specific 
regulations established by Congress for 
the deposit and safe-keeping of the public 
moneys having thus unexpectedly become 
inoperative, I felt it to be my duty to 
afford you an early opportunity for the 
exercise of your supervisory powers over 
the subject. 

I was also led to apprehend that the sus- 
pension of specie payments, increasing the 
embarrassments before existing in the pe- 
cuniary affairs of the country, would so 


far diminish the public revenue that the with propriety avoid subjecting you to the 
accruing receipts into the treasury would inconvenience of assembling at as early 
not, with the reserved five millions, be a day as the state of the popular repre- 
sufficient to defray the unavoidable ex- sentation would permit. I am sure that I 
penses of the government until the usual have done but justice to your feelings in 
period for the meeting of Congress, while believing that this inconvenience will be 
the authority to call upon the States for cheerfully encountered in the hope of 
a portion of the sums deposited with them rendering your meeting conducive to the 
was too restricted to enable the depart- good of the country. 

ment to realize a sufficient amount from During the earlier stages of the revul- 
that source. These apprehensions have sion through which we have just passed 
been justified by subsequent results, which much acrimonious discussion arose and 
render it certain that this deficiency will great diversity of opinion existed as to its 
occur if additional means be not provided real causes. This was not surprising, 
by Congress. The operations of credit are so diversi- 

The difficulties experienced by the mer- fied and the influences which affect them 
cantile interest in meeting their engage- so numerous, and often so subtle, that 
ments induced them to apply to me pre- even impartial and well-informed persons 
viously to the actual suspension of specie are seldom found to agree in respect to 
payments for indulgence upon their bonds them. To inherent difficulties were also 
for duties, and all the relief authorized by added other tendencies which were by no 
law was promptly and cheerfully granted, means favorable to the discovery of truth. 
The dependence of the treasury upon the It was hardly to be expected that those 
avails of these bonds to enable it to make who disapproved the policy of the govern- 
the deposits with the States required by ment in relation to the currency would, 
law led me in the outset to limit ' this in the excited state of public feeling pro- 
indulgence to Sept. 1, but it has since duced by the occasion, fail to attribute to 
been extended to Oct. 1, that the matter that policy any extensive embarrassment 
might be submitted to your further direc- in the monetary affairs of the country, 
tion. The matter thus became connected with 

Questions were also expected to arise the passions and conflicts of party; 
in the recess in respect to the October in- opinions were more or less affected by 
stalment of those deposits requiring the political considerations, and differences 
interposition of Congress. were prolonged which might otherwise 

A provision of another act, passed about have been determined by an appeal to 
the same time, and intended to secure a facts, by the exercise of reason, or by mut- 
faithful compliance with the obligation of ual concession. It is, however, a cheer- 
the United States to satisfy all demands ing reflection that circumstances of this 
upon them in specie or its equivalent, nature cannot prevent a community so 
prohibited the offer of any bank-note not intelligent as ours from ultimately arriv- 
convertible on the spot into gold or silver ing at correct conclusions. Encouraged 
at the will of the holder; and the ability by the firm belief of this truth, I proceed 
of the government, with millions on de- to state my views, so far as may be neces- 
posit, to meet its engagements in the man- Bary to a clear understanding of the reme- 
ner thus required by law was rendered dies I feel it my duty to propose and of 
very doubtful by the event to which I the reasons by which I have been led to 
have referred. recommend them. 

Sensible that adequate provisions for The history of trade in the United States 
these unexpected exigencies could only be for the last three or four years affords 
made by Congress; convinced that some the most convincing evidence that our 
of them would be indispensably necessary present condition is chiefly to be attributed 
to the public service before the regular to overaction in all the departments of 
period of your meeting, and desirous also business— an overaction deriving, perhaps 
to enable you to exercise at the earliest its first impulses from antecedent causes' 
moment your full constitutional powers but stimulated to its destructive conse- 
for the relief of the country, I could not quences by excessive issues of bank-paper 


and by other facilities for the acquisi- 
tion and enlargement of credit. At the 
commencement of the year 1834 the bank- 
ing capital of the United States, including 
that of the national bank, then existing, 
amounted to about $200,000,000, the bank- 
notes then in circulation to about $95,- 
000,000, and the loans and discounts of 
the banks, to $324,000,000. Between that 
time and Jan. 1, 1836, being the latest 
period to which accurate accounts have 
been received, our banking capital was in- 
creased to more than $251,000,000, our 
paper circulation to more than $140,- 
000,000, and the loans and discounts to 
more than $457,000,000. To this vast 
increase are to be added the many 
millions of credit acquired by means of 
foreign loansy contracted by the States 
and State institutions, and, above all, by 
the lavish accommodations extended by 
foreign dealers to our merchants. 

The consequences of this redundancy of 
credit and of the spirit of reckless specu- 
lation engendered by it were a foreign 
debt contracted by our citizens estimated 
in March last at more than $30,000,000; 
the extension to traders in the interior of 
our country of credits for supplies greatly 
beyond the wants of the people; the in- 
vestment of $39,500,000 in unproductive 
public lands in the years 1835 and 1836, 
while in the preceding year the sales 
amounted to only $4,500,000; the cre- 
ation of debts, to an almost count- 
less amount, for real estate in ex- 
isting or anticipated cities and villages, 
equally unproductive, and at prices now 
seen to have been greatly disproportion- 
ate to their real value; the expenditure of 
immense sums in improvements which in 
many cases have been found to be ruin- 
ously improvident; the diversion to other 
pursuits of much of the labor that should 
have been applied to agriculture, theTeby 
contributing to the expenditure of large 
sums in the importation of grain from 
Europe — an expenditure which, amount- 
ing in 1834 to about $250,000, was in the 
first two quarters of the present year in- 
•creased to more 'than $2,000,000; and 
finally, without enumerating other inju- 
rious results, the rapid growth among all 
classes, and especially in our great com- 
mercial towns, of luxurious habits founded 
too often on merely fancied wealth, and 

detrimental alike to the industry, the re- 
sources, and the morals of our people. 

It was so impossible that such a state 
of things could long continue that the 
prospect of revulsion was present to the 
minds of considerate men before it actu- 
ally came. None, however, had correct- 
ly anticipated its severity. A concurrence 
of circumstances inadequate of themselves 
to produce such wide-spread and calami- 
tous embarrassments tended so greatly 
to aggravate them that they cannot 
be overlooked in considering their history! 
Among these may be mentioned, as most 
prominent, the great loss of capital sus- 
tained by our commercial emporium in 
the fire of December, 1835 — a loss the 
effects of which were underrated at the 
time because postponed for a season by 
the great facilities of credit then existing; 
the disturbing effects in our commercial 
cities of the transfers of the public moneys 
required by the deposit law of June, 1836, 
and the measures adopted by the foreign 
creditors of our merchants to reduce their 
debts and to withdraw from the United 
States a large portion of our specie. 

However unwilling any of our citizens 
may heretofore have been to assign to 
these causes the chief instrumentality in 
producing the present state of things, the 
developments subsequently made the act- 
ual condition of other commercial coun- 
tries must, as it seems to me, dispel all 
remaining doubts upon the subject. It 
has since appeared that evils similar to 
those suffered by ourselves have been ex- 
perienced in Great Britain, on the Conti- 
nent, and, indeed, throughout the com- 
mercial world,, and that in other countries 
as well as in our own they have been 
uniformly preceded by an undue enlarge- 
ment of the boundaries of the trade, 
prompted, as with us, by unprecedented 
expansions of the systems of credit. A 
reference to the amount of banking oapi- 
tal and the issues of paper credits out 
in circulation in Great Britain, by banks 
and in other ways, during the years 1834, 
1835, and 1836, will show an augmentation 
of the paper currency there as much dis- 
proportioned to the real wants of trade 
as in the United States. With this re- 
dundancy of the paper currency there 
arose in that country also a spirit of 
adventurous speculation embracing the 



whole range of human enterprise. Aid people point out the objects which call 
was profusely given to projected improve- for your immediate attention. 
ments; large investments were made in They are: to regulate by law the safe- 
foreign stocks and loans; credits for keeping, transfer, and disbursement of the 
goods were granted with unbounded liber- public moneys; to designate the funds to 
ality to merchants in foreign countries; be received and paid by the government; 
and all the means of acquiring and em- to enable the treasury to meet promptly 
ploying credit were put in active opera- every demand upon it; to prescribe the 
tion and extended in their effects to ev- terms of indulgence and the mode of settle- 
ery department of business and to every ment to be adopted, as well in collecting 
quarter of the globe. The reaction was from individuals the revenue that has ac- 
proportioned in its violence to the, 1 ex- crued as in withdrawing it from former 
traordinary character of the events which depositories; and to devise and adopt such 
preceded it. The commercial community further measures, within the constitu- 
of Great Britain were subjected to the tional competency of Congress, as will 
greatest difficulties, and their debtors in be best calculated to revive the enterprise 
this country were not only suddenly de- and to promote the prosperity of the 
prived of accustomed and expected cred- country. 

its, but called upon for payments which For the deposit, transfer, and disburse- 
in the actual posture of things here could ment of the revenue, national and State 
only be made through a general pressure banks have always, with temporary and 
and at the most ruinous sacrifices. limited exceptions, been theretofore em- 

In view of these facts it would seem ployed; but although advocates of each 
impossible for sincere inquirers after system are still to be found, it is ap- 
truth to resist the conviction that the parent that the events of the last few 
causes of the revulsion in both countries months have greatly augmented the de- 
have been substantially the same. Two sire, long existing among the people of 
nations, the most commercial in the world, the United States, to separate the fiscal 
enjoying but recently the highest degree operations of the government from those 
of apparent prosperity and maintaining of individuals or corporations, 
with each other the closest relations are Again to create a national bank as a 
suddenly, in a time of profound peace and fiscal agent would be to disregard the 
without any great national disaster, ar- popular will, twice solemnly and un- 
rested in their career and plunged into a equivocally expressed. On no question of 
state of embarrassment and distress. In domestic policy is there stronger evi- 
both countries we have witnessed the same dence that the sentiments of a large ma- 
redundancy of paper money and other jority are deliberately fixed, and I can- 
facilities of credit; the same spirit of not concur with those who think they see 
speculation; the same partial successes; in recent events a proof that these senti- 
the same difficulties and reverses, and at ments are, or a reason that they should 
length nearly the same overwhelming be, changed. 

catastrophe. The most material differ- Events similar in their origin and char- 
ence between the results in the two coun- acter have heretofore frequently occurred 
tries has only been that with us there has without producing any such change, and 
also occurred an extensive derangement in the lessons of experience must be forgot- 
the fiscal affairs of the federal and State ten if we suppose that the present over- 
governments, occasioned by the suspension throw of credit would have been prevented 
of specie payments by the banks. by the existence of a national bank. 

The history of these causes and ef- Proneness to excessive issues has ever 

fects in Great Britain and the United been the vice of the banking system a 

States is substantially the history »f the vice as prominent in national as in State 
revulsion in all other commercial coun- institutions. This propensity is as sub- 
tries - servient to the advancement of private 

The present and visible effects of these interests in the one as in the other, and 
circumstances on the operations of the v those who direct' them both, being prin- 
government and on the industry of the cipally guided by the same views and in- 



fluenced by the same motives, will be 
equally ready to stimulate extravagance 
of enterprise by improvidence of credit. 
How strikingly is this conclusion sustain- 
ed by experience! The Bank of the Unit- 
ed States, with the vast powers conferred 
on it. by Congress, did not or could not 
prevent former and similar embarrass- 
ments, nor has the still greater strength 
it has been said to possess under its pres- 
ent charter enabled it in the existing 
emergency to check other institutions or 
even to save itself. In Great Britain where 
it has been seen the same causes have been 
attended with the same effects,-^ a national 
bank possessing powers far greater than 
are asked for by the warmest advocates of 
such an institution here has also proved 
unable to prevent an undue expansion of 
credit, and the evils that flow from it. 
Nor can I find any tenable ground for 
the re-establishment of a national bank in 
the derangement alleged at present to 
exist in the domestic exchanges of the 
country or in the facilities it may be capa- 
ble of affording them. Although ad- 
vantages of this sort were anticipated 
when the first Bank of the United States 
was created, they were regarded as an in- 
cidental accommodation, not one which 
the federal government was bound or 
could be called upon to furnish. This ac- 
commodation is now, indeed, after the 

ticipate the proceeds of property actually 
transmitted. Bills of this description are 
highly useful in the movements of trade 
and well deserve all the encouragement 
which can rightfully be given to them. 
Another class is made up of bills of 
exchange not drawn to transfer actual 
capital nor on the credit of property 
transmitted, but to create fictitious capi- 
tal, partaking at once of the character of 
notes discounted in bank and of bank- 
notes in circulation, and swelling the mass 
of paper credits to a vast extent in the 
most objectionable manner. These bills 
have formed for the last few years a large 
proportion of what are termed the domes- 
tic exchanges of the country, serving as 
the means of usurious profit and constitut- 
ing the most unsafe and precarious paper 
in circulation. This species of traffic, in- 
stead of being upheld, ought to be dis- 
countenanced by the government and the 

In transferring its funds from place to 
place the government is on the same foot- 
ing with the private citizen and may re- 
sort to the same legal means. It may do 
so through the medium of bills drawn by 
itself or purchased from others; and in 
these operations it may, in a manner un- 
doubtedly constitutional and legitimate, 
facilitate and assist exchanges of individ- 
uals founded on real transactions of trade. 

lapse of not many years, demanded from The extent to which this may be done and 

it as among its first duties, and an omis- 
sion to aid and regulate commercial ex- 
changes is treated as a ground of loud 
and serious complaint. Such results only 
serve to exemplify the constant desire 
among some of our citizens to enlarge the 
powers of the government and extend its 

the best means of effecting it are entitled 
to the fullest consideration. This has 
been bestowed by the Secretary of the 
Treasury, and his views will be submitted 
to you in his report. 

But it was not designed by the Consti- 
tution that the government should assume 

control to subjects with which it should the management of domestic or foreign 

not interfere. They can never justify the 
creation of an institution to promote such 
objects. On the contrary, they justly ex- 
cite among the community a more diligent 
inquiry into the character of those oper- 
ations of trade towards which it is de- 
sired to extend such peculiar favors. 
' The various transactions which bear 
the name of domestic exchanges differ es- 
sentially in their nature, operation, and 
utility. One class of them consists of 

exchange. It is indeed authorized to reg- 
ulate by law the commerce between the 
States and to provide a general stand- 
ard of value or medium of exchange in 
gold and silver, but it is not its province 
to aid individuals in the transfer of their 
funds otherwise than through the facili- 
ties afforded by the Post-office Department. 
As justly might it be called on to provide 
for the transportation of their mer- 
chandise. These are operations of trade. 

bills of exchange drawn for the purpose They ought to be conducted by those who 
of transferring actual capital from one are interested in them in the same manner 
part of the country to another, or to an- that the incidental difficulties of other 



pursuits are encountered by other classes irreconcilably opposed to that measure; 
of citizens. Such aid has not been deemed they consider such a concentration of 
necessary in other countries. Through- powef dangerous to their liberties, and 
out Europe the domestic as well as the many of them regard it as a violation of 
foreign exchanges are carried on by private the Constitution. This collision of opinion 
houses, often, if not generally, without has doubtless caused much of the embar- 
the assistance of banks; yet they extend rassment to which the commercial trans- 
throughout distinct sovereignties, and far actions of the country have lately been 
exceed in amount the real exchanges of exposed. Banking has become a political 
the United States. There is no reason topic of the highest interest, and trade 
why our own may not be conducted in the has suffered in the conflict of parties. A 
same manner with equal cheapness and speedy termination of this state of things, 
safety. Certainly this might be accom- however desirable, is scarcely to be ex- 
plished if it were favored by those most pected. We have seen for nearly half a 
deeply interested; and few can doubt that century that those who advocate a na- 
their own interest, as well as the general tional bank, by whatever motive they may 
welfare of the country, would be promoted be influenced, constitute a portion of our 
by leaving such a subject in the hands of community too numerous to allow us to 
those to whom it properly belongs. A sys- hope for an early abandonment of their 
tern founded on private interest, enter- favorite plan. On the other hand, they 
prise, and competition, without the aid must indeed form an erroneous estimate 
of legislative grants or regulations by of the intelligence and temper of the 
law, would rapidly prosper; it would be American people who suppose that they 
free from the influence of political agita- have continued on slight or insufficient 
tion and extend the same exemption to grounds their perversing opposition to 
trade itself, and it would put an end to such an institution, or that they can be 
those complaints of neglect, partiality, in- induced by pecuniary pressure or by any 
justice, and oppression, which are the un- other combination of circumstances to 
avoidable results of interference by the surrender principles they have so long 
government in the proper concerns of in- and so inflexibly maintained, 
dividuals. All former attempts on the My own views of the subject are im- 
part of the government to carry its legis- changed. They have been repeatedly and 
lation in this respect further than was unreservedly announced to my fellow-cit- 
designed by the Constitution have in the izens, who with full knowledge of them 
end proved injurious, and have served conferred upon me the two highest offices 
only to convince the great body of the of the government. On the last of these 
people more and more of the certain dan- occasions I felt it due to the people to 
gers of blending private interests with apprise them distinctly that in the event 
the operations of public business; and of my election I would not be able to co- 
there is no reason to suppose that a repe- operate in the re-establishment of a na- 
tition of them now would be more sue- tional bank. To these sentiments I have 
eessful. now only to add the expression of an in- 
It cannot be concealed that there ex- creased conviction that the re-establish- 
ist in our community opinions and feel- ment of such a bank in any form, while 
ings on this subject in direct opposition it would not accomplish the beneficial 
to each other. A large portion of them, purpose promised by its advocates, would 
combining great intelligence, activity, and impair the rightful supremacy of the 
influence, are no doubt sincere in their be- popular will, injure the character and 
lief that the operations of trade ought diminish the influence of our political sys- 
to be assisted by such a connection ; they tern, and bring once more into existence a 
regard a national bank as necessary for concentrated moneyed power, hostile to 
this purpose, and they are disinclined to the spirit and threatening the permanency 
every measure that does not tend sooner of our republican institutions, 
or later to the establishment of such an Local banks have been employed for the 
institution. On the other hand, a ma- deposit and distribution of the revenue 
jority of the people are believed to be at all times partially and on three differ- 


ent occasions exclusively: First, anterior by early necessities, the practice of em- 
to the establishment of the first bank of ploying banks was in truth from the be- 
the United States ; secondly, in the inter- ginning more a measure of emergency than 
val between the termination of that in- of sound policy. When we started into 
stitution and the charter of its successor; existence as a nation, in addition to the 
and thirdly, during the limited period burdens of the new government we as- 
which has now so abruptly closed. The sumed all the large but honorable load 
connection thus repeatedly attempted of debt which was the price of our liberty; 
proved unsatisfactory on each successive but we hesitated to weigh down the infant 
occasion, notwithstanding the various industry of the country by resorting to 
measures which were adopted to facilitate adequate taxation for the necessary rev- 
or insure its success. On the last occasion, enue. The facilities of banks, in return 
in the year 1835, the employment of the for the privileges they acquired, were 
State banks was guarded especially, in promptly offered, and perhaps too readily 
every way which experience and caution received by an embarrassed treasury. Dur- 
could suggest. Personal security was re- ing the long continuance of a national 
quired for the safe-keeping and prompt debt and the intervening difficulties of a 
payment of the moneys to be received, and foreign war the connection was continued 
full returns of their condition were from from motives of convenience; but these 
time to time to be made *by the deposi- causes have long since passed away. We 
tories. In the first stages the measure have no emergencies that make banks nec- 
was eminently successful, notwithstanding essary to aid the wants of the treasury; 
the violent opposition of the Bank of the we have no load of national debt to pro- 
United States, and the unceasing efforts vide for, and we have on actual deposit a 
made to overthrow it. The selected banks large surplus. No public interest, there- 
performed with fidelity and without any fore, now requires the renewal of a con- 
embarrassment to themselves or to the nection that circumstances have dissolved, 
community their engagements to the gov- The complete organization of our govern- 
ernment, and the system promised to be ment, the abundance of our resources, the 
permanently useful; but when it becomes general harmony which prevails between 
necessary, under the act of June, 1836, to the different States and with foreign 
withdraw from them the public money powers, all enable us now to select the 
for the purpose of placing it in additional system most consistent with the Consti- 
institutions or of transferring it to the tution and most conducive to the public 
States, they found it in many cases in- welfare. Should we, then, connect the 
convenient to comply with the demands of treasury for a fourth time with the local 
the treasury, and numerous and pressing banks, it can only be under a conviction 
applications were made for indulgence or that past failures have arisen from ac- 
relief. As the instalments under the de- cidental, not inherent, defects, 
posit law became payable their own em- A danger difficult, if not impossible, to 
barrassments and the necessity under be avoided in such an arrangement is made 
which they lay of curtailing their dis- strikingly evident in the very event by 
counts and calling in their debts increased which it has now been defeated. A sud- 
the general distress, and contributed with den act of the banks intrusted with the 
other causes to hasten the revulsion in funds of the people deprives the treasury 
which at length they, in common with the without fault or agency of the govern- 
other banks, were fatally involved. ment, of the ability to pay its creditors 

Under these circumstances it becomes in the currency they have by law a right 

our solemn duty to inquire whether there to demand. This circumstance no fluctua- 

are not in any connection between the gov- tion of commerce could have produced if 

ernment and banks of issue evils of great the public revenue had been collected in 

magnitude, inherent in its very nature the legal currency and kept in that form 

and against which no precautions can by the officers of the treasury. The citi- 

effeetually guard. zen whose money was in bank receives it 

Unforeseen in the organization of the back since the suspension at a sacrifice in 

government and forced on the treasury its amount, while he who kept it in the 



legal currency of the country and in his people, instead of being kept till it is 
own possession pursues without loss the needed for their use, is, in consequence of 
current of his business. The government, this authority, a fund on which discounts 
placed in the situation of the former, is are made for the profit of those who hap- 
involved in embarrassments it would not pen to be owners of stock in the banks 
have suffered had it pursued the course selected as depositories. The supposed 
of the latter. These embarrassments are, and often exaggerated advantages of such 
moreover, augmented by those salutary a boom will always cause it to be sought 
and just laws which forbid it to use a for with avidity. I will not stop to con- 
depreciated currency, and by so doing take sider on whom the patronage incident to 
from the government the ability which it is to be conferred. Whether the selec- 
individuals have of accommodating their tion ad control be intrusted to Congress 
transactions to such a catastrophe. or to -the executive, either will be sub- 

A system which can in a time of pro- jected to appeals made in every form 
found peace, when there is a large revenue which the sagacity of interest can suggest, 
laid by, thus suddenly prevent the ap- The banks under such a system are stimu- 
plication and the use of the money of the lated to make the most of their fortunate 
people in the manner and for the objects acquisition; the deposits are treated as an 
they have directed cannot be wise; but increase of capital; loans and circulation 
who can think without painful reflection are rashly augmented, and when the public 
that under it the same unforeseen events exigencies require a return it is attended 
might have befallen us in the midst of a with embarrassments not provided for nor 
war and taken from us at the moment foreseen. Thus banks that thought them- 
when most wanted the use of those very selves most fortunate when the public 
means which were treasured up to pro- funds were received find themselves most 
mote the national welfare and guard our embarrassed when the season of payment 
national rights? To such embarrassments suddenly arrives. 

and to such dangers will this government Unfortunately, too, the evils of the sys- 
be always exposed while it takes the tern are not limited to the banks. It 
moneys raised for and necessary to the stimulates a general rashness of enter- 
public service out of the hands of its own prise and aggravates the fluctuations of 
officers and converts them into a mere commerce and the currency. This result 
right of action against corporations in- was strikingly exhibited during the oper- 
trusted with the possession of them. Nor ations of the late deposit system, and es- 
can such results be effectually guarded peeially in the purchases of public lands, 
against in such a system without invest- The order which ultimately directed the 
ing the executive with a control over the payment of gold and silver in such pur- 
banks themselves, whether State or na- chases greatly checked, but could not 
tional, that might with reason be ob- altogether prevent, the evil. Specie was 
jected to. Ours is probably the only gov- indeed more difficult to be procured than 
ernment in the world that is liable in the the notes which the banks could them- 
management of its fiscal concerns to oc- selves create at pleasure; but still, bein°- 
currences like these. obtained from them as a loan and returned 

But this imminent risk is not the only as a deposit, which they were again at 
danger attendant on the surrender of the liberty to use, it only passed round the 
public money to the custody and control circle with diminished speed. This oper- 
of local corporations. Though the ob- ation could not have been performed had 
ject is aid to the treasury, its effect may the funds of the government gone into 
be to introduce into the operations of the the treasury to be regularly disbursed, 
government influences the most subtle, and not into banks to be loaned out 
founded on interests the most selfish. for their own profit while they were per- 

The use by the banks, for their own mitted to substitute for it a credit in ac- 
benefit, of the money deposited with them count. 

has received the sanction of the govern- In expressing these sentiments I desire 
ment from the commencement of this con- not to undervalue the benefits of a salu- 
nection. The money received from the tary credit to any branch of enterprise. 


The credit bestowed on probity and indus- 
try is the just reward of merit and an 
honorable incentive to further acquisi- 
tion. None oppose it who love their coun- 
try and understand its welfare. But when 
it is unduly encouraged ; when it is made 
to inflame the public mind with the temp- 
tations of sudden and unsubstantial 
wealth; when it turns industry into paths 
that lead sooner or later to disappoint- 
ment and distress, it becomes liable to 
censure and needs correction. Far from 
helping probity and industry, the ruin to 
which it leads falls most severely on the 
great laboring classes, who are thrown 
suddenly out of employment, and by the 
failure of magnificent schemes never in- 
tended to enrich them are deprived in a 
moment of their only resource. Abuses 
of credit and excesses in speculation will 
happen in despite of the most salutary 
laws; no government, perhaps, can alto- 
gether prevent them, but surely every 
government can refrain from contributing 
the stimulus that calls them into life. 

Since, therefore, experience has shown 
that to lend the public money to the local 
banks is hazardous to the operations of 
the government, at least of doubtful bene- 
fit to the institutions themselves, and 
productive of disastrous derangement in 
the business and currency of the country, 
is it the part of wisdom again to renew 
the connection? 

It is true that such an agency is in 
many respects convenient to the treas- 
ury, but it is not indispensable. A limi- 
tation of the expenses of the government 
to its actual wants, and of the revenue to 
those expenses, with convenient means for 
its prompt application to the purposes for 
which it was raised, are the objects which 
we should seek to accomplish. The col- 
lection, safe-keeping, transfer, and dis- 
bursement of the public money can, it is 
ibelieved, be well managed by officers of the 
government. Its collection, and to a great 
extent its disbursement also, have indeed 
been hitherto conducted solely by them, 
neither national nor State banks, when 
employed, being required to do more than 
keep it safely while in their custody, and 
transfer and pay it in such portions and 
at such times as the treasury shall direct. 

Surely banks are not more able than the 
government to secure the money in their 

possession against accident, violence, or 
fraud. The assertion that they are so 
must assume that a vault in a bank is 
stronger than a vault in the treasury, and 
that directors, cashiers, and clerks not 
selected by the government nor under its 
control are more worthy of confidence than 
officers selected from the people and re- 
sponsible to the government — officers 
bound by "official oaths and bonds for a 
faithful performance of their duties, and 
constantly subject to the supervision of 

The difficulties of transfer and the aid 
heretofore rendered by banks have been 
less than is usually supposed. The actual 
accounts show that by far the larger por- 
tion of payments is made within short or 
convenient distances from the places of 
collection; and the whole number of war- 
rants issued at the treasury in the year 
1834 — a year the result- of which will, 
it is believed, afford a safe test for the 
future — fell short of 5,000, or an average 
of less than one daily for each State; in 
the city of New York they did not aver- 
age more than two a day, and at the city 
of Washington only four. 

The difficulties heretofore existing are, 
moreover, daily lessened by an increase in 
the cheapness and facility of communi- 
cation, and it may be asserted with con- 
fidence that the necessary transfer, as well 
as the safe-keeping and disbursements of 
the public moneys, can be with safety and 
convenience accomplished through the 
agencies of treasury officers. This opin- 
ion has been in some degree confirmed by 
actual experience since the discontinuance 
of the banks as fiscal agents in May last 
— a period which from the embarrassments 
in commercial intercourse presented obsta- 
cles as great as any that may be hereafter 

The manner of keeping the public money 
since that period is fully stated in the 
report of the Secretary of the Treasury. 
That officer also suggests the propriety of 
assigning by law certain additional duties 
to existing establishments and officers 
which, with the modifications and safe- 
guards referred to by him, will, he thinks, 
enable the department to continue to per- 
form this branch of the public service 
without any material addition either to 
their number or to the present expense. 


The extent of the business to be trans- has hitherto existed between the govern- 
acted has already been stated; and in re- ment and banks offer sufficient advantages 
spect to the amount of money, with which to justify the necessary expenses. If the 
the officers employed would be intrusted object to be accomplished is deemed lm- 
at any one time, it appears that, assum- portant to the future welfare of the coun- 
ing a balance of $5,000,000 to be at all try, I cannot allow myself to believe that 
times kept in the treasury, and the whole the addition to the public expenditure of 
of it left in the hands of the collectors comparatively so small an amount as will 
and receivers, the proportion, of each be necessary to effect it will be objected 
would not exceed an average of $30,000; to by the people. 

but that, deducting $1,000,000 for the It will be seen by the report of the 
use of the mint and assuming the remain- Postmaster-General herewith communi- 
ing $4,000,000 to be in the hands of cated that the fiscal affairs of that depart- 
one-half of the present number of officers ment have been successfully conducted 
— a supposition deemed more likely to cor- since May last upon the principle of deal- 
respond with the fact — the sum in the ing only in the legal currency of the Unit- 
hands of each would still be less than ed States, and that it needs no legislation 
the amount of most of the bonds now to maintain its credit and facilitate the 
taken from the receivers of public money, management of its concerns, the existing 
Every apprehension, however, on the sub- laws being, in the opinion of that officar, 
jeet, either in respect to the safety of the ample for those objects, 
money or the faithful discharge of these Difficulties will doubtless be encountered 
fiscal transactions, may, it appears to me, for a season and increased services re- 
be effectually removed by adding to the quired from the public functionaries; such 
present means of the treasury the estab- are usually incident to the commencement 
lishment by law at a few important of every system, but they will be greatly 
points of offices for the deposit and dis- lessened in the progress of its operations, 
bursement of such portions of the public The power and influence supposed to be 
revenue as cannot with obvious safety connected with the custody and disburse- 
and convenience be left in the possession ment of the public money are topics on 
of the collecting officers until paid over by which the public mind is naturally, and 
them to the public creditors. Neither with great propriety, peculiarly sensitive, 
the amounts retained in their hands nor Much has been said on them in reference 
those deposited in the offices would in an to the proposed separation of the govern- 
ordinary condition of the revenue be larger ment from the banking institutions ; and 
in most cases than those often under the surely no one can object to any appeals 
control of disbursing officers of the army or animadversions on the subject which 
and navy, and might be made entirely safe are consistent with facts and evince a 
by requiring such securities and exercis- proper respect for the intelligence of the 
ing such controlling supervision as Con- people. If a chief magistrate may be al- 
gress may by law prescribe. The prin- lowed to speak for himself on such a point, 
cipal officers whose appointments would I can truly say that to me nothing would 
become necessary under this plan, taking be more acceptable than the withdrawal 
the largest number suggested by the Sec- from the executive, to the greatest prac- 
retary of the Treasury, would not exceed ticable extent, of all concerns in the cus- 
ten, nor the additional expenses, at the tody and disbursement of the public rev- 
same estimate, $60,000 a year. enuc ; not that I would shrink from any 
There can be no doubt of the obligations responsibility cast upon me by the duties 
of those who are intrusted with the affairs of my office, but because it is my firm be- 
of government to conduct them with as lief that its capacity for usefulness is in 
little cost to the nation as is consistent no degree promoted by the possession of 
with the public interest; and it is 'or any patronage not actually necessary to 
Congress, and ultimately for the people, the performance of those duties. But un- 
to decide whether the benefits to be de- der our present form of government the in- 
rived from keeping our fiscal concerns tervention of the executive officers in the 
apart and severing the connection which custody and disbursement of the public 



money seems to be unavoidable; and be- there equal room for such supervision and 

fore it can be admitted that the influence publicity in a connection with banks, act- 

and power of the executive would be in- ing under the shield of corporate immuni- 

creased by dispensing with the agency of ties and conducted by persons irresponsible 

banks the nature of that intervention in to the government and the people? It is 

such an agency must be carefully regard- believed that a considerate and candid in- 

ed, and a comparison must be instituted vestigation of these questions will result 

between its extent in the two cases. in the conviction that the proposed plan 

The revenue can only be collected by offi- is far less liable to objection on tfre score 

cers appointed by the President with the of executive patronage and control than 

advice and consent of the Senate. The any bank agency that has been or can be 

public moneys in the first instance must devised. 

therefore in all cases pass through hands With these views I leave to Congress 
selected by the executive. Other officers the measures necessary to regulate in the 
appointed in the same way, or, as in some present emergency the safe-keeping and 
cases, by the President alone, must also transfer of the public moneys. In the per- 
be intrusted with them when drawn for formanee of constitutional duty I have 
the purpose of disbursement. It is thus stated to them without reserve the result 
seen that even when banks are employed of my own reflections. The subject is of 
the public funds must twice pass through great importance^ and one on which we 
the hands of executive officers. Besides can scarcely expect to be as united in sen- 
this, the head of the Treasury Department, timent as we are in interest. It deserves 
who also holds office at the pleasure of the a full and free discussion, and cannot fail 
President, and some other officers of the to be benefited by a dispassionate corn- 
same department, must necessarily be in- parison of opinions. Well aware myself 
vested with more or less power in the of the duty of reciprocal concession 
selection, continuance, and supervision of among the co-ordinate branches of the 
the banks that may be employed. The government, I can promise a reasonable 
question is then narrowed to the single spirit of co-operation, so far as it can be 
point whether in the intermediate stage indulged in without the surrender of con- 
between the collection and disbursement stitutional objections which I believe to 
of the public money the agency of banks be well founded. Any system that may be 
is necessary to avoid a dangerous extension adopted should be subjected to the fullest 
of the patronage and influence of the ex- legal provision, so as to leave nothing to 
ecutive. ' But is it clear that the connec- the executive but what is necessary to the 
tion of the executive with powerful discharge of the duties imposed on him; 
moneyed institutions, capable of minister- and whatever plan may be ultimately es- 
ing to the interests of men in points tablished, my own part shall be so dis- 
where they are most accessible to cor- charged as to give to it a fair trial and 
ruption, is less liable to abuse than his the best prospect of success. 
constitutional agency in the appointment The character of the funds to be re- 
and control of the few public officers re- ceived and disbursed in the transactions 
quired by the proposed plan? Will the of the government likewise demands your 
public money "when in their hands be nee- most careful consideration, 
essarily exposed to any improper inter- There can be no doubt that those who 
ference on the part of the executive? framed and adopted the Constitution, hav- 
May it not be hoped that a prudent fear ing in immediate view the depreciated 
of public jealousy and disapprobation in paper of the Confederacy — of which $500 
a matter so peculiarly exposed to them in paper were at times only equal to 
will deter him from any such interference, $1 in coin — intended to prevent the recur- 
even if higher motives be found inoper- rence of similar evils, so far at least as 
ative? May not Congress so regulate by related to the transactions of the new gov- 
law the duty of those officers and subject eminent. They gave to Congress express 
it to such supervision and publicity as to powers to coin money and to regulate the 
prevent the possibility of any serious abuse value thereof and of foreign coin; they 
on the part of the executive? And is refused to give it power to establish eor- 
X.-B 17 


porations— the agents then as now chiefly paper had become so apparent that evea 
employed to create a paper currency; they before the catastrophe I had resolved not 
prohibited the States from making any- to interfere with its operation. Congress 
thing but gold and silver a legal tender in is now to decide whether the revenue shall 
payment of debts; and the first Congress continue to be so collected or not. 
directed by positive law that the revenue The receipt into the treasury of bank- 
should be received in nothing but gold and notes not redeemed in specie on demand . 
si l ver will not, I presume, be sanctioned. It 

Public exigency at the outset of the gov- would destroy without the excuse of war 
ernment, without direct legislative author- or public distress that equality of impost 
ity, led to the use of banks as fiscal aids and identity of commercial regulations 
to the treasury. It admitted deviation which lie at the foundation of our con- 
from the law; at the same period and un- federacy, and would offer to each State 
der the same exigency, the Secretary of a direct temptation to increase its foreign 
the Treasury received their notes in pay- trade by depreciating the currency re- 
ment of duties. The sole ground on which ceived for duties in its ports. Such a 
the practice thus commenced was then or proceeding would also in a great degree 
has since been justified is the certain, im- frustrate the policy so highly cherished 
mediate, and convenient exchange of such of infusing into our circulation a larger 
notes for specie. The government did, in- proportion of the precious metals— a pol- 
deed, receive the inconvertible notes of icy the wisdom of which none can doubt, 
State banks during the difficulties of war, though there may be different opinions as 
and the community submitted without to the extent to which it should be car- 
a murmur to the unequal taxation and ried. Its results have been already too 
multiplied evils of which such a course auspicious and its success is too closely 
was productive. With the war this in- interwoven with the future prosperity of 
dulgence ceased, and the banks were the country to permit us for a moment to 
obliged again to redeem their notes in contemplate its abandonment. We have 
gold and silver. The treasury, in accord- seen under its influence our specie aug- 
anee with previous practice, continued to mented beyond $80,000,000, our coin- 
dispense with the currency required by the age increased so as to make that of gold 
act of 1789, and took the notes of banks amount between August, 1834, and De- 
in full confidence of their being paid in cember, 1836, to $10,000,000, exceeding 
specie on demand; and Congress, to guard the whole coinage at the mint during the 
against the slightest violation of this thirty-one previous years, 
principle, have declared by law that if The prospect of further improvement 
notes are paid in the transactions of the continued without abatement until the 
government it must be under such cir- moment of the suspension of specie pay- 
cumstances as to enable the holder to con- ments. This policy has now, indeed, been 
vert them into specie without depreciation, suddenly checked, but is still far from 
or delay. being overthrown. Amid all conflicting 

Of my own duties under the existing theories, one position is undeniable — the 

laws, when the banks suspended specie precious metals will invariably disappear 

payments, I could not doubt. Directions when there ceases to be a necessity for 

were immediately given to prevent the re- their use as a circulating medium. It 

ception into the treasury of anything but was in strict accordance with this truth 

gold and silver, or its equivalent, and that, while in the month of May last they 

every practicable arrangement was made were everywhere seen and were current for 

to preserve the public faith by similar or all ordinary purposes, they disappeared 

equivalent payments to the public credit- from circulation the moment the payment 

ors. The revenue from lands had been of specie was refused by the banks and the 

for some time substantially so collected community tacitly acreed to dispense with 

under the order issued by directions of its employment. Their place was supplied 

my predecessor. The effects of that order by a currency exclusively of paper, and in 

had been so salutary and its forecast in many cases of the worst description. Al- 

regard to the increasing insecurity of bank- ready are the bank-note* now in circula- 



tion greatly depreciated, and they fluetu- To say that the refusal of paper money 
ate in value between one place and another, by the government introduces an unjust 
thus diminishing and making uncertain discrimination between the currency re- 
the worth of property and the price of ceived by it and that used by individuals 
labor, and failing to subserve, except at in their ordinary affairs is, in my judg- 
a heavy loss, the purposes of business, ment, to view it in a very erroneous light. 
With each succeeding day the metallic The Constitution prohibits the States from 
currency decreases; by some it is hoarded making anything but gold and silver a 
in the natural fear that once parted with tender in the payment .of debts, and thus 
it cannot be replaced, while by others it secures to every citizen a right to demand 
is diverted from its more legitimate uses payment in the legal currency. To pro- 
for the sake of gain. Should Congress vide by law that the government will only 
sanction this condition of things by mak- receive its dues in gold and silver is not 
ing irredeemable paper money receivable to confer on it any peculiar privilege, but 
in payment of public dues, a temporary merely to place it on an equality with the 
check to a wise and salutary policy will citizen by reserving to it a right secured 
in all probability be converted into its ab- to him by the Constitution. It is doubt- 
solute destruction. less for this reason that the principle 

It is true that bank-notes actually con- has been sanctioned by successive laws 

vertible into specie may be received in from the time of the first Congress under 

payment of the revenue without being the Constitution down to the last. Such 

liable to all these objections, and that precedents, never objected to, and proceed- 

such a course may to some extent promote ing from such sources, afford a decisive 

individual convenience — an object always answer to the imputation of inequality or 

to be considered where it does not con- injustice. 

flict with the principles of our govern- But, in fact, the measure is one of re- 

ment or the general welfare of the coun- striction, not of favor. To forbid the 

try. If such notes only were received, public agent to receive in payment any 

and always under circumstances allowing other than a certain kind of money is to 

their early presentation for payment, and refuse him a discretion possessed by every 

if at short and fixed periods they were con- citizen. It may be left to those who have 

verted into specie to be kept by the officers the management of their own transactions 

of the treasury, some of the most serious to make their own terms, but no such dis- 

obstacles to their reception would per- cretion should be given to him who acts 

haps be removed. To retain the notes in merely as an agent of the people — who is 

the treasury would be to renew under to collect what the law requires and to 

another form the loans of public money pay the appropriations it makes. When 

to the banks, and the evils consequent bank-notes are redeemed on demand, there 

thereon. is then no discrimination in reality, for 

It is, however, a mistaken impression the individual who receives them may at 

that any large amount of specie is re- his option substitute the specie for them; 

quired for public payments. Of the he takes them from convenience or choice. 

$70,000,000 or $80,000,000 now estimated When they are not so redeemed, it will 

to be in the country, $10,000,000 would scarcely be contended that their receipt 

be abundantly sufficient for that purpose and payment by a public officer should 

provided an accumulation of a large be permitted, though none deny that right 

amount of revenue beyond the necessary to an individual. If it were, th« effect 

wants of the government be hereafter would be most injurious to the public, 

prevented. If to these considerations be since their officer could make none of those 

added the facilities which will arise from arrangements to meet or guard against the 

enabling the treasury to satisfy the public depreciation which an individual is at 

creditors, by its drafts and notes received liberty to do. Nor can inconvenience to 

in payment of the public dues, it may be the community be alleged as an objection 

safely assumed that no motive of con- to such a regulation. Its object and mo- 

venience to the citizen requires the re- tive are their convenience and welfare, 
ception of bank-paper. If at a moment of simultaneous and un- 



expected suspension by the banks it adds government to promote the accomplish- 
something to the many embarrassments of ment of that important object will without 
that proceeding, yet these are far over- doubt be performed. 

balanced by its direct tendency to produce In the mean time it is our duty to 
a wider circulation of gold and silver, to provide all the remedies against a de- 
increase the safety of bank-paper, to im- preciated paper currency which the Con- 
prove the general currency, and thus to stitution enables us to afford. The Treas- 
prevent altogether such occurrences and ury Department on several former oc- 
the other and far greater evils that at- casions has suggested the propriety and 
tend them. importance of a uniform law concerning 

It may, indeed, be questioned whether it bankruptcies of corporations and other 

is not for the interest of the banks them- bankers. Through the instrumentality of 

selves that the government should not re- such a law a salutary check may doubt- 

ceive their paper. They would be conduct- less be imposed oh the issues of paper 

ed with more caution and on sounder money, and an effectual remedy given to 

principles. By using specie only in its the citizens in a way at once equal in all 

transactions the government would create parts of the Union and fully authorized 

a demand for it, which would to a great by the Constitution. 

extent prevent its exportation, and by The indulgence granted by executive au- 

keeping it in circulation maintain a broad- thority in the payment of bonds for duties 

er and safer basis for the paper x currency, has been already mentioned. Seeing that 

That the banks would thus be rendered the immediate enforcement of these obliga- 

more sound and the community more safe tions would subject a large and highly 

cannot admit of a doubt. respectable portion of our citizens to great 

The foregoing views, it seems to me, do sacrifices, and believing that a temporary 
but fairly carry out the provisions of the postponement could be made without det- 
federal Constitution in relation to the riment to other interests and with in- 
currency, as far as relates to the public creased certainty of ultimate payment, I 
revenue. At the time that instrument did not hesitate to comply with the request 
was framed there were but three or four that was made of me. The terms allowed 
banks in the United States, and had the are to the full extent as liberal as any 
extension of the banking system and the that are to be found in the practice of the 
evils growing out of it been foreseen they executive department. It remains for 
would probably have been specially guard- Congress to decide whether a further post- 
ed against. The same policy which led to ponement may not with propriety be al- 
the prohibition of bills of credit by the lowed, and if so, their legislation upon 
States would doubtless in that event have the subject is respectfully invited, 
also interdicted their issue as a currency The report of the Secretary of the 
in any other form. The Constitution, Treasury will exhibit the condition of 
however, contains no such prohibition; these debts, the extent and effect of the 
and since the States have exercised for present indulgence, the probable result of 
nearly half a century the power to reg- its further extension on the state of the 
ulate the business of banking, it is not treasury, and every other fact necessary 
to be expected that it will be abandoned, to a full consideration of the subject. 
The whole matter is now under discussion Similar Information is communicated in 
before the proper tribunal — the people of regard to such depositories of the public 
the States. Never before has the public moneys as are indebted to the government, 
mind been so thoroughly awakened to a in order that Congress may also adopt 
proper senseof its importance; never has the proper measures in regard to them, 
the subject in all its bearings been sub- The receipts and expenditures for the 
mitted to so searching an inquiry. It first half of the year and an estimate of 
would be distrusting the intelligence and those for the residue will be laid before 
virtue of the people to doubt the speedy you by the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and efficient adoption of such measures of In his report of December last it was 
reform as the public good demands. All estimated that the current receipts would 
that can rightfully be done by the federal fall short of the expenditures by about 



$3,000,000. It will be seen that the dif- 
ference will be much greater. This is to 
be attributed not only to the occurrence 
of greater pecuniary embarrassments in 
the business of the country than those 
which were then predicted, and con- 
sequently a greater diminution in the rev- 
enue, but also to the fact that the appro- 
priations exceeded by nearly $6,000,000 
the amount which was asked for in the 
estimates then submitted. The sum nec- 
essary for the service of the year, beyond 
the probable receipts and the amount 
which it was intended should be reserved 
in the treasury at the commencement of 
the year, will be about $6,000,000. If the 
whole of the reserved balance be not at 
once applied to the current expenditures, 
but $4,000,000 be still kept in the treas- 
ury, as seems most expedient for the uses 
of the mint and to meet contingencies, the 
sum needed will be $10,000,000. 

In making this estimate the receipts are 
calculated on the supposition of some 
further extension of the indulgence grant- 
ed in the paymsnt of bonds for duties, 
which will affect the amount of the rev- 
enue for the present year to the extent of 

It is not proposed to procure the re- 
quired amount by loans or increased taxa- 
tion. There are now in the treasury $9,- 
367,214, directed by the act of June 23, 
1836, to be deposited with the States in 
October next. This sum, if so deposited, 
will be subject under the law to be re- 
called if needed to defray existing ap- 
propriations ; and as it is now evident that 
the whole, or the principal part, of it will 
be wanted for that purpose, it appears 
most proper that the deposit should be 
withheld. Until the amount can be col- 
lected from the banks, treasury notes 
may be temporarily issued, to be gradually 
redeemed as it is received. 

I am aware that this course may be 
productive of inconvenience to many of 
the States. Relying upon the acts of Con- 
gress which held out to them the strong 
probability, if not the certainty, of re- 
ceiving this instalment, they have in some 
instances adopted measures with which its 
intention may seriously interfere. That 
such a condition of things should have 
occurred is much to be regretted. It is 
not the least among the unfortunate re- 


suits of the disasters of the times; and 
it is for Congress to devise a fit remedy, 
if there be one. The money being indis- 
pensable to the wants of the treasury, it 
is difficult to conceive upon what principle 
of justice or expediency its application to 
that object can be avoided. To recall any 
portion of the sums already deposited with 
the States would be more inconvenient and 
less efficient. To burden the country with 
increased taxation when there is in fact~" 
a large surplus revenue would be unjust 
and unwise; to raise moneys by loans un- 
der such circumstances, and thus to com- 
mence a new national debt, would scarcely 
be sanctioned by the American people. 

The plan proposed will be adequate to 
all our fiscal operations during the re- 
mainder of the year. Should it be 
adopted, the treasury, aided by the ample 
resources of the country, will be able to 
discharge punctually every pecuniary obli- 
gation. For the future all that is needed 
will be that caution and forbearance in 
appropriations whieh the diminution of 
the revenue requires and which the com- 
plete accomplishment or great forwardness 
of many extensive national undertakings 
renders equally consistent with prudence 
and patriotic liberality. 

The preceding suggestions and recom- 
mendations are submitted in the belief 
that their adoption by Congress will en- 
able the executive department to conduct 
our fiscal concerns with success so far 
as their management has been committed 
to it. While the objects and the means 
proposed to attain them are within its 
constitutional powers and appropriate 
duties, they will at the same time, it is 
hoped, by their necessary operation, afford 
essential aid in the transaction of indi- 
vidual concerns, and thus yield relief to 
the people at large in a form adapted to 
the nature of our government. Those 
who look to the action of this govern- 
ment for specific aid to the citizen to re- 
lieve embarrassments arising from losses 
by revulsions in commerce and credit lose 
sight of the ends for which it was created 
and the powers with which it is clothed. 
It was established to give security to us 
all in our lawful and honorable pursuits, 
under the lasting safeguard of republican 
institutions. It was not intended to con- 
fer special favors on individuals or on any 


classes of them, to create systems of agri- any specific plan for regulating the ex- 
culture, manufactures, or trade, or to en- changes of the country, relieving mercan- 
engage in them either separately or in con- tile embarrassments, or interfering with 
nection with individual citizens or organ- the ordinary operations of foreign or do- 
ized associations. If its operations were mestic commerce, it is from a conviction 
to be directed for the benefit of any one that such measures are not within the con- 
class, equivalent favors must in justice be stitutional province of the general gov- 
extended to the rest, and the attempt to eminent, and that their adoption would 
bestow such favors with an equal hand, or not promote the real and permanent wel- 
even to select those who should most de- fare of those they might be designed to 
serve them, would never be successful. aid. 

All communities are apt to look to gov- The difficulties and distresses of the 
eminent for too much. Even in our own times, though unquestionably great, are 
country, where its powers and duties are limited in their extent, and cannot be pe- 
so strictly limited, we are prone to do so, garded as affecting the permanent pros- 
especially at periods of sudden embarrass- perity of the nation. Arising in a great 
ment and distress. But this ought not degree from the transactions of foreign 
to be. The framers of our excellent Con- and domestic commerce, it is upon them 
stitution and the people who approved it that they have chiefly fallen. The great 
with calm and sagacious deliberation acted agricultural interest has in many parts of 
at the time on a sounder principle. They the country suffered comparatively little, 
wisely judged that the less government and, as if Providence intended to display 
interferes with private pursuits the better the munificence of its goodness at the mo- 
for the general prosperity. It is not its ment of our greatest need, and in direct 
legitimate object to make men rich or to contrast to the evils occasioned by the 
repair by direct grants of money or legis- waywardness of man, we have been 
lation in favor of particular pursuits blessed throughout our extended territory 
losses not incurred in the public service, with a season of general health and of 
This would be substantially to use the uncommon fruitfulness. The proceeds of 
property of some for the benefit of others, our great staples will soon furnish the 
But its real duty — that duty the perform- means of liquidating debts at home and 
ance of which makes a good government abroad, and contribute equally to the re- 
the most precious of human blessings — vival of commercial activity and the resto- 
is to enact and enforce a system of general ration of-commercial credit. The banks, 
laws commensurate with, but not exceed- established avowedly for its support, de- 
ing, the objects of its establishment, and riving their profits from it, and resting 
to leave every citizen and every interest under obligations to it which cannot be 
to reap under its benign protection the overlooked, will feel at once the neces- 
rewards of virtue, industry, and prudence, sity and justice of uniting their energies 

I cannot doubt that on this as on all with those of the mercantile interest, 
similar occasions the federal government The suspension of specie payments at 
will find its agency most conducive to such a time and under such circumstances 
the security and happiness of the people as we have lately witnessed could not be 
when limited to the exercise of its con- other than a temporary measure, and we 
ceded powers. In never assuming, even can scarcely err in believing that the 
for a well-meant object, such powers as period must, soon arrive when All that are 
were not designed to be conferred upon it, solvent will redeem their issues in gold 
we shall in reality do most, for the general and silver. Dealings abroad naturally de- 
welfare. To avoid every unnecessary in- pend on resources and prosperity at home, 
terference with the pursuits of the citizen If the debt of ouv merchants ' has aecu- 
will result in more benefit than to adopt mulated or their credit is impaired, these 
measures which could only assist limited are fluctuations always incident to'exten- 
interests, and are eagerly, but perhaps sive or extravagant mercantile transac- 
naturally, sought for under the pressure tions. But the ultimate security of such 
of temporary circumstances. If, there- obligations does not admit of question, 
fore, I refrain from suggesting to Congress They are guaranteed by the resources of 



a country the fruits of whose industry was employed in civil engineering and 

afford abundant means of ample liquida- agriculture in Michigan and Minnesota 

tion and by the evident interest of every until the breaking-out of the Civil War, 

merchant to sustain a credit hitherto high when he became colonel of the 2d Minne- 

by promptly applying these means for its sota volunteers. He commanded these in 

preservation. the battle of Mill Spring in January, 1862; 

I deeply regret that events have oc- and for his conduct there was made a brig- 
curred which require me to ask your con- adier-general in March. He commanded a 
sideration on such serious topics. I could brigade in Crittenden's division in north- 
have wished that in making my first com- ern Mississippi and Alabama; and when 
munication to the assembled representa- that officer was promoted (Oct. 1, 1862) 
tives of my country I had nothing to dwell General Van Cleve took command of the 
upon but the history of her unalloyed division, with which he did excellent ser- 
prosperity. Since it is otherwise, we can vice in the battle of Stone River, where he 
only feel more deeply the responsibility was wounded. In September, 1863, he 
of the respective trusts that have been performed good service in northern 
confided to us, and under the pressure of Georgia, particularly in the battle of 
difficulties unite in invoking the guidance Chickamauga. Prom 1863 to 1865 he was 
and aid of the Supreme Ruler of Nations in command at Murfreesboro. He was 
and in laboring with zealous resolution to mustered out of the volunteer service as 
overcome the difficulties by which we are brevet major-general March 13, 1865; and 
"environed. was adjutant-general of the State of Min- 

It is under such circumstances a high nesota in 1866-70 and 1876-82. He died 

gratification to know by long experience in Minneapolis, Minn., April 24, 1891. 
that we act for a people to whom the Van Cortlandt, Oliver Stevense, mili- 

truth, however unpromising, can always tary officer,; born in Wijk, Holland, in 

be spoken with safety; for the trial of 1600; received a fair education; arrived 

whose patriotism no emergency is too in New Netherland as an officer of the 

severe, and who are sure never to desert West India Company March 28, 1638; 

a public functionary, honestly laboring was made customs officer in 1639; had 

for the public good. It seems just that charge of the public stores of the com- 

they should receive without delay any pany in 1643-48; then became a merchant 

aid in their embarrassments which your and brewer. He was made colonel of the 

deliberations can afford. Coming directly burgher guard in 1649; was appointed 

from the midst of them, and knowing the mayor (burgomaster) of New Amsterdam, 

course of events in every section of our in 1654; and held that office almost with- 

country, from you may best be learned as out interruption till 1664, when New 

well the extent and nature of these em- Amsterdam was surrendered to the 

barrassments as the most desirable meas- British. He was then appointed by Gov- 

ures of relief. ernor Stuyvesant one of the commission- 

I am aware, however, that it is not ers to arrange a settlement with the 

proper to detain you at present longer British. In 1663 he took a prominent 

than may be demanded by the special part in settling the Connecticut boundary 

objects for which you are convened. To dispute, and in 1664 in settling the claims 

them, therefore, I have confined my com- of Capt. John Scott to Long Island, and 

munication: and believing it will not be also held trusts under the English gov- 

your own wish now to extend your delib- ernors Nicholls, Lovelace, and Dongan. 

crations beyond them, I reserve till the He died in New York, April 4, 1684. 
usual period of your annual meeting that His son, Jacob, born in New York City, 

general information on the state of the July 7, 1658, was a member of the first 

Union which the Constitution requires me three William and Mary assemblies, was 

to give. again a member in 1702-9 and 1710- 

Van Cleve, Horatio Phillips, mili- 15 ; and was mayor of his native city in 

tary officer; born in Princeton, N. J., 1719. He was a large land-holder and 

Nov. 23, 1809; graduated at West Point one of the most prominent men of his 

in 1831, hut left the army in 1839. He time. His estate of 800 acres at Yonkers 



was bought by New York City from his 
descendants, to whom it had continuously 
passed, and was thrown into the new 
Van Cortlandt Park. He died in New 
York City in 1739. 

Another son, Stephen, born in New 
York City, May 4, 1643, was educated by 
a Dutch clergyman; became an ensign in 
the King's County Regiment in 1668, 
and later was colonel. In 1677 he was 
made the first native American mayor of 
New York City, and held that office al- 

In 1776 he was made colonel of the 2d 
New York Regiment, with which he fought 
at Bemis's Heights and Saratoga. In the 
winter of 1778 he was sent to protect the 
New York frontiers against the Indians 
under Brant. He was a member of the 
court that tried General Arnold for im-_ 
proper conduet at Philadelphia, and was 
in favor of cashiering him. " Had all the 
court," wrote Van Cortlandt in his diary, 
" known Arnold's former conduct as well 
as myself, he would have been dismissed 


most consecutively till his death. He the service." In 1780 he commanded a 
was a member of the governor's council regiment under Lafayette; was with him 

for many years, and became a justice of 
the Provincial Supreme Court in 1693. 
His estate was erected into the manor 
and lordship of Cortlandt, June 17, 1697. 
In the manor, which stood on the shore 
of Croton Bay, Washington, Franklin, 
Rochambeau, Lafayette, and other eminent 
men were entertained during the Revolu- 
tionary War. He died in New York City, 
Nov. 25, 1700. 
Van Cortlandt, Philip, military offi- 

in Virginia; and for his gallant conduct 
at Yorktown was promoted to brigadier- 
general. At the close of the war he re- 
tired to the Manor-house. From 1788 to 

1790 he was a membeT of the New York 
legislature, and also of the State conven- 
tion that adopted the national Constitu- 
tion. He was United States Senator from 

1791 to 1794, and member of Congress 
from 1793 to 1809. Lafayette was accom- 
panied by General Van Cortlandt in his 

cer ; born in Cortlandt Manor, N. Y., Sept. tour through the United States in 1824-25. 

1, 1749; son of Pierre Van Cortlandt; be- He died in Cortlandt Manor, N. Y., Nov. 

came a land surveyor at the age of nine- 5, 1831. 

teen years, but when the Revolutionary War Van Cortlandt, Pteebe, patriot; born 
began he entered the military service as in Cortlandt Manor, N. Y., Jan. 10, 1721 ; 
lieutenant-colonel. His Tory relatives had son of Philip Van Cortlandt, third son 
tried to dissuade him from this step, and of Stephanus; was a member of the first 
Governor Tryon sent him a commission Provincial Congress of New York; chair- 
as colonel of militia, which he destroyed, man of the committee of public safety; 



and was exceedingly active in the pa- by Twiggs (see Twiggs; David Emanuel). 
triot cause. Throughout the Revolution At that time seven companies, under Major 
he appears to have been the principal Sibley, were at Matagorda Bay, prepar- 
administrator of the government of New ing to embark for the North on the 
York; and so obnoxious was he to Star of the West, under convoy of 
the British government that it set a the gunboat Mohawk. These vessels 
bounty on his head. He was the first did not make their appearance, and 
lieutenant-governor of New York, and Sibley embarked on two lighters for 
held that office by re-election for eigh- Tampico, Mexico. Lack of coal and pro- 
teen years. He had been one of the com- visions compelled him to turn back, 
mittee that framed -the constitution of Four vessels, with 1,500 Texans unde^ Van 
the State of New York in 1777. He Dorn, came into the bay, and captured 
died in Cortlandt Manor, N. Y., May 1, Sibley and his whole command. At about 
1814. - the same time a party of volunteers from 

Van Dam, Rip, colonial governor; Galveston captured the Star of the West 
born in Albany, N. Y., about 1662; en- (April 17), with all her stores. On the 
gaged in trade with the West Indies. 23d Colonel Waite and all his officers, on 
In order to oppose Lord Bellomont's com- duty at San Antonio, were made prisoners ; 
mercial policy, he entered politics, and in so also were seven companies under Colonel 
1669 was elected to the Assembly, where Reese, who were making their way towards 
he led the opposition party; was ap- the coast. These were all the National 
pointed a member of the council and re-' troops remaining in Texas, which Twiggs 
mained. there for nearly thirty years ; and had surrendered. They were kept prison- 
was acting governor of New York from ers awhile, and, after being compelled 
July 1, 1731, till Aug. 1, 1732. Shortly to give their parole not to bear arms 
after the arrival of Gov. William Cosby against the Confederates, embarked for 
a bitter dispute arose between him and New York. Promoted major-general, Van 
Van Dam over an order which the gov- Dorn took command of the trans-Mis- 
emor exhibited for an equal division of sissippi district in January, 1862, and 
perquisites and emoluments. Each sued was defeated at Pea Ridge and Corinth, 
the other, but no settlement was ever and superseded by Pemberton. Defeated 
reached. Van Dam published Heads of at Franklin, he was shot dead by Dr. 
Complaint Against Governor Cosby. He Peters in Spring Hill, Te'nn., May 8, 
died in New York City some time after 1863. 
1736. . Van Dyke, Henry, educator; born in 

Van Der Veer, Abraham, legislator; Germantown, Pa., Nov. 10, 1852; grad-. 
born in Flatbush, New York, Jan. 27, uated at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute 
1781; appointed postmaster of Flatbush, in 1869, Princeton College in 1873, Prince- 
1814; clerk of the Kings county courts, ton Theological Seminary in 1877, and Ber- 
1816; elected member of Congress for the lin University in 1878. He was pastor of 
district including Kings, Richmond, and the United Congregational Church, New- 
Bockland counties in 1836. He died in port, R. I., in 1878, and of the Brick 
Brooklyn, July 21, 1839. Presbyterian Church, New York, in 1883- 

Van Dorn, Earl, military officer; born 1900; and became Professor of English 
near Port Gibson, Miss., Sept. 17, 1820; Literature in Princeton University in 
graduated at West Point in 1842, and 1900. He wrote The National Sin of 
served in the war against Mexico, receiv- Literary Piracy; The Poetry of Tenny- 
ing brevets for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, son; The Story of the Other Wise Man, 
Contreras, Churubusco, and at the capture etc. 

of the city of Mexico, where he was Van Dyke, Theodore Strong, author; 
woundedr After serving in several Indian born in New Brunswick, N. J., July 19, 
campaigns, he resigned, Jan. 31, 1861, and 1842; graduated at Princeton College in 
was commissioned a colonel in the Con- 1863; was admitted to the bar in 1866, 
federate army.- He was ordered to Texas and practised in Minnesota in 1869-75; 
in April, 1861, to secure for the Confed- then settled in Southern California and 
erates the remnant of the forces betrayed devoted himself to literature. He was the 



first to eulogize Southern California as a the story, and pushed forward his men 
place offering peculiar advantages to the in two columns, when they were fired 
invalid and sportsman. His publications upon from both sides by Indians concealed 
include The Rifle, Rod, and Gun in Oali- in the thickets and woods. The attack 
fornia; The SHU Hunter; Southern Cali- was sudden, sharp, and deadly, and the 
fornia; and Southern California the Italy troops were thrown into confusion. Ap- 
of America prehensive that he might "be surrounded, 

Van Home, Thomas B., military offl- Van Home ordered a retreat. The Ind- 
cer; conspicuous in the War of 1812-15. ians pursued, and a running fight was 
In August, 1812, Governor Meigs sent kept up for some distance, the Americans 
Captain Brush with men, cattle, provi- frequently turning upon the savage foe 
sions, and a mail for Hull's army. At the and giving them deadly volleys. The mail 
Raisin River, Brush sent word to Hull that carried by the Americans was lost, and 
he had information that a body of Ind- fell into the hands of the British at Fort 
ians under Tecumseh was lying in wait Maiden, by which most valuable informa- 
for him near Brownstown, at the mouth tion concerning the army under Hull was 
of the Huron River, 25 miles below De- revealed, for officers and soldiers had writ- 
troit, and he asked the general to send ten freely to their friends at home. The 
down a detachment of soldiers as an es- Americans lost seventeen killed and sev- 
cort. Hull ordered Major Van Home, of eral wounded, who were left behind. 
Colonel Findlav's regiment, with 200 men, Van Ness, William Peter, jurist; 
to join Brush, and escort him and his horn in Ghent, N. Y., in 1778; graduated 
treasures to headquarters. The major at Columbia College; admitted to the bar 
crossed the Detroit from Hull's forces and removed to New York City, where he 
in Canada, Aug. 4. On the morning of the became an intimate friend of Aaron Burr; 

carried Burr's challenge to Hamilton and 
acted as one of the former's seconds in the 
duel; was United States judge of the 
southern district of New York in 1812- 
26. He was the author of Examination 
of Charges Against Aaron Burr; Laws of 
New York, with Notes (with John Wood- 
worth) ; Reports of Two Cases in the 
Prize Court for New York District; and 
Concise Narrative of General Jackson's 
First Invasion of Florida. He died in 
New York City, Sept. 6, 1826. 

Van Rensselaer, Henby Killiait, mili- 
tary officer ; born near Albany, N. Y., in 
1744; commanded a regiment in the Revo- 
lutionary War, and was wounded in the 
battle of Saratoga. He was afterwards 
a general of militia. In July, 1777, at 
about the time of the retreat of the Amer- 
ican army from Ticonderoga before Bur- 
goyne, he was attacked by a large British 
force near Fort Anne. He made stout 
resistance; but, hearing of the evacuation 
of Ticonderoga, he fell back towards Fort 
Edward. In that encounter he received 
a bulVet in his thigh, which was not ex- 
5th, while the detachment was moving tracted until after his death, in Green- 
cautiously, Van Home was told by a bush, N. Y., Sept. 9, 1816. 
Frenchman that several hundred Indians Van Rensselaer, Ktllian, colonist; 
lay in ambush near Brownstown. Ac- born in Amsterdam, Holland, in 1595; 
customed to alarmists, he did not believe received a good education; acquired 




wealth as a diamond and pearl merchant Van Rensselaer, Mariana Griswold, 
in Amsterdam; and was prominent in the author; born in New York City, Feb. 23, 
establishment of the West India Company. 1851; received a private education; and 
Later, through an agent, he bought a large later studied art and architecture. She 
tract of land from the Indians in New contributed to magazines and periodicals, 
Netherland, on the Hudson River, com- and wrote Henry Hobson Richardson and 
prising the present counties of Albany, Works; American Etchers; Should We 
Eensselaer, and Columbia. The tract, Ask for the Suffrage? etc. 
which was named Rensselaerswick, was Van Rensselaer, Solomon, military 
colonized with immigrants from Holland, officer; born in Eensselaer county, N. Y., 
Van Rensselaer never visited the colony, Aug. 6, 1774; was a son of Henry Killian 
but directed its affairs through a sheriff. Van Rensselaer; entered the military ser- 
To protect the colonists from the Indians, vice as cornet of cavalry in 1792, and in 
he ordered that they should all live near the battle of Fallen Timbers, fought by 
each other, except the tobacco- 
planters and farmers. After his 
death, in 1644, the West India 
Company became jealous of the 
success of the colony, and Gov- 
ernor Stuyvesant, with a military 
escort, visited it in 1648, and gave 
orders that no buildings should be 
constructed within a certain dis- 
tance of Fort Orange. Subsequent- 
ly he endeavored to restrict the 
privileges of Van Rensselaer's sons. 

His son, Jeremias, colonist, born 
in Amsterdam, Holland, presumably 
about 1632, was in charge of Rens- 
selaerswick, N. Y., for sixteen 
years. When the English threat- 
ened New Netherland he was ap- 
pointed to preside over the con- 
vention in New Amsterdam to 
adopt measures of defence. In 1664, 
after the province was surrendered 
to the English, he allied himself 
to the Duke of York on the con- 
dition that no offence should be 
offered his colony. Later Rens- 
selaerswick was erected into a 

manor. Under the pen-name of " New Wayne, Aug. 20, 1794, was shot through 
Netherland Mercury" he was the author the lungs. From 1801 to 1810 he was 
of narratives of various events in the colo- adjutant-general of New York militia, 
nies. He died in Rensselaerswick, N. Y., He was lieutenant-colonel of New York 
in October, 1674. volunteers in 1812, and commanded the 

Another son, Nicholas, clergyman, troops that attacked those of the Brit- 
born in Amsterdam, Holland, about 1638, ish at Queenston, Oct. 13 of that year, 
was made chaplain of the Dutch em- At the landing-place he received four 
bassy in England; appointed a deacon in wounds, and had to be carried back to 
the English Church, and in 1674 came to Lewiston. From 1819 to 1822 he was 
New York. In September, 1675, he was a member of Congress, and from 1822 
made colleague pastor of the Dutch Church until 1839 postmaster at Albany. He 
in Albany, but two years later was de- published a Narrative of the Affair at 
posed by the governor. He died in Al- Queenston (1836). He died in Albany, 
bany, N. Y., in 1678. N. Y., April 23, 1852. 




Van Rensselaer, Stephen, last of the 1821-23. In 1824 he established at Troy, 
patroons; born in New York, Nov. 1, N. Y., a scientific school for the instruc- 
1765: son of Nicholas Van Rensselaer; tion of teachers, which was incorporated 
married a daughter of Gen. Philip in 1826 as the Rensselaer Polytechnic In- 
stitute. He died in Albany, Jan. 
26, 1839. 

Van Rensselaerswick, 
or Rensselaeeswick. See Van 
Rensselaeb, Killian. 

Van Reypen, William 
Knickebbockeb, naval officer ; 
born in Bergen, N. J., Nov. 14, 
1840; graduated at the Medical 
Department of the University 
of New York in 1862; served at 
the Naval Hospital, New York, 
in 1862, and on the frigate St. 
Lawrence of the East Gulf 
blockading squadron, in 1863- 
64; appointed medical director 
in March, 1~865; surgeon-general 
United States navy, and chief of 
the bureau of medicine and 
surgery with the rank of rear- 
admiral, Oct. 22, 1897. During 
the American - Spanish War he 
designed and equipped the am- 
bulance ship Solace, the first 
ever employed in naval warfare. 
Van Santwood, George, 
lawyer; born in Belleville, N. J., 
Dec. 8, 1819; graduated at 
Schuyler in 1783. In 1789 he was a mem- Union College in 1841 ; admitted to the 
ber of the legislature, and State Senator bar; practised in Kinderhook, N. Y., in 
from 1790 to 1795. From 1795 to 1801 1846-52; district attorney of Rensselaer 
he was lieutenant-governor. He presided county in 1860-63. His publications in- 
over the constitutional convention in elude Life of Algernon Sidney; Principles 
1801, and in 1810-11 was one of the of Pleading in Civil Actions Under the 
commissioners to ascertain the feasi- New York Code; Lives of the Chief -Jus- 
bility of a canal to connect the waters tiees of the United States; Precedents of 
of the lakes with the Hudson. From Pleading; and Practice in the Supreme 
1816 until his death he was one of the Court of New York in Equity Actions. 
canal commissioners, and for fifteen He died in East Albany, N. Y., March 6, 
years president of the board. In 1801 1863. 

he commanded the State cavalry, with Van Schaack. Peter, jurist; born in 
the rank of major-general; and when the Kinderhook, N. Y., March, 1747; was 
War of 1812-15 broke out was chief of educated at King's College (now Colum- 
the New York State militia. In 1819 bia University), and had the reputation 
he was elected a regent of the State Uni- of being an accomplished classical 
versity, and afterwards its chancellor, scholar. While in college he married 
In 1820 he was president of the State Elizabeth Cruger; and, choosing the law 
agricultural board, a member of the con- as a profession, entered the office of Mr. 
stitutional convention in 1821, and of Sylvester, in Albany, concluding his 
Congress from 1823 to 1829. At his ex- studies with William Smith, Sr., in New 
pense, and under his direction, a geologi- York. Soon rising to eminence in his 
cal survey of New York was made in profession, he was appointed, at the age 




of twenty-six years, sole reviser of the 1779 he was sent by Washington to de- 
colonial statutes. When the Revolution- stroy the settlement of the Onondaga 
ary War broke out he was one of the Indians, for the performance of which 
New York committee of correspondence ; service Congress gave him its thanks, 
but when the question, Shall the Ameri- He was made brigadier-general by brevet, 
can colonies take up arms against Great Oct. 10, 1783. Van Schaick was a rigid 
Britain? had to be answered by every disciplinarian, and his regiment one of 
American citizen, his voice was in the neg- the best in the service. He died in 
ative, and during the war he was a con- Albany, N. Y., July 4, 1787. 
scientious loyalist, but maintained an at- Van Twiller, Wotjteb or Walter, 
titude of strict neutrality. He did not colonial governor; was a resident of 
escape persecution, for suspicion was Nieukirk, Holland, about 1580; was 
everywhere keen-scented. The committee chosen to succeed Peter Minuits as gov- 
on conspiracies at Albany summoned ernor of New Netherland in 1633. He 
him before them (June, 1777), and re- was one of the clerks in the West India 
quired him to take the oath of allegiance Company's warehouse at Amsterdam, and 
to the Continental Congress. He refused, had married a niece of Killian Van 
and was ordered to Boston within ten Rensselaer, the wealthiest of the newly 
days. From that time he was constantly created patroons. Van Rensselaer had 
restrained; and when he asked the privi- employed him to ship cattle to his domain 
lege of taking his wife, who was dying on Hudson River, and it was probably 
with consumption, to New York, it was his interest to have this agent in New 
refused. She died, and he was banished Netherland; so, through his influence, the 
from his native country in October, 1778, incompetent Van Twiller was appointed 
when he went to England, and remained director-general of the colony. He was 
there untilthe summer of 1785, when he inexperienced in the art of government, 
returned home, and was received with slow in speech, incompetent to decide, 
open arms by men of all parties. While narrow-minded, and irresolute. He was 
in England he had associated with the called by a satirist " Walter the Doubt- 
most distinguished men of the realm, who er." Washington Irving, in his broad 
regarded him as one of the brightest caricature of him, says: "His habits were 
Americans among them, for his scholar- as regular as his person. He daily took 
ship, legal attainments, and rare social his four stated meals, appropriating ex- 
qualities were remarkable. These made actly an hour to each; he smoked and 
his mansion at Kinderhook the resort of doubted eight hours, and he slept the re- 
some of the most eminent men of the maining twelve of the four-and-twenty." 
land, and his society was sought con- He knew the details of the counting-room 
tinually. He died in Kinderhook, N. Y., routine, but nothing of men or the af- 
Sept. 17, 1832. fairs of State. He ever came into col- 

Van Schaick, Gozen, military officer; lision with abler men in the colony, 
born in Albany, N. Y., in January, 1737; In the company's armed ship Sout- 
served in the French and Indian War, berg, with 104 soldiers, he sailed for Man- 
taking part in the expeditions against hattan. With him also came Everardus 
Ticonderoga, Crown Point, Fort Fronte- Bogardus, the first clergyman sent to New 
nac, and Niagara (1756-59), and was Netherland, and Adam Roelandsen, school- 
major in Colonel Johnson's regiment in master. The chief business of Van Twil- 
1759. On the breaking-out -of the Revo- ler's administration appears to have been 
lutionary War, he was made colonel of to maintain and extend the commercial 
the 2d New York Regiment, and late operations of his principals, the West In- 
in 1776 was in command of a battalion dia Company. He repaired Fort Amster- 
sent to the vicinity of Cherry Valley to dam, erected a guard-house and barracks, 
protect the inhabitants against Brant and built expensive windmills; but the 
and his followers, in which work he was latter were so near the fort that their 
vigilant and active. In the battle of wings frequently missed the wind. Build- 
Monmouth he was a brigadier-general ings were erected for officers and other 
under Lord Stirling. In the spring of employes, and several in various parts 



of the province. Of this extravagance United States Senator from North Caro- 

complaint was made, and his shortcom- lina in 1879-94. He died in Washington, 

ings were severely denounced by Dominie D. C, April 14, 1894. 

Bogardus, who, in a letter to him, called Vancouver, George, navigator; born in 

him a "child of the devil," and threaten- England about 1758; accompanied Cap- 

cd him with " such a shake from the pul- tain Cook in his last two voyages. In 

pit " on the following Sunday " as^would 1790 he was made master in the royal 

make him shudder." His administration navy, and was sent out in command of 

was so much complained of in Holland the Discovery to ascertain whether in 

that he was recalled in 1637. He left the North America, between lat. 30° and 60" 

colony in a sorry condition, but with N., there was any interior sea or water 

an ample private estate. Van Rensselaer communication between the known gulfs 

seems to have had confidence in Van Twil- of the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. He 

ler, for he made him executor of his sailed from England in April, 1791, and 

last will and testament. In a controversy, in the spring of 1792 crossed from the 

Van Twiller took sides against the West Sandwich Islands to the American coast, 

India Company, and vilified the adminis- when Nootka was surrendered by the 

tration of Stuyvesant. The company were Spaniards, in accordance with previous ar- 

indignant, and spoke of Van Twiller as rangements. He did not find the sought- 

an ungrateful man who had "sucked for waters, and returned to London, late 

his wealth from the breasts of the com- in 1795, with shattered health. His name 

pany which he now abuses." He died was given to a large island on the western 

in Amsterdam, Holland, after 1646. coast of North America. He devoted him- 

Van Wart, Isaac, patriot; born in self to the arrangement of his manuscripts 

Greenburg, N. Y., in 1760; engaged in for publication, and the narrative of his 

farming in Westchester county, N. Y. voyages, published in 3 volumes after his 

During the Revolutionary War he was an death, was edited by his brother. He died 

ardent sympathizer with the patriot cause, near London, May 10, 1798. 

and on Sept. 23, 1780, with John Paulding Vancouver Island, an island in the 

and David Williams, captured Maj. John North Pacific Ocean, near the mainland 

Andre {q. v.) when that officer was re- of the State of Washington and British 

turning from the American lines. For this Columbia, from which it is separated by 

act each of the three captors received the the Gulf of Georgia. It is about 300 miles 

thanks of Congress, a pension of $200 per long, and was named after Capt. Geo. 

annum for life, and a silver medal. He Vancouver, an English navigator, who was 

died in Mount Pleasant, N. Y., May 23, sent on a voyage of discovery to seek any 

1828. A monument was erected to his navigable communication between the 

memory by the citizens of Westchester North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans, 

county in 1829. He sailed in April, 1791, and returned 

Vance, Zebulon Baird, legislator; born Sept. 24, 1795. He compiled an account 
near Asheville, N. C, May 13, 1830; re- of his survey of the northwest coast of 
ceived a collegiate education; admitted to America, and died in 1798. Settlements, 
the bar in 1852; elected to Congress in made here by the English in 1781, were 
1858 and re-elected in 1859; strongly op- seized by the Spaniards in 1789, but re- 
posed the secession of his native State, but stored. By treaty with the United States, 
afterwards entered the Confederate army in 1846, the island was secured to Great 
as colonel ; and was elected governor of Britain. It has become of importance 
North Carolina in 1862. While in office since the discovery of gold in the neigh- 
he purchased a Clyde steamship, which boring mainland, in 1858, and the colo- 
succcssfully ran the blockade several times, nization of British Columbia. The island 
landing clothing, arms, and general sup- was united with British Columbia in 
plies. In 1863 he advocated peace nego- August, 1866; and on May 24, 1868, 
tiations with the national government, Victoria, founded in 1857, was declared 
and urged Jefferson Davis to seek a ces- the capital. 

sation of hostilities. He was re-elected Vanderbilt, Cornelius, financier; born 

governor in 1864 and 1876; and was near Stapleton, Staten Island, N. Y., May 



27, 1794; at the age of sixteen years he turned his capital and his energies in that 

bought a small boat, with which he car- direction. He obtained control of one rail- 

ried passengers and " truck " between road after another ; and at the time of his 

Staten Island and New York. At eighteen death his various roads covered lines more 

he owned two boats, and was captain of than 2,000 miles in extent, and, under one 

a third. Prosperity constantly attended management, represented an aggregate 

him. He married at nineteen, and when capital of $150,000,000, of which he and 

he was twenty-three he was worth $9,000 members of his family owned fully one- 

half. His entire property at his death, in 
New York City, Jan. 4, 1877, was esti- 
mated in value at nearly $100,000,000, 
nearly all of which he bequeathed to his son 
William H., that the great railroad enter- 
prise might go on as a unit and increase. 
In 1873 Mr. Vanderbilt founded the Van- 
derbilt University in Nashville, Tenn., with 
$500,000, afterwards increased to $700,000. 

and out of debt. Then he settled in New 
York, where he bought vessels of various 
kinds; and in 1817 assisted in building 
the first steamboat that plied between 
New York and New Brunswick, of which 
he was captain, with a salary of $1,000 
a year. He commanded a finer boat in 
181&, his wife at the same time keeping 
a hotel at New Brunswick. He soon had 
full control of that steam- 
boat line, and in 1827 he 
made $40,000 a year 
profit. He started steam- 
boats in various waters — ■ 
the Hudson, the Delaware, 
Long Island Sound, etc., 
everywhere seeking to 
have a monopoly of the 
business and profits. His 
wealth greatly increased. 
He engaged in establishing 
steamboat and other con- 
nection between New York 
and California. After 1848 
he fought opposition vig- 
orously and triumphed. 
In 1856 he received a large 
subsidy for withdrawing 
his transit line; and in 
1861 he presented to the 
government of the United 
States the Vanderbilt, a 
steam - vessel that cost 
$800,000, which was used 
in cruising after Confeder- 
ate privateers. During his 
steamship carer he owned 
twenty - one steamships, 
eleven of which he built; 
and, with steamboats, his 
entire fleet numbered six- 
ty-six. For many years 
he was popularly called 
" Commodore." 

When he abandoned the 
water in 1864 his accumulations were esti- Vanderbilt, Cornelius, capitalist; 
mated at $40,000,000. As early as 1844 he born in New Dorp, Staten Island, N. Y., 
had become interested in railroads; now he Nov. 27, 1843; eldest son of William 




Henry Vanderbilt; received an academic Methodist Episcopal Church, South, until 
education and became a clerk in the Shoe the elder Cornelius Vanderbilt gave it 
and Leather Bank, and later in the bank- $500,000, when its name was changed 
ing firm of Kissam Brothers; began his to that of the donor. Later Mr. Van- 
study of finance and railroad management derbilt increased his donation to $1,000,- 
in 1865, and became treasurer of the Har- 000, and at various times his son, William 
lem Railroad in 1867. When his father Henry, made gifts amounting to $450,- 
died, on Dec. 8, 1885, he became head of 000. The university has departments of 
the Vanderbilt family and managed the theology, medicine, law, dentistry, en- 
Vanderbilt system of railroads till 1895. gineering, and pharmacy. In 1903 it re- 
He was stricken with paralysis in July, ported: Professors and instructors, 100; 
1896, and never entirely recovered. He students, 695 ; volumes in the library, 30,- 
made numerous gifts to education and 000; productive funds, $1,250,000; grounds 
charity, including $850,000 to the Church and buildings valued at $750,000; pro- 
of St. Bartholomew; $1,500,000 to Yale ductive funds, $1,400,000; number of 
University, part of which was given to graduates, over 3,600; president, J. H. 
erect Vanderbilt Hall, a dormitory built Kirkland, LL.D., Ph.D. 
as a memorial to his son William H., who Vanderheyden, Diek, land-owner; 
died there while a student; $100,000 to born in Albany, N. Y., about 1680; was 
the Church of St. John the Divine; $50,- an inn-keeper and engaged in land speeu- 
000 to St. Luke's Hospital; and a like lation. Jn 1720 he secured a grant of 
sum to the Episcopal Domestic and For- 490 acres at an annual fee of four fat 
eign Missionary Society. He died in New fowls and five schepels of wheat. Later 
York City, Sept. 12, 1899. the grant was called Vanderheyden's Fer- 

Vanderbilt, William Henet, capital- r y, till 1789, when it was named Troy. 

ist; born in New Brunswick, N. J., May i n 1725 he built upon this site the Van- 

8, 1821; son of Cornelius Vanderbilt; derheyden mansion, one of the best 

educated at Columbia Grammar School; samples of Dutch architecture at that 

settled in New Dorp, Staten Island, and period in New York" State, which was 

became the manager of the Staten Island constructed with bricks imported from 

Railroad. When his father engaged in Holland. He died in Albany, N. Y., in 

railroad financiering at the age of seven- October, 1738. 

ty (1864) William took charge as vice- Vanderlyn, John, painter; born in 
president of the Harlem and Hudson River Kingston, N. Y., Oct. 15, 1776- received 
companies, and later of the New York Cen- instructions in painting from Gilbert 
tral. He received about $90,000,000 un- Stuart at the age of sixteen years, and 
der the will of his father in 1877. His in 1796, through the aid of Aaron Burr, 
gifts to various objects include $200,000 went to Paris, and studied there five years, 
to the endowment of Vanderbilt Univer- He returned, but went to Europe again, 
sity and $100,000 for a theological de- where he resided from 1803 to 1815. There 
partment there; $500,000 for new build- he painted a large picture of Marius Seat- 
ings for the College of Physicians and e d amid the Ruins of Carthage, for which 
Surgeons; $100,000 to the trainmen and he was awarded the gold medal at the 
laborers of the New York Central Rail- Louvre in 1808, and was the recipient of 
road: $50,000 to the Church of St. high commendation from Napoleon. On 
Bartholomew; and $103,000 to bring from his return to the United States he paint- 
Egypt and erect in Central Park the ed portraits of distinguished citizens, and 
obelisk which Khedive Ismail gave to the introduced the panoramic method of ex- 
United States. He died in New York hibiting pictures. In 1832 he received a 
City, Dec. 8, 1885. commission to paint a full-length portrait 

Vanderbilt University, an educational of Washington for the House of Rep- 
institution in Nashville, Tenn.; an out- resentatives ; and in 1839 he painted for 
growth of a movement in the Methodist one of the panels of the rotunda of 
Episcopal Church, South, for higher edu- the Capitol The Landing of Columhus. 
cation in that denomination. It was He died in Kingston, N. Y., Sept. 24, 
known as the Central University of the 1852. 



Vane, Sib Henry, colonial governor; exclusive direction of the navy. He was 
born in Hadlow, Kent, England, in 1612; then considered one of the foremost men 
was a son of Sir 
Henry, Secretary 
of State under 
Kings James and 
Charles I. In early 
life he refused to 
take the oath of 
supremacy, became 
a Puritan and a re- 
publican; arrived 
at Boston in 1835 
(Oct. 3), and, was 
almost immediate- 
ly chosen governor. 
His was a stormy 
administration, for 
it was agitated by 
the Hutchinson 
controversy (see 
Hut chin son, 
Anne). Vane was 
enlightened and 
tolerant.- He ab- 
horred bigotry in 
every form, warm- 
ly defended the in- 
violability of the 
rights of conscience 
and the exemption 
of religion from all 
control by the civil 
authorities, and 
had no sympathy 
with Uie attacks of 
the clergy upon 
Mr s . Hutchinson. 
Winthrop, whom 

he had superseded as governor of Massa- in the nation, and Milton wrote a fine 
chusetts, led a strong opposition to him, sonnet in his praise. He and Cromwell 
and the next year he was defeated as a were brought in conflict by the forcible 
candidate for re-election, but became a dissolution of the Long Parliament by the 
member of the General Court. latter. Vane was leader of the Rebellion 

Late in the summer of 1637 he sailed Parliament in 1659. When Charles II. 
for England, was elected to Parliament, ascended the throne, Vane, considered one 
became one of the treasurers of the navy, of the worst enemies of his beheaded 
and in 1640 was knighted. In the Long father, was committed to the Tower in 
Parliament he was a member, and a 1662, and was executed June 14. Sir 
strong opponent of royalty. He was the Henry was chiefly instrumental in pro- 
principal mover of the solemn league and curing the first charter for Rhode Island, 
covenant, and in 1648 was a leader of the Varick, Richard, military officer; born 
minority in Parliament which favored the in Hackensack, N\ J., March 25, 1753; was 
rejection of terms of settlement offered a lawyer in the city of New York when the 
by the King. In 1649 he was a member Revolutionary War began, and entered 
of the council of state, and had almost the service as captain in McDougall's regi- 
x.— c 33 



ment. Soon afterwards he became Gen- Varnum, Joseph Bradley, lawyer; 
eral Schuyler's military secretary, and re- born in Washington, D. C, June 9, 1818; 
mained so until that officer was super- graduated at Yale College in 1838; ad- 
seded by Gates in the summer of 1777, mitted to the bar and followed his pro- 
continuing with the army, with the rank fession in Baltimore for several years; 
of colonel, until the capture of Burgoyne. removed to New York City and there ob- 
Varick was inspector - general at West tained a large practice; member of the 
Point until after Arnold's treason, when New York legislature in 1849-51 and 
he became a member of Washington's mili- speaker in the latter year. His publi- 
tary family, acting as his recording secre- cations include The Beat of Government 
tary until near the close of the Revolution, of the United States, and The Washington 
When the British evacuated the city of Sketch-Book. He died in Astoria, N. Y., 
New York, Nov. 25, 1783, Colonel Varick Dec. 31, 1874. 

was made recorder there, and held the Varnum, Joseph Beadley, legislator; 
; office until 1789, when he became attorney- born in Dracut, Mass., Jan. 29, 1750; 
general of the State. Afterwards he was brother of James M. Varnum; was an 
elected mayor of New York, and held that active patriot during the Revolution, both 
office until 1801. He and Samuel Jones in the council and in the field; member 
were appointed (1786) to revise the laws of Congress in 1795-1811; speaker of the 
of the State of New York, and in 1718 he tenth and the eleventh Congresses; and 
was speaker of the Assembly. He was one United States Senator in 1811-17. He had 
of the founders of the American Bible Soci- been made major-general of militia at an 
ety. He died in Jersey City, July 30, 1831. early day, and at the time of his death, 
Varmrm, James Mitchell, military of- in Dracut, Mass., Sept. 21, 1821, was the 
ficer; born in Dracut, Mass., Dec. 17, 1748; oldest officer of that rank in Massachu- 
graduated at Rhode Island College (now setts, and also senior member of the 
Brown University) in 1769, and became United States Senate, 
a lawyer in East Greenwich, R. I. In 1784 Varuna, The. In the naval battle on 
he was commander of the Kentish Guards, the Mississippi, below New Orleans, the 
from the ranks of which came General chief efforts of the Confederate gunboats 
Greene and about thirty other officers of seemed to be directed against the Gayu- 
ihe Revolution. He was made colonel of ga, Captain Bailey, and the Varuna, Cap- 
the 1st Rhode Island Regiment in Janu- tain Boggs. The Cayuga had compelled 
ary, 1775, and soon afterwards entered the three of the Confederate gunboats to sur- 
Continental army, becoming brigadier-gan- render to her, and was fighting desperately, 
eral in February, 1777. He was at Red when the Varuna rushed into the thickest 
Bank (Port Mercer), in command of all of the battle to rescue her. Then the 
the troops on the Jersey side of the Del- Varuna became the chief object of the 
aware, when the British took Philadel- wrath of the Confederates. " Immediately 
phia; and it was under his direction that after passing the forts," reported Captain 
Major Thayer made his gallant defence Boggs, "I found myself amid a nest o< 
of Fort Mifflin (q. v.). General Var- rebel steamers." As he penetrated this 
num was at Valley Forge the following "nest," he poured a broadside upon each 
winter ; took part in the battle of Mon- vessel as he passed. The first that received 
mouth (June 28, 1778) ; joined Sulli- his fire appeared to be crowded with 
van in his expedition to Rhode Island, troops. Her boiler was exploded by o 
serving under the immediate orders of shot, and she drifted ashore. Soon after 
Lafayette, and resigned in 1779, when he wards the Varuna drove three other vesself 
was chosen major-general of militia, which ashore in flames, and all of them blew 
office he held until his death. In the Con- up. Very soon afterwards she was fiercely 
tinental Congress ( 1780-82 and 1786-87) he attacked by the ram Governor Moore, corn- 
was very active, and an eloquent speaker, manded by Captain Kennon, formerly of 
Appointed judge of the Supreme Court in the United States navy. It raked along 
the Northwestern Territory, he removed to the Varuna's port-gangway, doing consid- 
Marietta, 0., in June, 1788, and held the erable damage; but Boggs soon drove 
office until his death there, Jan. 10, 1789. her out of action, when another ram its 



beak under water, struck the Varuna at 
the same point. The shots of the latter 
glanced harmlessly from the armor of her 
assailant. The ram backed off a short 
distance, and, darting forward, gave the 
Varuna another blow in the same place, 
which crushed in her side. The ram be- 
came entangled, and was drawn nearly 
to the side of the Varuna, when Boggs 
gave her five 8-inch shells abaft her armor 
from his port-guns, and drove her ashore 
in flames. Finding his own vessel sink- 
ing, he ran her into the bank, let go her 
anchor, and tied her bow fast to the 
trees. All that time her guns were at 
work crippling the Moore, and did not 
cease until the water was over the gun- 
trucks. Then he got his wounded and 
crew safely on shore. The Moore was 
soon afterwards set on fire by Kennon, 
who abandoned her, leaving his wounded 
to perish in the flames. This was one of 
the most daring exploits of the war, and 
received great applause. 

Vasco da Gama, navigator; born in 
Sines, Portugal, presumably about 1469; 
was appointed by Emanuel of Portugal 
commander of an expedition to find an 
ocean route to the East Indies. He sailed 
from Lisbon in July, 1497, and reached 
Calicut in the following November, after 
having sailed around the Cape of Good 
Hope; returned to Lisbon in 1499; made 
a second voyage to India in 1502-3; and 
was appointed viceroy there in the year 
1524. He died in Cochin, India, Dec. 24, 

Vasquez de Allyon, Luke, colonist; 
born in Spain; removed to Santo Do- 
mingo, and acquired extensive mines there. 
Cruelty had almost exterminated the 
natives, and Vasquez sailed northward in 
two ships, in 1520, in search of men on 
some island, to work his mines. Entering 
St. Helen's Sound, on the coast of South 
Carolina, by accident, he saw with delight 
the shores swarming with wonder-struck 
natives, who believed his vessels to be sea- 
monsters. When the Spaniards landed, 
the natives fled to the woods. Two of 
them were caught, carried on board of the 
ships, feasted, dressed in gay Spanish 
costume, and sent back. The sachem was 
so pleased that he sent fifty of his subjects 
to the vessels with fruits, and furnished 
guides to the Spaniards in thair long ex- 

cursions through the woods. When Vas- 
quez was ready to leave, he invited a 
large number of native men to a feast on 
board his ships. They were lured below, 
made stupidly drunk, and were carried 
away to be made slaves. Many of them 
died from starvation, for they refused to 
eat, and one of the ships foundered, and 
all on board perished. The remainder 
were made slaves in the mines. Vasquez 
was rewarded as a discoverer of new lands 
(see Ameeica, Discovebebs of), and 
made governor of "Chicora, as the natives 
called the region of South Carolina. With 
three ships he proceeded to take possession 
of the territory and plant a colony. On 
Beaufort Island, Port Royal Sound, they 
began to build a town. The natives seemed 
friendly, and very soon the sachem invited 
the Spaniards to a great feast near the 
mouth of the Combahee River. About 200 
of them went. It lasted three days. When 
all the Spaniards were asleep, the Indians 
fell upon and murdered the whole of them. 
Then they attacked the builders on Beau- 
fort. Some of the Spaniards escaped to 
their ships, and among them was Vasquez, 
mortally wounded. The treachery taught 
the Indians by the Spaniards was repeated 
in full measure. 

Vassar, Matthew, philanthropist; born 
in Tuddenham, England, April 29, 1792; 
came to the United States with his father 
in 1796, when the family settled on a 
small farm near Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and 
established a brewery of ale in a small 
way. In 1812 Matthew began the busi- 
ness at Poughkeepsie, and by this and 
other enterprises he accumulated a large 
fortune. In declining life, as he was 
childless, he contemplated the establish- 
ment of some public institution. At the 
suggestion of his niece (Miss Booth), a 
successful teacher of girls, he resolved to 
establish a college for young women, and 
in February, 1861, at a meeting of a 
board of trustees which he had chosen, he 
delivered to them $408,000 for the found- 
ing of such an institution, now known 
as Vassar College (q. v.). A spacious 
building was erected, and in September, 
1865, it was opened with a full faculty 
and over 300 students. Other gifts to the 
college and bequests in his will inoreased 
the amount to over $800,000. He died in 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., June 23. lsaa 


Vassar College, the first institution 
for imparting a full collegiate education 
to women established in the world; found- 
ed by Matthew Vassar in Poughkeepsie, 
N. ¥., in 1861. The college edifice was 
erected during the Civil War, and a few 
weeks after its close a faculty was chosen 
(June, 1865). The institution was opened 
for the reception of students in September 
following, when nearly 350 young women 
entered. In 1864 Mr. Vassar purchased 
and presented to the college a collection 
of oil and water-color pictures for its art- 
gallery, at a cost of $20,000, including 

college edifice stands in the midst of 200 
acres of fine land, on which is a lake used 
for boating and skating purposes, which 
is fed by springs of pure water, from which 
the college is supplied. From the start 
Vassar College has been successful in 
every particular, and is pronounced by 
educators at home and abroad as a model 
institution. It has the honor of being 
the pioneer in the work of the higher edu- 
cation of women. In 1903 it reported 
eighty professors and instructors, 930 stu- 
dents, 2,170 graduates, 50,000 volumes in 
the library, grounds and buildings valued 



an art library of about 8,000 volumes. Mr. 
Vassar bequeathed to the college $50,000 
as a lecture fund, $50,000 as an auxiliary 
fund, and $50,000 as a library, art, and 
cabinet fund, the income of each to be 
applied to the purpose for which it was 
intended — namely, the first-named for em- 
ploying lecturers, the second for aiding 
meritorious students unable to pay the 
whole expense of a collegiate course, and 
the third for the enlargement of the 
library, art-gallery, and cabinets. He also 
bequeathed $125,000 as a repair fund, to 
meet necessary expenses in repairs of and 
additions to the college buildings. The 

at $1,399,862 ; productive funds, $994,054 ; 
president, James M. Taylor, D.D. 

Vaudreuil, Loins Philippe de Rigatjd, 
Marquis de, naval officer; born near 
Castelnaudary, Prance, in 1640; had been 
tried as a soldier when, in 1689, he was 
named governor of Montreal, under Pron- 
tenac. He served in an expedition against 
the Iroquois, and also in defence of 
Quebec against the armament under 
Phipps, in 1690. Active and brave in 
military life, he was made governor of 
Canada in 1703, and remained so until 
his death, Oct. 11, 1725. During his ad- 
ministration he gave the English colonies 


infinite trouble by inciting the Indians to tol and Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
make perpetual forays on the frontier, ington, D. C. Later he was associated 
His son, Pierre Francois, who inherited with Frederick Law Olmsted, and they pre- 
his title and was the last French govern- sented the designs for laying out Central 
or of Canada, was born in Quebec in 1698, Park, New York City, and Prospect Park, 
and died in France, 1764. He, too, was a Brooklyn, N. Y., that were accepted. He 
soldier in the French army; became gov- designed many parks in Chicago and Buf- 
ernor of Three Rivers in 1733, and of falo, the State reservation, at Niagara 
Louisiana in 1743; was made governor of Falls, the plans for Riverside and Morning- 
Canada in 1755, but was regarded with side parks, New York City, and parks in 
contempt by Montcalm, whose friends, other cities. Mr. Vaux was landscape 
after the surrender of Montreal and the architect of the Department of Public 
return of Vaudreuil to France, made Parks of New York City, member of the 
charges which caused the ex-governor's im- Consolidated Commission of Greater New 
prisonment in the Bastile. He was ex- York, and landscape architect of the State 
onerated from all blame and released, but reservation at Niagara. He died in Ben- 
was stripped of nearly all his possessions, sonhurst, L. I., Nov. 19, 1895. 

Vaughan, Sib John, military officer; Vaux, Roberts, jurist; born in Phila- 

born in England inJ7-38; came to Anier- delphia, Pa., Jan. 25, 1786; received a 

ica as colonel of the -4oth Regiment, and private school education ; admitted to the 

served on the staff of Sir Henry Clinton bar in 1808; and became judge of the 

as brigadier-general and major-general, county court of Philadelphia in 1835. 

In January, 1777, he was made major- Most of his life was devoted to charity, 

general in the British army. In the bat- education, and the reform of the penal 

tie of Long Island he led the grenadiers, code. He was one of the originators of the 

and was wounded at the landing on New public school system of Pennsylvania; a 

York Island afterwards. He participated founder of the deaf and dumb asylum, 

in the capture of forts Clinton and Mont- the Philadelphia Savings Funds, and 

gomery, in the Hudson Highlands, and, other societies. Among his works are 

proceeding up the river in a squadron of Memoirs of the Life of Anthony Benezet; 

light vessels, he burned Kingston and de- Notices of the Original and Successive 

vastated other places on the shores. In Efforts to Improve the Discipline of the 

May, 1779, he captured Stony and Ver- Prison at Philadelphia, etc. He died in 

planck's points on the Hudson, and re- Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 7, 1836. 

turned to England in the fall, becoming Veazey, Wheelock Graves, lawyer; 

commander-in-chief of the Leeward Isl- born in Brentwood, N. H., Dec. 5, 1835; 

ands. With Rodney, he took Eustatia in graduated at Dartmouth College in 1859; 

1781. He was a representative of Ber- admitted to the bar in 1860, and began 

wick, in Parliament, from 1774 until his practice in Springfield, Vt. ; served in the 

death in Martinique, June '30, 1795. Civil War in 1861-63; promoted colonel 

Vaughan, William, military officer; of the 16th Vermont Volunteers in 

born in Portsmouth, N. H., Sept. 12, 1703; October, 1862; resumed law practice in 

graduated at Harvard University in 1722 ; August, 1863 ; reporter of the Supreme 

became interested in the Newfoundland Court of Vermont in 1864-72; judge of 

fisheries and settled in Damariscotta ; was the State Supreme Court in 1879-89; 

lieutenant-colonel of militia in the Louis- member of the inter-State commerce com- 

burg expedition in 1745; and, feeling mission in 1889-97; aided in the founding 

slighted in the distribution of awards, he of the Grand Army of the Republic in 

went to London, England, to present his Vermont, and was commander-in-chief 

claims, where he died, Dec. 11, 1746. of the Grand Army of the Republic in 

Vaux, Calvebt, landscape architect; 1890. He died in Washington, D. C, 

born in London, England, Dec. 20, 1824; March 22, 1898. 

came to the United States in 1848 with Vedder, Elihu, artist; born in New 

Andrew J. Downing, of whom he became a York, Feb. 26, 1836; educated at Brinker- 

partner. They were associated in laying hoff School, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; studied with 

out the grounds that surrounded the Capi- Tompkins H. Mattison in Sherburne, N. Y., 



and with Francois Edouard Picot, in States in a war with Great Britain. This 

Paris; and later in Italy, returning to condition of affairs was caused by the sud- 

the United States in 1861. He opened a den renewal by Great Britain of an old 

studio in New York; was elected an asso- claim to territory adjoining British 

date of the National Academy in 1863; Guiana, but held by Venezuela. This ter- 

and removed to Rome in 1867. Among his ritory contains about 500 square miles and 

best known works are the five decorated is inhabited by over 100,000 people. It 

panels and the mosaic Minerva in the Con- also contains rich gold-mines. The ter- 

gressional Library at Washington, D. C. ritory had been a subject of dispute ever 

Velasquez, Diego de, colonist; born in since 1814, when Holland ceded her South 

Cuellar, Segovia, Spain, in 1465 ; served in American possessions to Great Britain. In 

the conquest of Granada; went to His- 1841, Robert SchSmburgk, acting for 

paniola with Columbus in 1493; and was Great Britain, erected a boundary-line, 

prominent in the wars against the Ind- claiming for Great Britain the entire At- 

ians. In 1511, on being commissioned to lantic coast as far as the Orinoco. Venez- 

conquer Cuba, he left Hispaniola with 300 uela protested and forcibly removed this 

soldiers and landed near the eastern ex- line. For fifty years after Great Britain 

tremity of the island. The unarmed na- made various claims. In 1887 diplomatic 

tives were easily conquered, and he found relations between. Great Britain and Venez- 

but little resistance except from Cacique uela were broke|| dgjftecause of the dispute. 

Hatuey, fugitive from Hispaniola, whom In the United States the action of Great 

he captured and burned at the stake. He Britain was closely watched, it being be- 

founded Bayamo, Trinidad, Porto Principe, lieved that her attempt to extend her 

Matanzas, Santo Espiritu, and Santiago, boundary-line was in violation of the 

where he established his government and Monroe doctrine. On Feb. 20, 1895, the 

assumed command. In 1517 he went with United States offered to arbitrate the dis- 

Cordova on his slave-seeking expedition, pute, but Great Britain refused. Late in 

which resulted in the discovery of 1895 information reached the United 

Yucatan. Encouraged by the results of States that Great Britain intended to land 

this expedition he sent out another in 1518 troops on the disputed territory. Then 

under Hernando Cortez, who arrived at President Cleveland issued the message 

Vera Cruz and took command. On hear- already referred to, for the text of which 

ing that Cortez had sent commissioners see Cleveland, Groveb. In his message 

to Spain to obtain the title to the newly the President asked Congress for leave to 

discovered country, Velasquez immediately appoint a commission to visit Venezuela 

despatched a force under Panfilo de Nar- and sift the claims of both parties. This 

vaez to bring back Cortez as a prisoner. Congress at once granted, voting $100,000 

In this attempt Narvaez was defeated by for the purpose. 

Cortez, and so the effort of Velasquez to Under this authority President Cleve- 

secure the Mexican conquest failed. He land appointed the following commission: 

died in Havana in 1522 or 1523. Judge David J. Brewer, chairman; Rich- 

Venable, William Henry, educator; aid H. Alvey; Andrew D. White; Freder- 

born in Warren county, O., April 29, 1836 ; ick R. Coudert, and Daniel C. Gilman. 

was trained for teaching, and has been so Upon their report both Great Britain and 

engaged since 1860. He is the author of Venezuela agreed to submit the dispute 

A History of the United States; Foot- to arbitration, and under this agreement 

prints of the Pioneers; Beginnings of Lit- the following arbitrators were selected: 

erary Culture in the Ohio Valley; John Chief - Justice Fuller, Associate Justice 

Hancock, Educator; Life and Writings of Brewer, Lord Chief - Justice Russell, of 

Gen. William Haines Lytle; Tales from Klllowen, Sir Richard Henn Collins, and 

Ohio History ; etc. Professor Martens. Ex-President Harri- 

Venezuela Question. On Dec. 17, 1895, son, Gen. B. F. Tracy, M. Mallet-Prevost, 

President Cleveland sent to Congress a and the Marquis of Rojas were counsel 

special message on this question, which for Venezuela, and Attorney-General Sir 

for a time caused great excitement and Richard Webster and Sir Robert Reed foi 

seemed to threaten to involve the United Great Britain. 



The arbitration tribunal met in Paris on peace, the rivers Amakuru and Barima 
June 15, 1899, and on Oct. 3 following ren- shall be open to merchant shipping of all 
dered the following award unanimously: nations, on condition that the dues levied 

by Venezuela and British Guiana, on shipa 

The undersigned, by these presents, give traversing the parts of those rivers wvned 
and publish our decision, determining and by them respectively, shall be imposed in 
judging, touching and concerning the ques- accordance with the same tariff on Vene- 
tions that have been submitted to us by zuelan and British vessels. 
said arbitration; and, in conformity with In December, 1902, Great Britain and 
said arbitration, we decide, declare, and Germany attempted to collect claims 
pronounce definitely that the line of fron- against Venezuela. Puerto Cabello was 
tier of the colony of British Guiana and the bombarded; Italy joined the other pow- 
United states of Venezuela is as follows: ers; the Venezuelan ports were block- 
Starting on the coast at Point Playa, aded. President Roosevelt was asked by 
the frontier shall follow a straight line the powers to arbitrate the controversy, 
to the confluence of the Barima and the but declined. The Permanent Court of 
Maruima, thence following the thalweg Arbitration at The Hague on Feb. 22, 
of the latter to the source of the Corentin, 1904, decided against Venezuela, the 
otherwise called the Cutari, River. United States to carry out the award. 

Thence it shall proceed to the confluence From 1895 to 1905 there was constant 
of the Haiowa and the Amakuru; thence friction between Venezuela and the Unit- 
following the thalweg of the Amakuru to ed States, and with France, England, and 
its source in the Plain of Imataka; thence Germany. 

in a southwesterly direction along the Vera Cruz, Capture of. In January, 
highest ridge of the Imataka Mountains 1847, Gen. Winfield Scott reached the 
to the highest point of the Imataka Chain, mouth of the Rio Grande, taking chief 
opposite the source of the Barima and the command, but the tardiness of government 
principal chain of the Imataka Mountains ; in furnishing materials for attacking Vera 
thence in a southeast direction to the Cruz delayed the movement several weeks, 
source of the Acarabisi. For this expedition General Scott as- 

Following the thalweg of the Acarabisi signed 12,000 men, and appointed the 
to the Cuyuni, the northern bank of which island of Lobos, about 125 miles north- 
it shall follow in a westerly direction to west of Vera Cruz, as the place of ren- 
the confluence of the Cuyuni and the Va- dezvous. When the troops were gathered, 
namu; thence along the thalweg of the they sailed for Vera Cruz, and landed near 
Vanamu to its westernmost source ; thence that city March 9, 1847. Upon an island 
in a straight line to the summit of Mount opposite was a very strong fortress, called 
Roraima; thence to the source of the the Castle of San Juan de Ulloa, which 
Cotinga. the Mexicans regarded as invulnerable. 

From this point the frontier shall foJ- This and Vera Cruz were considered the 
low the thalweg of the Cotinga to its " key of the country." This fortress and 
confluence with the Takutu; thence along the city were completely invested by the 
the thalweg of the Takutu to its source; Americans four days after the landing, 
thence in a straight line to the most west- and on March 22 General Scott and Com- 
ern point of the Akarai Mountains, the modore Conner were ready for the bom- 
highest ridge of which it shall follow bardment. Then Scott summoned the city 
to the source of the Corentin, whence it and fortress to surrender. The demand 
will follow the course of the river. was refused, when shells from seven mor- 

It is stipulated that the frontier hereby tars on land (soon increased to nine) 
delimited reserves and in no way preju- were hurled upon the city. The engineer- 
dices questions actually existing or that ing works for the siege had been skilfully 
may hereafter arise between Great Brit- prepared by Gen. Joseph G. Tottes 
ain and the republic of Brazil, or between (q. v.). The entire siege continaed fifteen 
the republic of Brazil and Venezuela. In days, during which time the Americans 
fixing the above delimitation, the arbitra- fired 3,000 ten-inch shells, 200 howitzer- 
tors consider and decide that, in time of shells, l v 000 Paixham shot, and 2,500 





round-shot, the whole weight of metal 
being about 500,000 pounds. The shells did 
terrible damage within the city, and many 
women and children became victims. On 
the morning of March 26 the commander 
of the post made overtures for surrender, 
and on the 29th that event took place, 
when about 5,000 Mexicans marched out to 
a plain a mile from the city, where they 
laid down their arms, gave up their flags, 
and retired to the interior on parole. The 
city and fortress of San Juan de Ulloa, 
with 500 pieces of artillery and a large 
quantity of munitions of war passed into 
the possession of the Americans. The lat- 
ter, during the whole siege, had lost only 
eighty men killed and wounded; the 
Mexicans lost 1,000 killed and many more 
wounded. Scott tried to induce the gov- 
ernor to send the women and children 
and foreign residents out of the city be- 
fore he began the bombardment, but that 
magistrate refused. See Mexico, Wab 

Vergennes, Charles Gravter, Count 
de, statesman; born in Dijon, France, Dec. 
28, 1717. In 1740 he was sent to Lisbon 
in a diplomatic capacity; in 1750 was 
minister at the court of the elector of 
Treves; and from 1755 to 1768 was French 
ambassador to Turkey. When Louis XVI. 
succeeded to the throne (1774), Vergennes 
was minister in Sweden. The King re- 
called him, and made him minister for 
foreign affairs in July. He was the min- 
ister with whom the American diploma- 

tists had intercourse during the entire 
Revolutionary War. 

When he was informed of the proclama- 
tion of King George and that it had been 
determined by the British ministry to 
burn the town of Boston and desolate the 
country, he exclaimed, prophetically : " The 
cabinet of the King of England may wish 
to make North America a desert, but there 
all its power will be stranded; if ever the 
English troops quit the borders of the 
sea, it will be easy to prevent their .re- 
turn." Vergennes could not persuade him- 
self that the British ministry could refuse 
conciliation on the reasonable terms offer- 
ed by the Americans. The King's procla- 
mation changed his mind. " That procla- 
mation against the Americans," he said, 
"changes my views altogether; it cuts off 



the possibility of retreat; America or the 
ministry themselves must succumb." He 
died in Versailles, Feb. 13, 1787. 


Vermont, Stato: of, first settled by 
white people in 1724, by the erection of 
Fort Dummer near the (present) site of 


Brattleboro, then supposed to be in Massa- 
chusetts. The portion of country between 
the Connecticut River and Lake Cham- 

plain was known as " New Hampshire 
Grants" (see New Hampshire). At the 
middle of January (15-17), 1777, the peo- 
ple of the " Grants " assembled in conven- 
tion at Windsor, and declared the 
" Grants " an independent State, with the 
title of Vermont. The territory was yet 
claimed by New York. At the same time 
the convention adopted a petition to the 
Continental Congress, setting forth rea- 
sons for their position of independence, 
and asking for admission into the confed- 
eracy of free and independent States and 
seats for delegates in the Congress. This 
petition, presented to Congress April 8, 
1777, was dismissed by resolutions on 
June 30, in one of which it was declared 
" That the independent government at- 
tempted to be established by the people 
styling themselves inhabitants of the New 
Hampshire Grants can derive no counte- 
nance or justification from the act of Con- 
gress declaring the United Colonies to be 
independent of the crown of Great Britain, 
nor from any other act or resolution of 
Congress." The Vermonters had adopted 



a constitution modelled on that of Penn- 
sylvania, and on July 8 a convention at 
Windsor adopted it. Under this frame of 



government Vermont successfully main- 
tained its independence and sovereignty 
until 1791. 
In .Inly, 1780, the mysterious move- 

ments of Governor Chittenden, Ethan and 
Ira Allen, and other leaders in Vermont, 
excited grave suspicions of their loyalty, 
because of their secret correspond- 
ence with the British. In June 
the CongresB had appointed a com- 
mittee to visit Vermont, and had 
declared their disapprobation of 
the proceedings of the people in 
setting up an independent govern 
ment before a decision of Congrest 
should be made concerning their 
right to separate. The governor 
of New York suspected a com- 
bination against his State, and in- 
timated, in a letter to a member 
of Congress, that New York might 
be compelled to use all her re- 
sources for the defence of that 
State. He also called the attention 
of Washington to the subject; and 
he especially condemned the con- 
duct of Ethan Allen, whose motives 
he suspected. General Schuyler, 
who had been ordered by Wash- 
ington to arrest Allen, wrote to 
Governor Clinton at the close of 
October, saying, " The conduct of 
some of the people to the east- 
ward is alarmingly mysterious. 
A flag, under pretext of settling a 
cartel with Vermont, has been on 
the Grants. Allen has disbanded 
his militia, and the enemy, in 
number upwards of 1,600, are 
rapidly advancing towards us. 
. . . Entreat General Washington 
for more Continental troops; and 
let me beg of your excellency to 
hasten up here." There was gen- 
eral alarm concerning the per- 
plexing movements of the Ver- 
monters, which, in the light of 
subsequent history, was only a 
piece of coquetry for their benefit. 
The shrewd diplomats of Vermont 
were working for a twofold ob- 
ject — namely, to keep back the 
British from a threatened inva- 
sion by a show of friendly feeling, 
and to so alarm the Congress as 
to induce them to admit Vermont 
into the Union. 

After the ratification of the Articles of 
Confederation, in 1781, Congress offered 
to admit It, with a considerable curtail- 



ment of its boundaries. The people re- 
fused to come in on such terms, and for 
ten years they remained outside of the 
Union. Finally, on Jan. 10, 1791, a con- 
vention at Bennington adopted the na- 



Dudley Chace 

Samuel Prentiss. . 
Benjamin Swift... 
Samuel S. Phelps. 

tional Constitution, and Vermont, hav- Samuel c. Crafts. . 
ing agreed to pay to the State of New ZSfa & 

iiiwrence Brainerd.... 

Jacob Collamer 

George F. Edmunds... 

l.uke P. Poland 

Justin S. Morrill 

Jonathan floss 

Reilfield Proctor 

William P. nillngham. 

No. of Congress. 

18th t0 22d 
22d " 27th 
23d " 26th 
26th " 32d 

27 th 
28th to 33d 

32d to 39th 

31th to 39th 
39th " 62d 


40th lo 56th 


52d to 

66th " 

1826 to 1831 
1831 " 1842 





1867 to 1898 

1899 " 1900 
1891 " 

1900 " 

York $30,000 for territory claimed by that Solomon Foot 
State, was, by resolution of Congress pass- 
ed on Feb. 18, admitted into the Union 
on March 4, to have two representatives 
in Congress until an apportionment of 
representatives should be made. 

In the War of 1812-15 the governor re- 
fused to call out the militia, and forbade Vernon, Edwakd, naval officer; born in 
troops to leave the State; but Vermont Westminster, England, Nov. 12, 1684; 
volunteers took an active part in the bat- served under Admiral Hopson in the ex- 
tle at Plattsburg in 1814. During the pedition which destroyed the French and 
troubles in Canada (1837-38), sympa- Spanish fleets off Vigo on Oct. 12, 1702, 
thizing Vermonters to the number of fully and was at the naval battle between the 
GOO, went over to the help of the insur- French and English off Malaga in 1704. 
gents, but were soon disarmed. During In 1708 he attained the rank of rear-ad- 
the Civil War Vermont furnished to the miral, and remained in active service until 

National army 35,256 troops. Population 
in 1890, 332,422; in 1900, 346,641. 


Assumes office. 

Thomas Chittenden . . 1777 

Moses Robinson 1789 

Thomas Chittenden . . 1790 

Paul Brigham 1797 

Isaac Tichenor " 

Israel Smith 1807 

Isaac Tichenor 1808 

Jonas Galusha. 1809 

Martin Chittenden... 1813 

Jonas Galusha 1815 

Richard Skinner 1820 

C. P. Van Ness 1823 

Ezra Butler. 1826 

Samuel C. Crafts 1828 

William A. Palmer. . . 1831 

S. H. Jenison 1835 

Charles Paine 1841 

John Mattocks 1843 

William Slade 1844 

Horace Eaton 1846 

Carlos Coolidge 1848 

Charles K. Williams. . 1850 
Erastns Fairbanks. . . 1852 

John S Robinson 1853 

Stephen Royce. ...... 1854 

1727, when he was elected to Parliament. 
He loudly condemned the acts of the min- 
istry, and, in the course of remarks, 
while arraigning them for their weakness, 
Ryland FletcherTT.T 1856 declared that Porto Bello could be taken 

HilandHall 1858 w ith six ships. For this remark he was 

Erastus Fairbanks... 1860 . ., . .. r . ... . . , m . 

Frederick Holbrook.. 1861 extolled throughout the kingdom. There 

J Gregory Smith 1863 wag a loud clamor against the ministry, 

Paul Dillingham 1865 , , ., ., ,, , -,-, , ,/ 

John B. Page 1867 and to silence it they sent Vernon to. the 

Peter T. Washburn... 1869 West Indies, with the commission of vice- 
admiral of the blue. With six men-of-war 
1872 he captured Porto Bello on the day after 
^rac'e Fairbanks::::!^ the attack (Nov. 23, 1739), the English 

Redfield Proctor 1878 losing only seven men. For this exploit 

Jo°hnl! , Bafsto a ":::: \m a' commemorative medal was struck, bear- 
Samuel E. Pingree... 1884 ing an effigy of the admiral on one disk, 
wmiam e P . diSSSSS ml and a town and six ships on the other. 

With twenty - nine ships - of - the - line 

and eighty small vessels, bearing 15,- 

sailors and 12,00? land troops, 

G. W. Hendee 1870 

John W. Stewart 
Julius Converse. 

Carroll S. Page 1890 

Levi K. Fuller 1892 

Urban A. Woodbury.. 1894 

Josiah Grout 1896 000 

Sff.NdU:iS Vernon sailed from Jamaica (January, 

attack Carthagena, but was 

I John G. McCullough. 190J 


Stephen R. Bradley. 
Moses Robinson. 

Isaac Tichenor. 

Elijah Paine 

Nathaniel Chipman. 
Stephen R. Bradley. 

Israel Smith 

Jonathan Robinson.. 

Dudley Chace. 

Isaac Tichenor. 

James Fisk 

William A. Palmer.. 
Horatio Seymour.. 

No. of Congress. 

2d to 4th 

2d " 4th 

4th " 5th 

4th " 7th 

5th " 8th 

7th " 13th 

8th " 10th 

10th " 14th 

13th " 15th 

14th " 17th 

15th to 19th 
17th " 23d 

1741) to 

repulsed with heavy loss. Twenty 
Term. ' thousand men perished, chiefly by a ma- 
1791 to 179H lignant fever. The admiral was after- 
1796 « 1797 wards in Parliament several years, and 
1795 " 1801 during the invasion of the Young Pre- 
1801 " 1813 tender in 1745 lie waa emp lo y ed to guard 
1803 " 1807 the coasts of Kent and Suffolk; but soon 
iris " ill? afterwards, on account of a quarrel with 


1815 » 1821 the admiralty, his name was struck from 
1817 " 1818 t ne jjgt f rdmirals. Lawrence Washing- 
ton, a brother of General Washington, 





bearing a captain's commission, joined 
Vernon's expedition in 1741, and because 
of his admiration for the admiral he 
named his estate Mount Vernon. Admiral 
Vernon died in England, Oct. 29, 1757. 

Verona, Congress op, 1822. The rep- 
resentatives of the great powers of Eu- 
rope proposed intervention in the revolt 
of the Spanish-American colonies. This 
led to the annunciation of the Monboe 
Doctrine (q. v.) in 1823. 

Verplanck, Gtjlian Crommelin, au- 
thor; born in New York City, Aug. 7, 
1786; graduated at Columbia College in 
1801 ; admitted to the bar and practised 
in New York City; member of the State 
legislature in 1820; member of Congress 
in 1825-33; of the State Senate in 1838- 
41. He pub'ished Addresses on Subjects 
of American History, Art, and Literature, 
etc. He died in New York City, March 
18, 1870. 


Verrazzano, Giovanni da, navigator; 
born near Florence, Italy, in 1470; went 
to France as a navigator as early as 1508. 
He became a bold corsair, and a terror 
to the merchant-ships of Spain and Portu- 
gal, seizing many vessels. In 1522 he 
captured the treasure-ship sent by Cortez 
to Charks V. with the spoils of Mexico, 
valued at $1,500,000. Verrazzano, accord- 

of the North American coast from lat 
34° to 50°, at the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
He describes the people at various points, 
and his topographical descriptions seem 
to indicate that he entered the bays of 
Delaware, New York, and Narraganset, 
and the harbor of Boston. In the Strozzi 
library at Florence is preserved a cosmo- 
graphic description of the coasts and all 

ing to a letter from the navigator to the countries which he visited, from which 
Francis I., dated July 8, 1524, and pub- it is evident he was in search of a north- 
lished in the collection of voyages by west passage to India. The region of 

Kamusio in 1556, sailed from France late 


in 1523 in the ship Dauphine, under a com- 
mission from the King, and touched Amer- 

America which he visited he called New 
France. The authenticity of his letter 
to Francis I. has been questioned by Amer- 
ican writers, who suppose that it was 
forged by one of Lis countrymen anxious 
to secure for Italy the glory due to Cabot 
for the discovery of the North American 
Continent. It is possible that Verrazzano 
the corsair was not Verrazzano the navi- 
gator. Some writers say that the latter 
sailed again for America in 1525, and was 
never heard of afterwards; while it is 
known that Verrazzano the corsair was 
executed in Puerto del Pico, Spain, in 

Verrazzano's Voyage, 1524. — Giovanni 
da Verrazzano, who commanded the first 
French expedition to America sent out 
under royal auspices, was, like Colum- 
bus, who sailed in the service of Spain, 
an Italian. He was born in Florence, 
and was about ten years old when Co- 
lumbus discovered America. It has been 
stated, but on doubtful authority, that he 
commanded one of the ships in Aubert's 
expedition to America in 1508. In 1521 he 

ica first, at the mouth of the Cape Fear appears in history as a French corsair, 
River, in March, 1524. In that letter preying upon the commerce between 
he gives an account of his explorations Spain and America; and it was probably 



in this occupation that he gained the no- connivance of the King, as the basis of a 
tice and favor of Francis I. Late in 1523 claim to American territory. Mr. Henry 
he started on his voyage across the Atlan- C. Murphy has been the ablest objector 
tic, in the Dauphine, his object being, as to the genuineness of Verrazzano's letter 
he tells us himself in the cosmographical and voyage. See his book on The Voyage 
appendix to his letter, to reach Cathay of Verrazzano, which affected Mr. Bancroft 
(China) by a westward route. Of this so deeply that he has left out all mention 
voyage the famous letter here published of Verrazzano in the revised edition of 
is the record. It was in March, 1524, that his History of the United States. The en- 
he discovered the American coast, prob- tire controversy is reviewed most ably 
ably not far from the site of Wilmington, by Justin Winsor, in the fourth volume 
in North Carolina. It will be interesting of the new Narrative and Critical Eis- 
for the student to follow him in his tory of America, and he shows the utter 
course northward, remembering that he insufficiency of Murphy's objections. This 
was the first European who explored this review should be carefully read by the 
part of the coast. "A newe land," he ex- student. See also De Costa's Verrazzano 
claims in his letter, " never before seen the Explorer, containing an exhaustive 
of any man, either auncient or moderne." bibliography of the subject, Prof. Geo. 
Among the places which he describes, New W. Greene's essay on Verrazzano in 
York Harbor, Block Island (which he the North American Review for October, 
named Louisa, in honor of the King's 1837, etc. 

mother), Newport, and other places have The fourth volume of the Narrative and 
been identified. He continued along the Critical History of America bears the sub- 
Maine coast and as far as Nova Scotia and title of French Explorations and Settle- 
Newfoundland, which fishermen from Brit- ments in North America, to whieh sub- 
tany had found twenty years before (the ject almost the entire volume is devoted, 
name of Cape Breton is a trace of them), It is an inexhaustible mine of informa- 
thence returning to France. He reached tion, to whieh the more careful student 
Dieppe early in July, and it is from Dieppe, should constantly go in connection with 
July 8, 1524, that his letter to the King almost all of the lectures on America 
is dated. It is the earliest description and France. There is a chapter devoted 
known to exist of the shores of the United to Jacques Cartier, the next important 
States. Frenchman in America, and very much 

There are two copies of Verrazzano's let- about Champlain. Verrazzano, Cartier, 
ter, both of them, however, Italian trans- and Champlain are also all most interest- 
lations, the original letter not being in ingly treated, by Parkman, in his Pioneers 
existence. One was printed by Eamusio of France in the New World. Champlain's 
in 1556, and this was translated into Eng- own writings, which have been carefully 
lish by Hakluyt for his Divers Voyages, edited by Bev. Edmund F. Slafter, should 
which appeared in 1582. The other was be consulted, 
found many vears later in the Strozzi Li- 
brary at Florence, and was first publish- captain john de verrazzano to his 
ed in 1841 by the New York Historical M0ST serene majesty, the king of 
Society, with a translation by Dr. J. G. France, writes: 

Cogswell. This is the translation given Since the tempests which we encoun- 

here. The cosmographical appendix eon- tered on the northern coasts, I have not 

tained in the second version, and eon- written to your most Serene and Chris- 

sidered by Dr. Asher and other antiquari- tian Majesty concerning the four ships 

ans a document of great importance, was sent out by your orders on the ocean to 

not contained in the copy printed by Ba- discover new lands, because I thought you 

musio. must have been before apprized of all that 

Verrazzano's voyage and letter have been had happened to us — that we had been 

the occasion of much controversy. There compelled by the impetuous violence of 

are those who believe that he never came the winds to put into Britany in distress 

to America at all, but that the letter was with only the two ships Normandy and 

ingeniously prepared in France, with the Dolphin; and that after having repaired 


these ships, we made a cruise in them, visions. That your Majesty may know all 
well armed, along the coast of Spain, as that we learned, while on shore, of their 
your Majesty must have heard, and also manners and customs of life, I will relate 
of our new plan of continuing our begun what we saw as briefly as possible. They 
voyage with the Dolphin alone; from this go entirely naked, except that about the 
voyage being now returned, I proceed to loins they wear skins of small animals 
give your Majesty an account of our dis- like martens fastened by a girdle of plaited 
coveries. grass, to which they tie, all round the 

On the 17th of last January we set body, the tails of other animals hanging 
sail from a desolate rock near the isl- down to the knees; all other parts of the 
and of Madeira, belonging to his most body and the head are naked. Some wear 
Serene Majesty, the King of Portugal, garlands similar to birds' feathers", 
with fifty men, having provisions sufficient The complexion of these people is black, 
for eight months, arms and other warlike not much different from that of the 
munition and naval stores. Sailing west- Ethiopians; their hair is black and thick, 
ward with a light and pleasant easterly and not very long; it is worn tied back 
breeze, in twenty-five days we ran eight upon the head in the form of a little tail, 
hundred leagues. On the 24th of Pebru- In person they are of good proportions, 
ary we encountered as violent a hurricane of middle stature, a little above our own, 
as any ship ever weathered, from which broad across the breast, strong in the 
we escaped unhurt by the divine assistance arms, and well formed in the legs and 
and goodness, to the praise of the glorious other parts of the body; the only exception 
and fortunate name of our good ship, that to their good looks is that they have 
had been able to support the violent toss- broad faces, but not all, however, as we 
ing of the waves. Pursuing our voyage saw many that had sharp ones, with large 
towards the West, a little northwardly, in black eyes and a fixed expression. They 
twenty-four days more, having run four are not very strong in body, but acute 
hundred leagues, we reached a new coun- in mind, active and swift of foot, as far 
try, which had never before been seen by as we could judge by observation. In 
any one, either in ancient or modern times, these last two particulars they resemble 
At first it appeared to be very low, but on the people of the east, especially those the 
approaching it to within a quarter of a most remote. We could not learn a great 
league from the shore we perceived, by the many particulars of their usages on ac- 
great fires near the. coast, that it was in- count of our short stay among them, and 
habited. We perceived that it stretched to the distance of our ship from the shore, 
the south, and coasted along in that di- We found not far from this people an- 
rection in search of some port, in which we other whose mode of life we judged to be 
might come to anchor, and examine into similar. The whole shore is covered with 
the nature of the country, but for fifty fine sand, about fifteen feet thick, rising in 
leagues we could find none in which we the form of little hills about fifty paces 
could lie securely. Seeing the coast still broad. Ascending farther, we found sev- 
stretch to the south, we resolved to change eral arms of the sea which make in 
our course and stand to the northward, through inlets, washing the shores on both 
and as we still had the same difficulty, we sides as the coast runs. An outstretched 
drew in with the land and sent a boat on country appears at a little distance ris- 
shore. Many people who were seen com- ing somwhat above the sandy shore in 
ing to the sea-side fled at our approach, but beautiful fields and broad plains, covered 
occasionally stopping, they looked back with immense forests of trees, more or less 
upon us with astonishment, and some were dense, too various in colours, and too de- 
at length induced, by various friendly lightful and charming in appearance to 
signs, to come to us. These showed the be described. I do not believe that they 
greatest delight on beholding us, wonder- are like the Hercynian forest or the rough 
ing at our dress, countenances, and com- wilds of Scythia, and the northern regions 
plexion. They then showed us by signs full of vines and common trees, but adorn- 
where we could more conveniently secure ed with palms, laurels, cypresses, and 
our boat, and offered us some of their pro- other varieties unknown in Europe, that 



send forth the sweetest fragrance to a as it was an open roadstead. Many of the 

great distance, but which we could not natives came to the beach, indicating by 

examine more closely for the reasons be- various friendly signs that we might trust 

fore given, and not on account of any ourselves on shore. One of their nobis 

difficulty in traversing the woods, which, deeds of friendship deserves to be mada 

on the contrary, are easily penetrated. known to your Majesty. A young sailor 

As the " East " stretches around this was attempting to swim ashore through 
country, I think it cannot he devoid of the the surf to carry them some knick-knacks, 
6ame medicinal and aromatic drugs, and as little bells, looking-glasses, and other 
various riches of gold and the like, as is like trifles; when he came near three or 
denoted by the colour of the ground. It four of them he tossed the things to them, 
abounds also in animals, as deer, stags, and turned about to get back to the boat, 
hares, and many other similar, and with a but he was thrown over by the waves, and 
great variety of birds for every kind of so dashed by them that he lay as it were 
pleasant and delightful sport. It is plenti- dead upon the beach. When these people 
fully supplied with lakes and ponds of saw him in this situation, they ran and 
running water, and being in the latitude took him up by the head, legs and arms, 
of 34, the air is salubrious, pure and tem- and carried him to a distance from the 
perate, and free from the extremes of surf; the young man, finding himself borne 
both heat and cold. There are no violent off in this way, uttered very loud shrieks 
winds in these regions, the most prevalent in fear and dismay, while they answered 
are the north-west and west. In summer, as they could in their language, showing 
the season in which we were there, the him that he had no cause for fear. After- 
sky is clear, with but little rain: if fogs wards they laid him down at the foot of a 
and mists are at any time driven in by little hill, when they took off his shirt and 
the south wind, they are instantaneously trowsers, and examined him, expressing 
dissipated, and at once it becomes serene the greatest astonishment at the whiteness 
and bright again. The sea is calm, not of his skin. Our sailors in the boat, seeing 
boisterous, and its waves are gentle. Al- a great fire made up, and their companion 
though the whole coast is low and without placed very near it, full of fear, as is 
harbours, it is not dangerous for navi- usual in all cases of novelty, imagined that 
gation, being free from rocks and bold, so the natives were about to roast him for 
that within four or five fathoms from the food. But as soon as he had recovered his 
shore there is twenty-four feet of water at strength after a short stay with them, 
all times of tide, and this depth constant- showing by signs that he wished to return 
ly increases in a uniform proportion. The aboard, they hugged him with great affec- 
holding ground is so good that no ship can tion, and accompanied him to the shore ; 
part her cable, however violent the wind, then leaving him, that he might feel more 
as' we proved by experience; for while rid- secure, they withdrew to a little hill, 
ing at anchor on the coast, we were over- from which they watched him until he was 
taken by a gale in the beginning of March, safe in the boat. This young man re- 
when the winds are high, as is usual in all marked that these people were black like 
countries, we found our anchor broken the others, that they had shining skins, 
before it started from its hold or moved middle stature, and sharper faces, and very 
at all. delicate bodies and limbs, and that they 

We set sail from this place, continuing were inferior in strength, but quick in 

to coast along the shore, which we found their minds; this is all that he observed 

stretching out to the west (east?); the of them. 

inhabitants being numerous, we saw ev- Departing hence, and always following 

erywhere a multitude of fires. While at the shore, which stretched to the north, 

anchor on this coast, there being no har- we came, in the space of fifty leagues, to 

bour to enter, we sent the boat on shore another land, which appeared very beau- 

with twenty-five men to obtain water, tiful and full of the largest forests. We 

but it was not possible to land without approached it, and going ashore with 

endangering the boat, on account of the twenty men, we went back from the coast 

immense high snrf thrown up by the sea, about two leagues, and found *>tii '3w> 



people had fled and hid themselves in the growing naturally, which entwine about 
woods for fear. By searching around we the trees, and run up upon them as they 
discovered in the grass a very old woman do in the plains of Lombardy. These 
and a young girl of about eighteen or vines would doubtless produce excellent 
twenty, who had concealed themselves for wine if they were properly cultivated^ 
the same reason; the old woman carried and attended to, as we have often seen 
two infants on her shoulders, and behind the grapes which they produce very sweet 
her neck a little boy of eight years of age; and pleasant, and not unlike our own. 
when we came up to them they began to They must be held in estimation by them, 
shriek and make signs to the men who as they carefully remove the shrubbery 
had fled to the woods. We gave them a from around them, wherever they grow, 
part of our provisions, which they ac- to allow the fruit to ripen better. We 
cepted with delight, but the girl would found also wild roses, violets, lilies, and 
not touch any; everything we offered to many sorts of plants and fragrant flowers 
her being thrown down in great anger, different from our own. We cannot de- 
We took the little boy from the old scribe their habitations, as they are in 
woman to carry with us to France, and the interior of the country, but from va- 
would have taken the girl also, who was rious indications we conclude they must 
very beautiful and very tall, but it was be formed of trees and shrubs. We saw 
impossible because of the loud shrieks she also many grounds for conjecturing that 
uttered as we attempted to lead her away ; they often sleep in the open air, without 
having to pass some woods, and being far any covering but the sky. Of their 
from the ship, we determined to leave her other usages we know nothing; we be- 
and take the boy only. We found them lieve, however, that all the people we 
fairer than the others, and wearing a were among live in the same way. 
covering made of certain plants, which After having remained here three days, 
hung down from the branches of the trees, riding at anchor on the coast, as we 
tying them together with threads of wild could find no harbour we determined to 
hemp; their heads are without covering depart, and coast along the shore to the 
and of the same shape as the others. Their north-east, keeping sail on the vessel only 
food is a kind of pulse which there by day, and coming to anchor by night, 
abounds, different in colour and size from After proceeding one hundred leagues, we 
ours, and of a very delicate flavour. Be- found a very pleasant situation among 
sides they take birds and fish for food, some steep hills, through which a very 
using snares and bows made of hard wood, large river, deep at its mouth, forced 
with reeds for arrows, in the ends of which its way to the sea ; from the sea to the 
they put the bones of fish and other ani- estuary of the river, any ship heavily 
mals. The animals in these regions are laden might pass, with the help of the 
wilder than in Europe from being con- tide, which rises eight feet. But as we 
tinually molested by the hunters. We were riding at anchor in a good berth, 
saw many of their boats made of one tree we would not venture up in our vessel, 
twenty feet long and four feet broad, without a knowledge of the mouth; there- 
without the aid of stone or iron or fore we took the boat, and entering the 
other kind of metal. In the whole river, we found the country on its banks 
country for the space of two hundred well peopled, the inhabitants not differ- 
leagues, which we visited, we saw no stone ing much from the others, being dressed 
of any sort. To hollow out their boats out with the feathers of birds of various 
they burn out as much of a log as is colours. They came towards us with evi- 
requisite, and also from the prow and dent delight, raising loud shouts of ad- 
stern to make them float well on the sea. miration, and showing ua where we could 
The land, in situation, fertility and most securely land with our boat. We 
beauty, is like the other, abounding also passed up this river, about half a league, 
in forests filled with various kinds of when we found it formed a most beau- 
trees, but not of such fragrance, as it is tiful lake three leagues in circuit, upon 
more northern and colder. which they were rowing thirty or more of 
We saw in this country many vines their small boats, from one shore to tka 



ether, filled with multitudes who came 
t} see Us. All of a sudden, as is wont to 
'..appen to navigators, a violent contrary 
wind blew in from the sea a and forced 
us to return to our ship, greatly re- 
gretting to leave this region which seem- 
ed so commodious and delightful, and 
which we supposed must also contain 
great riches, as the hills showed many 
indications of minerals. Weighing an- 
chor, we sailed fifty leagues toward the 
east, as the coast stretched in that di- 
rection, and always in sight of it; at 
length we discovered an island of a tri- 
angular form, about ten leagues from 
the mainland, in size about equal to the 
island of Rhodes, having many hills cov- 
ered with trees, and well peopled, judg- 
ing from the great number of fires which 
we saw all around its shores; we gave it 
the name of your Majesty's illustrious 

We did not land there, as the weather 
was unfavourable, but proceeded to another 
place, fifteen leagues distant from the isl- 
and, where we found a very excellent har- 
bour. Before entering it, we saw about 
twenty small boats full of people, who 
came about our ship, uttering many cries 
of astonishment, but they would not ap- 
proach nearer than within fifty paces; 
stopping, they looked at the structure of 
our ship, our persons and dress; after- 
wards they all raised a loud shout to- 
gether, signifying that they were pleased. 
By imitating their signs, we inspired them 
in some measure with confidence, so that 
they came near enough for us to toss to 
them some little bells and glasses, and many 
toys, which they took and looked at, laugh- 
ing, and then came on board without fear. 
Among them were two kings more beauti- 
ful in form and stature than can possibly 
be described; one was about forty years 
old, the other about twenty-four, and they 
were dressed in the following manner: 
The oldest had a deer's skin around his 
body, artificially wroixght in damask fig- 
ures, his head was without covering, his 
hair was tied back in various knots; 
around his neck he wore a large chain 
ornamented with many stones of different 
colours. The young man was similar in 
his general appearance. This is the finest- 
looking tribe, and the handsomest in their 
costumes, that we have found in our voy- 

age. They exceed us in size, and they arc 
of a very fair complexion ( ? ) ; some of 
them incline more to a white (bronze?), 
and others to a tawny colour; their faces 
are sharp, their hair long and black, upon 
the adorning of which they bestow great 
pains; their eyes are black and sharp, 
their expression mild and pleasant, great- 
ly resembling the antique. I say nothing 
to your Majesty of the other parts of 
the body, which are all in good propor- 
tion, and such as belong to well-formed 
men. Their women are of the same form 
and beauty, very graceful, of fine coun- 
tenances and pleasing appearance in man- 
ners and modesty; they wear no clothing 
except a deer skin, ornamented like those 
worn by the men; some wear very rich 
lynx skins upon their arms and various 
ornaments upon their heads, composed of 
braids of hair; which also hang down upon 
their breasts on each side. Others wear 
different ornaments, such as the women 
of Egypt and Syria use. The older and 
the married people, both men and women, 
wear many ornaments in their ears, hang- 
ing down in the oriental manner. We 
saw upon them several pieces of wrought 
copper, which is more esteemed by them 
than gold, as this is not valued on account 
of its colour, but is considered by them 
as the most ordinary of the metals — yel- 
low being the colour especially disliked 
by them; azure and red are those in high- 
est estimation with them. Of those 
things which we gave them, they prized 
most highly the bells, azure crystals, and 
other toys to hang in their ears and about 
their necks; they do not value or care to 
have silk or gold stuffs, or other kinds 
of cloth, nor implements of steel or iron. 
When we showed them our arms, they 
expressed no admiration, and only asked 
how they were made; the same was the 
case of the looking-glasses, which they re- 
turned to us, smiling, as soon as they had 
looked at them. They are very generous, 
giving away whatever they have. We 
formed a great friendship with them, 
and one day we entered into the port with 
our ship, having before rode at the dis- 
tance of a league from the shore, as the 
weather was adverse. They came off to 
the ship with a number of their little 
boats, with their faces painted in divers 
colours, showing us real signs of joy, 

x.— n 



bringing us of their provisions, and sig- 
nifying to us where we could best ride 
in safety with our ship, and keeping with 
us until we had cast anchor. We re- 
mained among them fifteen days, to pro- 
vide ourselves with many things of which 
we were in want, during which time they 
came every day to see our ship, bringing 
with them their wives, of whom they were 
very careful ; for, although they came on 
board themselves, and remained a long 
while, they made their wives stay in the 
boats, nor could we ever get them on board 
by any entreaties or any presents we could 
make them. One of the two kings often 
came with his queen and many attendants, 
to see us for his amusement; but he al- 
ways stopped at the distance of about two 
hundred paces, and sent a boat to inform 
us of his intended visit, saying they would 
come and see our ship — this was done 
for safety, and as soon as they had an an- 
swer from us they came off, and remained' 
awhile to look around; but on hearing 
the annoying cries of the sailors, the king 
sent the queen, with her attendants, in 
a very light boat, to wait, near an island 
a quarter of a league distant from us, 
while he remained a long time on board, 
talking with us by signs, and expressing 
his fanciful notions about every thing in 
the ship, and asking the use of all. After 
imitating our modes of salutation, and 
tasting our food, he courteously took 
leave of us. Sometimes, when our men 
stayed two or three days on a small island, 
near the ship, for their various necessi- 
ties, as sailors are wont to do, he came 
with seven or eight of his attendants to 
inquire about our movements, often asking 
us if we intended to remain there long, 
and offering us everything at his com- 
mand, and then he would shoot with 
his bow, and run up and down with his 
people, making great sport for us. We 
often went five or six leagues into the 
interior, and found the country as pleas- 
ant as is possible to conceive, adapted to 
cultivation of every kind, whether of corn, 
wine or oil; there are open plains twenty- 
five or thirty leagues in extent, entirely 
free from trees or other hindrances, and 
of so great fertility that whatever is 
sown there will yield an excellent crop. 
On entering the woods we observed that 
they might all be traversed by an army 

ever so numerous; the trees of which 
they were composed were oaks, cypresses, 
and others, unknown in Europe. We 
found, also, apples, plums, filberts, and 
many other fruits, but all of a different 
kind from ours. The animals, which are 
in great numbers, as stags, deer, lynxes, 
and many other species, are taken by 
snares, and by bows, the latter being their 
chief implement ; their arrows are wrought 
with great beauty, and for the heads of 
them they use emery, jasper, hard marble, 
and other sharp stones, in the place of iron. 
They also use the same kind of sharp 
stones in cutting down trees, and with 
them they construct their boats of single 
logs, hollowed out with admirable skill, 
and sufficiently commodious to contain ten 
or twelve persons; their oars are short, 
and broad at the end, and are managed in 
rowing by force of the arms alone, with 
perfect security, and as nimbly as they 
choose. We saw their dwellings, which 
are of a circular form, of about -ten or 
twelve paces in circumference, made of 
logs split in halves, without any regularity 
of architecture, and covered with roofs of 
straw, nicely put on, which protect them 
from wind and rain. There is no doubt 
that they would build stately edifices if 
they had workmen as skilful as ours, for 
the whole sea-coast abounds in shining 
stones, crystals, and alabaster, and for 
the same reason it has ports and retreats 
for animals. They change their habita- 
tions from place to place as circumstances 
of situation and season may require; this 
is easily done, as they have only to take 
with them their mats, and they have oth- 
er houses prepared at once. The father 
and the whole family dwell together in 
one house in great numbers; in some we 
saw twenty-five or thirty persons. Their 
food is pulse, as with the other tribes, 
which is here better than elsewhere, and 
more carefully cultivated ; in the time of 
sowing they are governed by the moon, 
the sprouting of grain, and many other 
ancient usages. They live by hunting and 
fishing, and they are long-lived. If they 
fall sick, they cure themselves without 
medicine, by the heat of the fire, and 
their death at last comes from extreme old 
age. We judge them to be very affec- 
tionate and charitable towards their rela- 
tives — making loud lamentations in their 



adversity, and in their misery calling to age, and the country presented no variety, 
mind all their good fortune. At their The shore stretched to the east, and fifty 
departure out of life, their relations mu- leagues beyond more to the north, where 
dually join in weeping, mingled with sing- we found a more elevated country, full of 
ing, for a long while. This is all that we very thick woods of fir-trees, cypresses 
eould learn of them. This region is sit- and the like, indicative of a cold climate, 
uated in the parallel of Rome, being 41° The people were entirely different from the 
40' of north latitude, but much colder others we had seen, whom we had found 
from accidental circumstances, and not by kind and gentle, but these were so rude- 
nature, as I shall hereafter explain to and barbarous that we were unable by any 
your Majesty, and confine myself at pres- signs we could make, to hold communica- 
ent to the description of its local sit- tion with them. They clothe themselves 
uation. It looks towards the south, on in the skins of bears, lynxes, seals, and 
which side the harbour is half a league other animals. Their food, as far as we 
broad; afterwards, upon entering it, the could judge by several visits to their 
extent between the coast and north is dwellings, is obtained by hunting and fish- 
twelve leagues, and then enlarging itself ing, and certain fruits, which are a sort 
it forms a very large bay, twenty leagues of root of spontaneous growth. They have 
in circumference, in which are five small no pulse, and we saw no signs of cultiva- 
islands, of great fertility and beauty, cov- tion; the land appears sterile and unfit 
ered with large and lofty trees. Among for growing of fruit or grain of any kind, 
these islands any fleet, however large, If we wished at any time to traffick with 
might ride safely, without fear of tern- them, they came to the sea shore and stood 
pests or other dangers. Turning towards upon the rocks, from which they lowered 
the south, at the entrance to the harbour, down by a cord to our boats beneath what- 
on both sides, there are very pleasant ever they had to barter, continually crying 
hills, and many streams of clear water, out to us, not to come nearer, and instant- 
which flow down to the sea. In the ly demanding from us that which was to 
midst of the entrance, there is a rock of be given in exchange; they took from 
free-stone, formed by nature, and suit- us only knives, fish hooks and sharpened 
able for the construction of any kind of steel. No regard was paid to our courte- 
machine or bulwark for the defence of sies; when we had nothing left to ex- 
the harbour.* change with them, the men at our depart- 

Having supplied ourselves with every ure made the most brutal signs of dis- 

thing necessary, on the fifth of May we de- dain and contempt possible. Against their 

parted from the port, and sailed one hun- will we penetrated two or three leagues into 

dred and fifty leagues, keeping so close to the interior with twenty-five men; when we 

the coast as never to lose it from our came to the shore, they shot at us with 

sight; the nature of the country ap- their arrows, raising the most horrible 

peared much the same as before, but cries, and afterwards fleeing to the woods, 

the mountains were a little higher, In this region we found nothing extraor- 

and all in appearance rich in minerals, dinary except vast forests and some metal- 

We did not stop to land, as the weather liferous hills, as we infer from seeing that 

was very favourable for pursuing our voy- many of the people wore copper ear-rings. 

Departing from thence, we kept along the 

* The above description applies to Nar- coast, steering north-east, and found the 

raganset Bay and the harbor of Newport In country more pleasant and open, free from 

Rhode Island, although mistaken by Dr. Mil- „,„„j„ „„j j;ii„„ + ,•„ «,„ sJL-L- mo oom 

ler, in his discourse before this society, as w ° ods > and distant in the interior we saw 

published In the first volume of the former lofty mountains, but none which extended 

series of Collections, for the bay and harbor to the shore. Within fifty leagues we dis- 

of New York. The latter are briefly described covered thirty-two islands, all near the 

in a preceding paragraph of this translation . , , ' ., , , ! 

with sufficient clearness to admit of their mam Iand > sma11 and of pleasant appear- 

belng easily recognized. The island " of ance, but high and so disposed as to af- 

a triangular form, resembling the island of f or< i excellent harbours and channels, as 

Rhodes," which Verrazzano mentions as 50 . ., Adriatic -.i.,!. „„„- THvria 

leagues to the east of New York, Is doubt- we see in the Adriatic gulpn, near lllyria 

less Block Island. Ed. ano - IJalmatia. We had no intercourse with 


the people, but we judge that they were correspond to a celestial degree, we find 
similar in nature and usages to those we the whole circumference of 300 deg., as 
were last among. After sailing between just given, to be 18,759 miles, which, 
east and north the distance of one hundred divided by 360, makes the length of a 
and fifty leagues more, and finding our degree of longitude in the parallel of 34 
provisions and naval stores nearly ex- degrees to be 52 miles, and that is the 
hausted, we took in wood and water and true measure. Upon this basis, 1,200 
determined to return to France, having leagues, or 4,800 miles meridional distance 
discovered 502 — that is, 700 (sic) leagues on the parallel of 34, give 92 degree;, and 
of unknown lands. so many therefore have we sailed farther 

As to the religious faith of all these to the west than was known to the an- 
tribes, not understanding their language, cients. During our voyage we had no 
we could not discover either by sign or lunar eclipses or like celestial phenomenas, 
gestures any thing certain. It seemed we therefore determined our progress from 
to us that they had no religion nor laws, the difference of longitude, which we as- 
nor any knowledge of a First Cause or certained by various instruments, by tak- 
Mover, that they worshipped neither the ing the sun's altitude from day to day, 
heavens, stars, sun, moon, nor other and by calculating geometrically the dis- 
planets; nor could we learn if they were tance run by the ship from one horizon 
given to any kind of idolatry, or offered to another; all these observations, as 
any sacrifices or supplications, or if they also the ebb and flow of the sea in all 
have temples or houses of prayer in their places, were noted in a little book, which 
villages; — our conclusion was, that they may prove serviceable to navigators; they 
have no religious belief whatever, but live are communicated to your Majesty in the 
in this respect entirely free. All which hope of promoting science, 
proceeds from ignorance, as they are very My intention in this voyage was to 
easy to be persuaded, and imitated us reach Cathay, on the extrema coast of 
with earnestness and fervour in all which Asia, expecting, however, to find in the 
they saw us do as Christians in our acts newly discovered land some such an ob- 

of worship. stacle, as they have proved to be, yet I 

did not doubt that I should penetrate by 

It remains for me to lay before your some passage to the eastern ocean. It 
Majesty a cosmographical exposition of was the opinion of the ancients, that our 
our voyage. Taking our departure, as I oriental Indian ocean is one and without 
before observed, from the above mentioned any interposing land; Aristotle supports 
desert rocks, which lie on the extreme it by arguments founded on various prob- 
verge of the west, as known to the abilities; but it is contrary to that of the 
ancients, in the meridian of the Fortunate moderns and shown to be erroneous by 
Islands, and in the latitude of 32 degrees experience; the country which has been 
north from the equator, and steering a discovered, and which was unknown to 
westward ' course, we had run, when we the ancients, is another world compared 
first made land, a distance of 1,200 leagues with that before known, being mani- 
or 4,800 miles, reckoning, according to festly larger than our Europe, "together 
nautical usage, four miles to a league, with Africa and perhaps Asia, if we 
This distance calculated geometrically, rightly estimate its extent, as shall now 
upon the usual ratio of the diameter to be briefly explained to your Majesty, 
the circumference of the circle, gives 92 The Spaniards have sailed south beyond 
degrees; for if we take 114 degrees as the equator on a meridian 20 degrees west 
the chord of an arc of a great circle, we of the Fortunate Islands to the latitude 
have by the same ratio 95 deg. as the of 54, and there still found land; turn- 
chord of an arc on the parallel of 34 de- ing about they steered northward on the 
grees, being that on which we first made same meridian and along the coast to 
land, and 300 degrees as the circumference the eighth degree of latitude near the 
of the whole circle, passing through this equator, and thence along the coast more 
plane. Allowing then, as actual obser- to the west and northwest, to the lati> 
vations show, that 62% terrestrial miles tude of 21°, without finding a terminw 



tion to the continent; they estimated the Majesty the great extent of that new 
distance run as 89 degrees, which, added land, or new world, of which I have been 
to the 20 first run west of the Canaries, speaking. The continent of Asia and 
make 109 degrees and so far west; they Africa, we know for certain, is joined to 
sailed from the meridian of these islands, Europe at the north in Norway and 
but this may vary somewhat from truth; Kussia, which disproves the idea of the 
we did not make this voyage, and therefore ancients that all this part had been navi- 
cannot speak from experience; we cal- gated from the Cimbric Chersonesus, 
culated it geometrically from the obser- eastward as far as the Caspian Sea. 
vations furnished by many navigators, They also maintained that the whole con- 
who have made the voyage and affirm tinent was surrounded by two seas situ- 
the distance to be 1,600 leagues, due al- ate to the east and west of it, which 
lowance being made for the deviations seas in fact do not surround either of 
of the ship from a straight course, by rea- the two continents, for as we have seen 
son of contrary winds. I hope that we above, the land of the southern hemis- 
shall now obtain certain information on phere at the latitude of 54 extends 
these points, by new voyages to be made eastwardly an unknown distance, and 
on the same coasts. But to return to that of the northern passing the 66th 
ourselves; in the voyage which we have parallel turns to the east, and has no 
made by order of your Majesty, in ad- termination as high as the 70th. In a 
dition to the 92 degrees we run towards short time, I hope, we shall have more 
the west from our point of departure, be- certain knowledge of these things, by 
fore we reached land in the latitude of the aid of your Majesty; whom I pray Al- 
34, we have to count 300 leagues which mighty God to prosper in lasting glory, 
we ran north-east-wardly, and 400 nearly that we may see the most important 
east along the coast before we reached results of this our cosmography in the 
the 50th parallel of north latitude, the fulfilment of the holy words of the 
point where we turned our course from Gospel. 

the shore towards home. Beyond this On board the ship Dolphin, in the port 
point the Portuguese had already sailed of Dieppe in Normandy, 8th July, 1524. 
as far north as the Arctic circle, with- John de Verrazzano. 

out coming to the termination of the Versailles, Treaty of. See Treaties, 
land. Thus adding the degrees of south 1783 (Anglo- American). 
latitude explored, which are 54, to those Vesey, Denmark, conspiiator; born of 
of the north, which are 66, the sum is negro parents about 1767; was brought 
120, and therefore more than are em- as a slave to Charleston, S. C, when 
braced in the latitude of Africa and Eu- fourteen years old. For twenty years 
rope, for the north point of Norway, he was a sailor, acquiring a pro- 
which is the extremity of Europe, is in ficiency in several languages. In 1800 
71 north, and the Cape of Good Hope, he became free and settled as a carpen- 
which is the southern extremity of Af- ter in Charleston, S. C, where he was 
rica, is in 35 south, and their sum very popular among the negroes, many 
is only 106, and if the breath of this of whom he quietly convinced that they 
newly discovered country corresponds to had a right to fight for their liberty. To- 
its extent of sea coast, it doubtless ex- gether with Peter Poyas, another negro, 
ceeds Asia in size. In this way we find he perfected a schen/e for an insurrection 
that the land forms a much larger por- of the slaves in ajjd around Charleston, 
tion of our globe than the ancients sup- Several thousand negroes had quietly or- 
posed, who maintained, contrary to mathe- ganized military companies and were fur- 
matical reasoning, that it was less than nished with daggers and pikes. On a 
the water, whereas actual experience fixed date they were to arrive in Charles- 
proves the reverse, so that we judge in ton, as was the custom of many on Sun- 
respect to extent of surface the land days, and upon a signal were to act in 
covers as much space as the water; and concert and seize the forts and the city. 
I hope more clearly and more satisfac- This plot was divulged by a negro, who 
torily to point out and explain to your had been urged to join it, on May 25, 


1822. The principal conspirators were 
immediately apprehended, but so success- 
fully pretended to know nothing of the 
affair that they were freed. On June 16 
another attempt was made to put the 
plot into execution, but it was soon 
suppressed and the leaders arrested. They 
were tried on June 19. Five were first 
hanged, and later twenty-nine others met 
the same fate, but all excepting one main- 
tained complete secrecy to the end. On 
July 2, the day on which Vesey was exe- 
cuted, another attempt at insurrection was 
made, but the State troops held the slaves 
in check. So determined, however, were 
they to strike a blow for liberty that it 
was found necessary for the federal gov- 
ernment to send soldiers to Charleston to 
maintain order. 

Vespucius, Ameeicus. See Americtjs 

Vest, George Graham, Senator; born 
in Frankfort, Ky., Dec. 6, 1830 ; graduated 
at Centre College in 1848; studied law and 
removed to Missouri, where he began prac- 
tice. He was a Presidential elector on 
the Democratic ticket in 1860; member of 
the State legislature in 1860-61; member 
of the Confederate Congress in 1863-66; 
removed to Kansas City, Mo., in 1877; 
and has been a United States Senator 
since 1879. In 1900 he was chairman of 
the committee on public health and na- 
tional quarantine, and a member of the 
committees on commerce, finance, public 
buildings, transportation and sale of meat 
products, and industrial expositions. He 
died in Sweet Springs, Mo., Aug. 9, 1904. 

Vetch, Samuel, colonial governor ; born 
in Edinburgh, Scotland, Dec. 9, 1668; edu- 
cated at Utrecht College, Holland; was 

a member of the council to the " colony 
of Caledonia " at Darien, Isthmus of Pan- 
ama, in 1698, but soon after left the col- 
ony and went to Albany, N. Y., where 
he engaged in trade with the Indians. 
He was a commissioner from Massachu- 
setts to Quebec in 1705 to negotiate a 
treaty between New England and Can- 
ada, but in this he failed. In 1708 he 
went to England at the instance of the 
New York colony, and represented to 
Queen Anne the desirability of seizing 
Canada. The Queen was favorably im- 
pressed with the suggestion, and through 
Vetch ordered the governors of the sev- 
eral colonies to do all they could to aid 
the project. The enterprise, however, was 
abandoned, as the squadron promised in 
England did not appear. Later Vetch per- 
suaded the citizens of Boston to equip 
an expedition against Port Royal, Nova 
Scotia. This force, under the command 
of Vetch and Sir Francis Nicholson, capt- 
ured Port Royal, Oct. 2, 1710, and the 
former remained there several years as 
governor. In 1719 he returned to Eng- 
land. He died in London, April 30, 1732. 

Veterans, Sons of. See Sons of 
Veterans, United States Army. 

Veto. The President of the United 
States may treat a bill passed by Congress 
in any of five ways: (1) Sign it; (2) sign 
it with a protest; (3) if presented more 
than ten days before the close of the 
session, and he takes no action, at the ex- 
piration of ten days it becomes a law with- 
out his signature; (4) if presented within 
ten days of the close of the session, and 
he fails to return it, it does not become a 
law; this is termed a "pocket veto"; 
( 5 ) veto it, giving his reasons to Congress. 






Subject of Bill. 


Washington, 2 



Apr. 5, 1792 

Feb. 28, 1797 

" 21, 1811 

" 28, " 

Apr. 3, 1812 

Nov. 10, " 

Jan. 30, 1815 

Mch. 3, 1817 

May 4, 1822 

" 27, 1830 

" 31, " 

Dec. 6, " 

" 6, " 

July 10, 1832 

Deo. 6, " 

" 6, " 

" 4, 1833 

Apportionment of Representation. 

Roduction of the Army. 

Incorporating Church at Alexandria. 


Trials In District Courts. 

Madison, 6 

Incorporation of National Bank. 

Internal Improvements. 

Internal Improvements, Cumberland Road. 

Internal Improvements. Maysvlllo Road, Ky. 

Internal Improvements. Turnpike Slock. 

Internal Improvements. Mghl-hnuses and3cncons. 

F.xtension of Charter of United States Bank. 

Monroe, 1 

Jackson, 12 







Subject of BUI. 

Jackson, 12 

Tiler 9 

Polk, 3 

Pierce, 9 

Buchanan, 7 

Lincoln, 3 

Grant, 43. 









Dec. 1, 1834 
Men. 3, 1835 
June 9, 1836 
Men. 3, 1837 
Aug. 16, 1841 
Sept. 9, " 
June 29, 1842 
Aug. 9, " 
Dec. 14, " 
" 14, " 
" 18, " 
June 11, 1844 

Feb. 20, 1845 

Aug. 3, 1846 

" 8, " 

Dec. 15, 1847 

Hay 3, 1854 

Aug. 4, " 

Feb. 17, 1855 

Mch. 3, " 

May 19. 1856 

" 19,' " 

" 22, " 

Aug. 11, " 

" 14, " 

Jan. 7, 1859 

Feb. 24, " 

" 1, 1860 

" 6, " 

Apr. 17, " 

June 22, " 

Jan. 25, 1861 

June 23, 1862 

July 2, " 

Jan. 5, 1865 

Feb. 19, 1866 

Mch. 27, " 

May 15, " 

June 15, " 

July 15, " 

" 28, " 


" 29, 

" 29 

Mch. 2, 

July 19, " 

" 19 " 

Mch. 25', 1868 

June 20, " 

" 25, " 

July 20, " 

" 25 " 

Feb. 13' 1869 

" 22, " 

Jan. 11, 1870 

, 1867 

















































Internal Improvements, Wabash River 

Compromise Claims against the Two Sicilies. 

Regulations for Congressional Sessions. 

Funds Receivable from United States Revenue. . 

Incorporating Fiscal Bank. 

Incorporating Fiscal Corporation. 

First Whig Tariff. 

Second W big Tariff. . 

Proceeds of Public Land Sales 

Testimony in Contested Elections ., 

Payment of Cherokee Certificates 

River and Harbor. 

Revenue- cutters and Steamers for Defence 

River and Harbor. 

French Spoliation Claims. 

Internal Improvements 

Land (jrant for Indigent Insane. 

Internal Improvements. 

French Spoliation Claims. 

Subsidy for Ocean Mails. 

Internal Improvements, Mississippi 

Internal Improvements, St. Clair Flats, Mich 

Internal Improvements, St. Mary's River, Mich 

Internal Improvements, Des Moines River, Mich. . . 

Internal Improvements, Patapsco River, Md 

Overland Mails 

Land Grants for Agricultural-Colleges. 

Internal Improvements, St. Clair Flats, Mich 

Internal Improvements, Mississippi River. 

Relief of A. Edwards & Co. 


Relief of Hockaday & Legget. 

Bank Notes in District of Columbia. 

Medical Offices in the Army. 

Correcting Clerical Errors 

Freedmen's Bureau. 

Civil Rights 

Admission of Colorado. —- 

Public Lands (Montana Iron Company). 

Continuation of Freedmen's Bureau 

Survey District of Montana. 

Suffrage in District of Columbia 

Admission of Colorado. 

Admission of Nebraska 

Tenure of Office 


Supplemental Reconstruction 

Supplemental Reconstruction 

Joint Resolution Reconstruction 

Amending Judiciary.. , .' 

Admission of Arkansas (reconstructed) 

Admission of Southern States .^ 

f Exclusion of Electoral Votes of Unreconstructed 
[ States '■ 

Discontinuance of Freedmen's Bureau 

Trustees of Colored Schools in 'District of Columbia. 

Tariff on Copper 

Relief, Private 

Southern Union Troops. 



Relief. . 



Pension, Private. 


Pension, Mary Ann Montgomery..... 




New Trial in Court of Claims. 

Relief of East Tennessee University. 






i Passed over the 
veto, thejirst. 


Passed over veto. 
Passed over veto. 
Passed over veto. 
Passed over veto. 
Passed over veto. 


Pocketed. - 
Passed over veto. 

Passed over veto. 
Passed over veto. 


over veto, 
over veto, 
over veto, 
over veto, 
over veto, 
over veto, 
over veto, 
over veto, 
over veto. 

Passed over veto. 
Passed over veto. 

Passed over veto. 

i Passed one 
House over 

'Passed one 
House over 

Passed over veto 



(! rant, 48 

Hayes, 12 

Arthur, 4 

Cleveland 301 








1 168) 














Apr. 10, 1874 
" 22, " 

May 12, " 

Jan 30, 1876 

Feb. 12, " 
" 3, - 

Meh. 27, 
" 31, 

Apr. 18, 

Mny 26, 

June 9, 
" 30, 

July U, 

Subject of Bill. 

" a, 


" 20, 


Aug. 4, 


" 15, 


" 15, 


" 16, 


Jan. 15 


" 23, 


" 26, 


" 26, 


Feb. 14, 


" 14, 


" 28, 


" 28, 


Mob. 6, 


" 1, 


Apr. 29, 


May 12, 


" 29, 


June 23, 


" 27, 


May 4, 


June 15, 


Men. 3, 


Apr. 4, 


July 1, 


Aug. 1, 


July 2, 


Mch. 10, 


" 11, 


Apr. 26, 


" 30, 


May 8, 


" 17, 


( " 

" ) 

j to 

(June 19, 

" 1 

" 19, 


" 19, 


f " 

" ) 

■i to 

(July 6, 


" 6,' 


" 6, 


" ?, 


" » 


" < 


" 10, 


" 30, 


" 30, 



Inflation of Currency. 




Custody of Indian Trust Funds. 


Relief of G. B. Tyler and E. H. Luckett. , 

Reduction of President's Salary. 

Recording in the District of Columbia. 


Internal Improvements. 

Relief of Nelson Tiffany. 


Post-office Statutes 


Paving Pennsylvania Avenue. 

Sale of Indian Lands 


Homestead Entries. 

District of Columbia's Police. 

Diplomatic Congratulations. 



Advertising of Executive Department 


Standard Silver Dollar 

Special Term of Courts in Mississippi. 

Restriction of Chinese Immigration. 

Army Appropriation. 

Interference at Elections. 

Civil Appropriations. 

Payment of Marshals. 


Payment of Marshals. 

Payment of Marshals. 

Payment of Marshals. 

Refunding the National Debt. 

Chinese Immigration. 

Carriage of Passengers at Sea. 

River and Harbor Bill , 

Relief of Fitz-John Porter., 


Settlers' Titles to Des Moines Public Lands. 

Bodies for Dissection. 
Omaha a Port of Entry. 


Springfield a Port of Entry. 

Pensions, Private. 

Public Building at Sioux City, la 

Publlo Building at Zanesville, O. 

Pensions and Reliefs, Private. 

Publlo Building at Duluth, Minn. 

Pensions and Reliefs, Private. 

Right of Way to Railroad In North Montana, 
Pension, Private. 

Public Building In Dayton, O 

Public Building In Asheville, N. C. 
Bridge across Lake Champlaln. 
Publio Building at Springfield, Mass. 


Passed over veto. 

Passed over veto. 

Passed over veto. 

(Passed In the 
< House over 
I veto. 

Passed over veto. 

Passed over veto. 

1 Passed over the 
veto in the 
House, 168- 
78; vote In 
the Senate, 

Passed over the 
; veto In the 

' Passed over the 
j veto In the 

Passed ov«f 



Subject of B1U. 

Cleveland, 301 

Harrison, 19 


J tot 





J tot 

1 tot 


3 £l 

to t 







f 6 l 






SJuly 31, 1886 I 
Feb. 11, 1887) 
" 16, " 

1 : It; " j 

" 26, « 

« 26, " 

!Apr. 4, 18881 
May 3°, « j 
" 7, " 
" 9, " 
f" % " ) 

1 " 18, " J 

" 18, " 

" 18, " ) 

to J 

" 26, " } 









" 29, 

June 5, 

" 6, 

J to 

(July 26, 

" 26, 

Aug. 3, 

" '. 

" 9. 


" 10, 

" 14, 

f " 1*, 

i to 

1 " 27, 

" 27, 

I " 27, 

! to 

(Sept 13, 

" 24, 

" 24 

Oct. ioJ 


Feb. 14, 

• 21, 


Men. 2, " 

Apr. 26, 1890 
" 29, " 
June 4, " 
" 12, " 

" 17, " 

« 20, " 

July 9, " 

Sept. 30, " 

Oct. 1, " 

« ! .. 

" 1, " 

Dec. 24, " 
Jan. 26, 1891 

Feb. 26, " 

Men. 2, " 
July 19, 1892 

(Oct. 10, « \ 

(Feb. 14, 1889) 
" 21, " 

J " % " 1 
1 " 26, » j 

Pensions and Belief" Private. 

Texas Seed B11L 


Public Building at Lynn, Mass. [ 

Pensions, Private. 

Public Building at Portsmouth, 0., and Lafayette, 

Pensions and Reliefs. 

Sale of Indian Land. 

Public Building at Allentovra, Pa. 


Use of Castle Island, Boston Harbor. 


Public Building at Youngstown, O. 


Public Building at Columbus, Ga. 
Public Building at Bar Harbor, Me. 
Government Land Purchase, Council Bluffs, la. 

Pensions and Beliefs, Private. 

Right of Way for Railroad through Indian Lands. 


Land Grant to Tacoma, Wash. 

Pensions, Private. 

Additional Copies of United States Map for 1886. 

Pensions and Reliefs. 

Public Building, Sioux City, la. 

Pensions and Reliefs, Private. 

Land Grant to Kansas. 

Sale of Military Reservation in Kansas. 

Pensions and Reliefs, Private. 

Quieting Settlers' Titles on the Des Moines P.iver. 

Pensions and Reliefs, Private. 

Refunding the Direct Tax 

City of Ogden Increased Indebtedness. 

Public Building, Dallas, Tex. 

Public Building, Hudson, N. Y. 

Public Building, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
[To change boundary of Uncompahgre Reserva- 
1 tion. 

j Bonds Issued by Maricopa county, Arizona, for cer. 
1 tain Railroad. 
1 Indian Payment. 

Relief ol Capt. Charles B. Stivers. 

Relief of the Portland Company 

Relief of Charles B. Chouteau. 

Pool Selling in the District of Columbia . 

Public Building, Bar Harbor, Me. 

Bonds, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Territory. 
( Act to Establish the Record and Pension of the War 
( Department, etc. 

Relief of George W. Lawrence. 

An Act to Establish Circuit Court of Appeal, etc. 


r Passed over the 
J veto, in the 
( Senate. 






Subject of BUI. 


("Senate fails to 


July 29, 


J pass it over 

I the veto, Jan. 

L 17 189a 

Harrison, 19 


Aug. 3, 


(An Act to Provide for Bringing Suit against the 

\ United States. 

( An Act to prescribe the number of District Attor- ) 

( Passed over the 


Feb. 27, 


1 neys and Marshals in the Judicial Districts at. 

\ veto, Men, 2, 

( 1893. 


Jan. 17, 


An Act for Relief. 
(An Act to Authorize the New York and New Jersey 


" 20, 


J Bridge Compauies to Construct a Bridge Across 
( the Hudson. 


Men. 29, 


( An Act Directing the Coinage of the Silver Bullion 

J in the Treasury, etc. 


Aug. 7, 


An Act for Kelief. 


" 11. 


An Act for Relief. 


Jan. 1, 

f An Act Authorizing entry oi Certain Lands and 


\ Granting Rigbt of Way for Pipe Lines. 

(An Act Granting Right of Way through the San 


Feb. 1, 


J Carlos Indian Reservation, Arizona, to a Railroad 
( Company. 


" 5, 


An Act lor Kelief. 


" 12, 


An Act for Relief. 


" 19, 


An Act to Remove Charge of Desertion. 


" 20, 


An Act for Relief. 
r An Act Granting Right of Way for a Railroad 


" 23, 


J through Indian Reservations in Indian, Oklaho- 
( ma, and New Mexico Territories. 


" 23, 


] An Act to Incorporate the Society of American 
\ Florists. 


" 23, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


" 27, 


An Act Grunting Pension. 


" 27, 


An Act Granting Relief. 


" 28, 


(An Act Granting Right of Way for a Railroad 

[ through Indian Territory. 


" 28, 


( An Act Granting Right of Way for a Railroad 
( through Indian andOklahoma Territories. 



•' 28, 


(An Act Leasing Lands for Educational Purposes in 
( Arizona. -^ 

2d Term, 44 


Apr. 21, 


An Act Granting Relief. 


" 21 


An Act Granting Pension. 


" 25, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


May 19, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


" 20, 


An Act Granting Pension 


" 21, 


An Act Granting Pension, 


" 23, 


(An Act to Amend Part of the Revised Statutes of 

\ the Untied States. 
An Act Granting Relief. 


" 26, 



" 29, 


(An Act Making Appropriation for Certain Public 

I Works, Rivers and Harbors. 


" 29, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


" 29, 


An Act for Payment of a Claim. 


" 30, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


" 30, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


June 1, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


" 8, 


(An Act Making Appropriation for Supplying De- 
\ floiencies, etc. 

(An Act to Lease Fort Omaha Military Reservation 
( to the State of Nebraska, 


" 10 




Jan. 14, 


( An Act Concerning the Kastern Judicial District of 
j Texas. 


Feb. 22, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


" 22, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


« 22, 


An Act Granting Pension. 


Mnh. 1, 


An Act to Restore Pension. 


" *, 


An Ant Granting Pension. 


** % 


An Act to Amend Immigration Laws. 


Doc. 30, 



Pocket- v^to. 

Pocket veto. 

Veuillot, Desire, explorer; born in plored the Mississippi River as far as the 
Cahors, France, in 1653; was inspector- Missouri. In 1665 he was forced to re- 
general of the establishment of the West nounce the land grants he had obtained in 
Indian Company in the Antilles, Louisiana, upper Mississippi. He wrote A Desorip- 
and Alabama, during which time he ex- Hon of the Louisiana Coast, with an Ae> 



count of a Journey down the Mississippi; 
Historical Notice of the Mississippi Com- 
pany and of the Settlement founded in 
Louisiana. He died in London, England, 
in 1732. 

Vice-Presidents of the United States. 
They preside in the Senate, and on the 
death, resignation, or disability of the 
President, succeed him. Five Vice-Presi- 
dents have in this way become Presidents: 
John Tyler, succeeding William Henry 
Harrison, who died April 4, 1841 ; Millard 
Fillmore, succeeding Zachary Taylor, who 
died July 9, 1850; Andrew Johnson, suc- 
ceeding Abraham Lincoln, who died April 
15, 1865; Chester A. Arthur, succeeding 
James A. Garfield, who died Oct. 19, 1881; 
and Theodore Roosevelt, succeeding Will- 
iam McKinley, who died Sept. 14, 1901. 

Vicksburg, Siege of, a noteworthy 
military operation that began at the close 
of 1862 and ended early in July follow- 
ing. The Confederates had blockaded the 
Mississippi River by planting heavy bat- 
teries on bluffs at Vicksburg and Port 
Hudson. These formed connections be- 
tween the Confederates on each side of 
that stream, and it was important to 
break those connections. To this end Gen- 
eral Grant concentrated his forces near 

the Tallahatchee River, in northern Mis- 
sissippi, where Generals Hovey and Wash- 
burne had been operating with troops 
which they had led from Helena, Ark. 
Grant had gathered a large quantity of 
supplies at Holley Springs, which, through 
carelessness or treachery, had fallen (Dec. 
20, 1802) into the hands of Gen. Earl 
Van Dorn, and he was compelled to fall 
back to Grand Junction to save his army. 
Taking advantage of this movement, a 
large Confederate force under Lieut.-Gen. 
J. C. Pemberton had been gathered at 
Vicksburg for the protection of that post. 
On the day when Grant's supplies were 
seized Gen. W. T. Sherman left Memphis 
with transports bearing guns to besiege 
Vicksburg. At Friar's Point they were 
joined by troops from Hatteras, and were 
met by Commodore Porter, whose fleet of 
gunboats was at the mouth of the Yazoo 
River, just above Vicksburg.' The two 
commanders arranged a plan for attack- 
ing the city in the rear, and proceeded to 
attempt to execute it. The troops and 
boats went up the Yazoo to capture some 
batteries that blockaded the way, but were 
unsuccessful, and abandoned the project. 
Early in January Gen. J. A. McClernand 
arrived and, ranking Sherman, took the 






chief command, and went up the Arkansas 
River to attack Confederate posts. Mean- 
while General Grant had arranged his 
army into four corps, and with it de- 
scended the river from Memphis to prose- 
cute the siege of Vicksburg with vigor. 
He was soon convinced that it could not 
be taken by direct assault. He tried to 
perfect the canal begun by Williams, but 
failed. Then he sent a land and naval 
force up the Yazoo to gain the rear of 
Vicksburg, but was repulsed. Finally 
Grant sent a strong land force down the 
west side of the Mississippi, and Porter 
ran by the batteries at Vicksburg in the 
night (April 16, 1863) with nearly his 
whole fleet. 

Then Grant prepared for vigorous opera- 
tions in the rear of Vicksburg, on the line 
of the Black River. On April 27 Porter 
ran by the Confederate batteries at Grand 
Gulf, when Grant's army crossed a little 
below, gained a victory at Port Gibson, 
and calling Sherman down the west side 
of the Mississippi and across it to join 
him (May 8), the whole force pushed 
forward and captured Jackson, the capital 
of Mississippi. Then the victorious army 
turned westward towards Vicksburg, and, 
after two successful battles, swept on and 


closely invested the strongly fortified city 
in the rear (May 19), receiving their 
supplies from a base on the Yazoo estab- 
lished by Porter. For a fortnight the army 
had subsisted off the country through 
which it passed. After a brief rest Grant 
began the siege of Vicksburg. Sherman 
had taken possession of the Walnut Hills, 
near Chickasaw Bayou, cutting off a Con- 
federate force at Haines's Bluff; while 
McClernand, advancing to the left, took 
position at Mount Albans, so as to cover 
the roads leading out of that city. Porter, 
with his fleet of gunboats, was lying in 
the Mississippi, above Vicksburg, and was 
preparing the way for a successful siege, 
which Grant began with Sherman on the 
right, McPherson in the centre, and Mc- 
Clernand on the left. 

Grant was holding a line about 20 miles 
in extent — from the Yazoo to the Missis- 
sippi at Warrenton. He prepared to 
storm the batteries on the day after the 
arrival of his troops before them. It was 
begun by Sherman's corps in the after- 
noon of May 19, Blair's division taking 
the lead. There had been artillery firing 
all the morning; now there was close 
work. The Nationals, after a severe strug- 
gle, were repulsed. Grant engaged Com- 


modore Porter to assist in another assault 
on the 22d. All night of the 21st and 22d 
Porter kept iiix mortars playing upon the 
city and the works, and sent three gun- 
boats to shell the water-batteries. It was 
a fearful night for Vicksburg, but the 
next day was more fearful still. At 10 
a.m. on the 22d Grant's whole line moved 
to the attack. As before, Blair led the 
van, and very soon there T ,vas a general 
battle. At two different points the right 
was repulsed. -Finally McClernand, on 
the left, sent word that he held two capt- 
ured forts. Then another charge upon the 
works by a part of Sherman's troops oc- 
curred, but without success. The centre, 
under McPherson, met with no better suc- 
cess, and, with heavy losses, McClernand 
could not hold all that he had won. 
Porter had joined in the fray; but this 
second assault was unsuccessful. The 
Nationals had lost about 3,000 men. 

Then Grant determined on a regular 
siege. His effective force then did not 
exceed 20,000 men. The beleaguered gar- 

rison had only about 15,000 effective men 
out of 30,000 within the lines, with short 
rations for only a month. Grant was soon 
reinforced by troops of Generals Lanman, 
A. J. Smith, and Kimball, which were 
assigned to the command of General Wash- 
burne. Then came General Herron from 
Missouri (June 11) with his division, and 
then a part of the 9th Corps, under Gen- 
eral Parke. With these troops, his force 
numbered nearly 70,000 men, and, with 
Porter's fleet, Vicksburg was completely 
enclosed. Porter kept up a continual bom- 
bardment and cannonade for forty days," 
during which time he fired 7,000 mortar- 
shells, and the gunboats 4,500 shells. 
Grant drew his lines closer and closer. 
He kept up a bombardment day and night. 
The inhabitants had taken shelter in caves 
dug in the clay hills on which the city 
stands. In these families lived day and 
night, and in these children were born. 
Famine attacked the inhabitants, and 
mule-meat made a savory dish. The only 
hope of the Confederates for deliverance 




for a general as- 



Pemberton lost hope. For 
forty-five days he had been 
engaged in a brave struggle, 
and saw nothing but sub- 
mission in the end, and on 
the morning of July 3 he 
raised a white flag. That 
afternoon Grant and Pem- 
berton met and arranged 
terms of surrender, and at 
10 a.m. the next day the 
vanquished brigades of the 
Confederates began to marel. 
out of the lines at Vicksburg 
as prisoners of war. At the 
same time there was a great 
National victory at Gettys- 
btjbq (q. v.) ; and July 4, 
1863, was the turning-point 
in the Civil War. In the 
battles from Port Gibson to 
Vicksburg Grant lost 9,855 
men, of whom 1,223 were 
killed. In these engage- 
ments he had made 37,000 
prisoners; and the Confed- 
erates had lost, besides, 10,- 
000 killed and wounded, 
with a vast number of 
stragglers. Two days before 
the surrender a Vicksburg 
newspaper, printed on wall- 
was in the arrival of Johnston from Jack- paper, ridiculed a reported assurance of 
son with a force competent to drive the Grant that he should dine in that city on 
Nationals away. As June wore on, Grant July 4, saying, " Ulysses must first get 
pressed the siege with 
vigor. Johnston tried to 
help Pemberton, but could 
not. . Grant proceeded to 
mine under some of the 
Confederate works to blow 
them up. One of these, 
known as Fort Hill Bastion, 
was in front of McPherson, 
and on the afternoon of 
June 25 it was exploded 
with terrible effect, making 
a great breach, at which a 
fierce struggle ensued. Three 
days later there was an- 
other explosion, when, an- 
other struggle took place. 
Other mines were ready 
to be fired, and Grant pre- 






Imto the city before he dines in it." The In August, 1861, he was commissioned 

same paper eulogized the " luxury of mule- a brigadier-general of volunteers, and ac- 

meat and fricasseed kitten." companied the expedition to Port Eoyal. 

Victor, Okvtixe James, author; born In the siege of Fort Pulaski he was in 

in Sandusky, O., Oct. 23, 1827; graduated command of the investing forces; and he 

at the Theological Institute, Norwalk, O., led the advance in the capture of Nor- 

in 1847; edited the Cosmopolitan Art folk, of which place he was made military 

Journal in 1856-61 ; The Biographical Li- governor in August, and remained so un- 

brary; American Battles Beries; American til his resignation in October, 1863. After 

Tales series, etc. His publications in- this he was a civil engineer in New 

elude History of the Southern Rebellion; York City, becoming a park commis- 

Bistory of American Conspiracies ; Lives sioner of the same city in 1883, and a 

of John Paul Jones, Israel Putnam, An- Democratic member of. Congress in 1884 

thony Wayne, Ethan Allen, Winfield Scott ; He wrote a Hand-took for Active Service; 

and Garibaldi for the Oreat Americans Reports on the Central Park; Topograph 

series; and Incidents and Anecdotes of ical Survey of New Jersey; A Topograph 

the war. ical Atlas of the City of New York, etc 

Viele, Egbert Ltjdovick:tjb, military He died in New York City, April 22, 1902 
engineer; born in Waterford, N. Y., June Vienna, Skibmish near. At the mid 

17, 1825; graduated at West Point in die of June, 1861, the Confederates wer« 

1847; served through a portion of the hovering along the line of the railway be- 

war against Mexico. He resigned in 1853, tween Alexandria and Leesburg, Va., and 

and was appointed State engineer of New on the 16*h they fired upon a railway 

Jersey. In 1857 he was engineer-in-chief train at Jie little village of Vienna, 15 

of the Central Park (N. Y.) commission, miles fiom Alexandria. Ohio troops un- 

and, in 1860, of "k'rospect Park, Brooklyn, der Gen. Alexander McD. McCook were 



ordered to picket and guard this road, quito and Llave, Pueblo and Florida, 

They left their encampment near Alex- Porto Real Abajo, Porto Real Arriba, 

andria on June 17, accompanied by Brig.- Punta Arenas, Porto Ferro, and Porto 

Gen. Robert C. Schenck, and proceeded Diablo. According to the census taken by 

cautiously in cars towards Vienna. De- the United States War Department in 

tachments were left at different points, 1899, the total population of the district 

and when they approached that village was 6,642. 

only four companies (less than 300 men) Vigilance Committee. See Galifob- 
were on the train. A detachment of 600 nia; San Francisco. 
South Carolinians, a company of artil- Vignaud, Jean Heney, diplomatist; 
lery, and two companies of cavalry, sent born in New Orleans, Nov. 27, 1830; re- 
out by Beauregard, were waiting in am- ceived a fair education; captain of the 
bush. These had just torn up the track 6th Louisiana Regiment in 1861-62; secre- 
and destroyed a water-tank, when they tary of the Confederate diplomatic corn- 
heard the whistling of the coming train, mission in Paris, in 1863; connected with 
In a deep cut at a curve of the rail- the Alabama claims commission at Ge- 
way they planted two cannon so as to neva in 1872; appointed first secretary of 
sweep the road, and masked them. When the American legation in Paris in 1882. 
the train was fairly exposed the cannon He is the author of Critical and Biblio- 
opened fire and swept the cut with grape graphical Notices of All Voyages Which 
and canister. These went over the heads Preceded and Prepared the Discovery of 
of the sitting soldiers. The troops leaped the Route to India by Diaz and of Ameri- 
from the train, fell back along the rail- ca by Columbus. 

way, rallied in a grove near by, and main- Vigne, Chables de LA, soldier; born 

tained their position so firmly that the in France, presumably in 1530; was a 

Confederates, believing them to be the ad- member of Ribaut's expedition to Florida 

vance of a heavier force, retired and has- in 1562; and aided in constructing Fort 

tened to Fairfax Court-house. The Union Caroline in 1564. Later he proved a faith- 

1 force lost five killed, six wounded, and ful supporter of the governor against the 

thirteen missing. The loss of the Confed- movement to destroy the colony. When 

erates is unknown. When the latter ascer- the fort was captured by Menendez de 

tained how small was the force they had Aviles on the night of Sept. 20, 1565, he 

assailed they returned and took possession was one of the first of its defenders to be 

of Vienna and Falls Church Village. killed. He was the author of a narrative 

Vieque, an island 13 miles east of concerning the French colony in Florida, 

Porto Rico; 21 miles long and 6 miles which was later published under the title 

wide. Its land is very fertile and adapted of Copy of a Letter Coming from Florida 

to the cultivation of almost all the fruits in Henry Ternaux-Compans's Collection 

and vegetables that grow in the West of Narratives on Florida. 

Indies. Cattle are raised and sugar cul- Vikings. See Northmen, The. 

tivated. The town, Isabel Segunda, is on Vilas, William Freeman, statesman; 

the north, and the port is unsafe in times born in Chelsea, Vt., July 9, 1840; gradu- 

of northerly wind, like all the anchorages ated at the Vermont State University in 

on that side; the few ports on the south 1858; admitted to the bar; served in the 

are better, the best being Punta Arenas. Civil War in 1861-63; resumed the prac- 

Not long ago there were two importing tice of law; elected to the Vermont legis- 

and exporting houses on the island of lature in 1884; Postmaster-General of the 

Vieque, but on account of the long period Tjnited States in 1885-88; Secretary of 

of drought and the high duties on foreign- the Interior in 1888-89; and United States 

imported goods trade has decreased to Senator from Wisconsin in 1891-97. In 

local consumption only. All supplies are the latter year he became a regent of the 

brought from San Juan, the majority Wisconsin State University, 

being of American origin. The climate is Villard, Henry, financier; born in 

fine and may be considered healthy; there Spire, Germany, April 11, 1835; received 

have never been any contagious diseases, a collegiate education; came to the Unit- 

The district contains Culebra Island, Mos- ed States in 1853; settled in Chicago and 



became a newspaper correspondent; and Canada. He later became naval secre- 
went to the Colorado gold region in 1859 tary of Louisiana. In 1769 he led a re- 
us a writer for the Cincinnati Commer- bellion against the Spanish authorities, 
tial. During the Civil War he was a and was captured and killed in Louisiana 
Washington correspondent for Western in the same year. 

and Eastern papers. In 1873 he purchased His son, Jacques, born near New Or- 
the Oregon and California Railroad and leans, La., April 28, 1761, was major- 
the Oregon steamship companies for Ger- general of volunteers under Gen. Andrew 
man stockholders, and two years later Jackson in 1814-15 ; and governor of Lou- 
became receiver, with C. S. Greeley, of the isiana in 1818 - 22. He died in New 
Kansas Pacific Railroad. He then organ- Orleans, La., in 1831. 
ized the Oregon and Transcontinental His grandson, Gabriel, born in Louisi- 
Company, which gained control of the ana, March 15, 1785, was major of mili- 
Northern Pacific and of the Oregon Rail- tia. During the invasion of the British 
way and Pacific companies. He was pres- he was sent to watch the Bayou Bienvenu. 
ident of the Northern Pacific in 1881-84, He was captured when the enemy landed 
and chairman of the board of directors of at Fisherman's Village, but escaped to 
the same company in 1889-93. He bought New Orleans, where he gave information 
the Edison Lamp Company, of Newark, of their approach to General Jackson. He 
N. J., and the Edison Machine Works, of died in New Orleans, La., July 6, 1852. 
Schenectady, N. Y., in 1890, and from Villere's Plantation, Battle at. The 
these formed the Edison General Electric British army for the invasion of Louisiana 
Company, of which he was president for in 1814 were landed on the shore of Lake 
two years. He was the author of The Borgne, after the fleet had destroyed the 
Pike's Peak Gold Regions, and was a American flotilla on that sheet of water, 
liberal promoter of educational, religious, and pushed on in barges towards the 
and charitable institutions. He died in Mississippi through the Bienvenu Bayou 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Nov. 11, 1900. and Villerg's Canal. They encamped on 
Villeraye, Chaeles Stanislas, Vis- Villere's plantation, about 9 miles from 
count de, adventurer; born in Provence, New Orleans and in sight of the Missis- 
France, presumably about 1820; went to sippi. As they approached that spot Lieu- 
California in 1849; joined Count de tenant-Colonel Thornton, of the Tritish 
Raousset-Boulbon in the Restauroda en- army, pushed forward with a detachment, 
terprise established in Mexico* in 1852, surrounded the mansion of General Vil- 
for the purpose of mining gold in a grant lerg, the commander of the 1st Division 
given by the Mexican government. Vil- of Louisiana militia, and made him a 
leraye was commissioned to equip an ex- prisoner. He soon escaped to New Or- 
pedition in San Francisco, where he was leans. Early on Dec. 15 Jackson had 
later joined by Raousset. They reached been informed of the capture of the Amer- 
Guaymas in June, 1852, with 270 armed ican flotilla on Lake Borgne. He at once 
men, but their entrance into the country proceeded to fortify and strengthen every 
was prevented by General Blanco. They approach to the city. He sent messengers 
then marched to Hermosillo, which they to Generals Coffee, Carroll, and Thomas, 
attacked, thus arousing the whole coun- urging them to hasten to New Orleans 
try against them, and were compelled with the Tennesseeans, and directed Gen- 
to surrender to Blanco. Soon afterwards eral Winchester, at Mobile, to be on the 
Villeraye, Raousset, and a few others re- alert. On the 18th he had a grand re- 
turned to San Francisco. The trouble view of all the troops at his command, 
was renewed when Raousset forwarded and there was much enthusiasm among 
recruits to Algodones, near Guaymas, in the soldiers and the citizens. 
1854. While leading a movement against The call upon the Tennessee generals 
the latter place on July 13, 1854, Vil- was quickly responded to. Coffee came 
leraye was killed. first, and encamped 5 miles above New 
Villere, Jacques Philippe Rot de, Orleans. Carroll arrived on Dec. 22; at 
military officer; born in France; was an the same time Major Hinds appeared with 
officer of a regiment which was sent to a troop of horse. Meanwhile the invaders 
x. — * M 


were making ready to march on New Or- 
leans, believing their presence at VillerS's 
was unknown in the city. It was a mis- 
take. Jackson was fully informed of their 
movements, and in the afternoon of the 
23d issued orders for a march to meet the 
invaders; and Commodore Patterson was 
directed to proceed down the Mississippi 
with such vessels as might be in readiness 
to flank the British at VillerS's. At 7 P.M. 
the armed schooner Carolina, Captain 
Henley, the only vessel ready, dropped 
down the river in the darkness and an- 

moved along the fiver bank. The left, 
commanded by Coffee, was composed of his 
brigade of mounted riflemen, Hinds's 
dragoons, and Beale's riflemen. They 
skirted a cypress swamp in the rear to cut 
off the communication of the invaders 
from Lake Borgne. The alarm and con- 
fusion in the British camp caused by the 
attack of the Carolina had scarcely been 
checked when the crack of musketry in 
the direction of their outposts startled 
them. General Keane, the commander of 
the British, now began to believe the tales- 



chored within musket-shot of the centre of prisoners concerning the great number 

of the British camp. She immediately 

opened fire from her batteries, and in the 

course of ten minutes killed or wounded 

100 men. The British extinguished their 

camp-fires, and poured ■upon the Carolina 

a shower of rockets and bullets, but with 

little effect. In less than half an hour 

the schooner drove the invaders from their 

camp in great confusion. 

Meantime Jackson was pressing for- 
ward to the attack, piloted by Colonel De time the artillerists and marines advanced 
la Bonde and General Villerfi. The right along the levee roads, when a desperate 
of Jackson's troops was composed of reg- attempt was made to seize their cannon, 
ulars, Plauche's and D'Aquin's brigades, Very soon the engagement became gen- 
McRea's artillery, and some marines and eral. Meanwhile Coffee had approached. 


of the defenders of New Orleans—" 12,009 
strong" — and told the dashing Thornton 
to do as he pleased. He started with a 
detachment to support the pickets, and 
directed another detachment, 500 strong, 
to keep open the communication with Lake 
Borgne. Thornton was soon met by a 
column led by Jackson in person, 1,500 in 
number, with two field-pieces, and perfect- 
ly covered by the darkness. At the same 


dismounted his men, and moved in silence; mission was established here in- 1702, and 
while Beale, with his riflemen, stole soon afterwards a fort. With the surren- 
around to the extreme left of the invaders der of Canada, Vincennes passed into the 
on Villere's plantation, and by a sudden possession of the British, and on Feb. 
movement penetrated almost to the heart 26, 1779, it was captured from them by 
of the British camp, killing several and General Clark. On the organization of 
making others prisoners. At the same the Territory of Indiana in 1800 the town 
time a number of Beale's men were capt- became the seat of government, and re- 
ured, and Thornton fell heavily on Coffee's mained so till 1814, when a change was 
brigade. For a while the battle raged made to Corydon. On Sept. 6, 1814, it 
fearfully, not in regular order, but in de- was incorporated as a borough, and on 
tachments, and often in duels. In the Feb. 13, 1856, was chartered as a city, 
darkness friends fought each other by mis- See Clark, George Rogers. 
take. The Tennesseeans used long knives Vincennes, Jean Baptiste Bissot, Si- 
and tomahawks with effect. A length the etjrde, explorer; born in Quebec, Canada, 
British line fell back and took shelter be- in January, 1688; a reputed nephew or 
hind the levee, more willing to endure brother-in-law of Louis Joliet; was much 
danger from the shots of the Carolina employed among the Indians in the West, 
than bullets from the rifles of the Tennes- who greatly respected him. He went to 
seeans. Jackson could not follow up his the Miami country in 1704, where he re- 
victory with safety in the darkness, in- mained until his death. In an expedition 
tensified by a thick fog, so he led his against the Chickasaws in that year (1736) 
troops back a short distance. he lost his life. He is supposed to have 

The conflict ceased at about 9.30 P.M., lived on the site of Vincennes at that 

and all was becoming quiet, when, at 11 time, and is regarded as the founder of 

o'clock, firing was heard below Villere's. the city of Vincennes. 
Some Louisiana militia, under Gen. David Vincent, Frank, traveller; born in 

Morgan, encamped at the English Turn Brooklyn, N. Y., April 2, 1848; was en- 

of the Mississippi, had advanced and en- gaged in travel and explorations in all 

countered British pickets at Jumonville's parts of the world for fifteen years. He 

plantation. The loss of the Americans presented a valuable collection of Siamese 

in this engagement was twenty-four kill- and Cambodian antiquities, arts, and in- 

ed, 115 wounded, and seventy-four made dustrial objects to the Metropolitan 

prisoners. The British lost about 400 Museum of Art, New York City; and is 

men. The number of Americans engaged a member of many geographical, ethno- 

in the battle was about 1,800 ; that of the logical, and archaeological societies. 
British, including reinforcements that Vincent, John Hetl, clergyman; born 

came up during the engagement, was in Tuscaloosa, Ala., Feb. 23, 1832; began 

2,500. The Carolina gave the Americans to preach when eighteen years old; joined 

a great advantage. See Jackson, An- the New Jersey Conference in 1853; or- 

drew; New Orleans. dained deacon in 1855; elder in 1857, when 

Vilmot, Charles Stanislas, author; he was transferred to Bock River Con- 
born in St. Nazaire, France, in 1749; ference; held pastorates in Galena, Chi- 
served in Count Rochambeau's army in cago, and other cities in 1857-65; estab- 
1780-82; remained in the United States lished the Northwest Sunday-School Quar- 
till 1786. He was the author of Observa- terly in 1865; corresponding secretary of 
Uons on the Administrative Services of the Sunday-school union in 1868-84; one 
the United States of Worth America; of the founders and chancellor of the 
Journal of the Campaign, with Notes Dur- Chautauqua Assembly and of the Chau- 
ing the War for American Independence; tauqua Literary and Scientific Circle. He 
and Notes and Sketches of the United was elected a bishop of the Methodist 
States of North America. He died in Episcopal Church in 1888. He wrote The 
Nantes. France, in 1794. Chautauqua Movement ; The Church at 

Vincennes, a city and county seat of Home; The Modern Sunday-School, etc. 
Knox county, Ind., on the Wabash River, Vincent, Philip, clergyman; born in 
58 mileB south of Terre Haute. A French Comsbrough, Yorkshire, England, Nov. 20, 

VltfCEtfO?— VtffliAtfD 

1600; educated at the University of Cam- 
bridge; ordained in 1625; later came to 
the United States and settled in Massa- 
chusetts. He wrote The True Relation of 
the Late Battle fought in New England 
between the English and the Pequot Sav- 
ages. He died in England after 1638. 

Vincent, Thomas McCtjbdt, military 
officer; born in Cadiz, O., Nov. 15, 1832; 

graduated at the United States Military 
Academy in 1853; assistant Professor of 
Chemistry there in 1859-61; served 
through the Civil War as captain and 
major; promoted colonel and received the 
brevet of brigadier-general; retired in 
1896. He is the author of The Military 
Power of the United States During the 
War of the Rebellion. 


Vinland, a name given to a portion of second version which is reproduced, al- 
North America discovered by the Scandi- most in its entirety. 

tiavian navigators, because of the abun- The Vinland voyages belong to about 
dance of grapes found there. See Nobth- the year 1000. These. Icelandic chronicles 
men in America. belong therefore to a date three centuries 

The famous Saga of Erie the Red, which later. They were doubtless based upon 
gives the original accounts of the North- earlier writings which had come down 
men's voyages to Vinland, exists in two from the times of Leif and Thorfinn, sub- 
different versions, that known as the ject to the various influences which af- 
Bauks-bdk, written by Hauk Erlendsson fected similar writings' at that period the 
between 1305 and 1334, and that made world over. An interesting and valuable 
about 1387 by the priest 'J0n Th6rdharson, confirmation of the simple fact of the visit 
contained in the compilation known as the of the Northmen to " Vinland " is given 

us by Adam of Bremen, who visit- 
ed Denmark between 1047 and 1073, 
when the voyages would have been 
within the memory of living men 
and natural subjects of conversa- 
tion. In speaking of the Scandi- 
navian countries, in his book, Adam 
describes the colonies in Iceland 
and Greenland, and says that there 
is another country or island be- 
yond, which is called Vinland, on 
account of the wild grapes that 
grow there. He makes the assertion 
that corn also grows in Vinland 
without cultivation; and, thinking 
this may seem strange to Euro- 
pean readers, he adds that his state- 
ment is based upon " trustworthy 
reports of the Danes." 

The great work of Professor 
Charles Christian Rafn, of Copen- 
hagen, Antiquitates Americance, 
published in 1837, first brought 
these Icelandic sagas prominently 
before modern scholars, r Professor 
Flateyar-I61c, or " Flat Island Book." J6n Eafn's work was most elaborate and thor- 
used parts of the original saga, and added ough, and very little in the way of new 
a considerable amount of material con- material has been given us since his time, 
cerning the Vinland voyages derived from although his theories and the general sub- 
other sources, to us unknown. It is this ject of the Northmen's voyages and the 




whereabouts of Vinland have been dis- 
cussed in numberless volumes during the 
fifty years since he wrote. Perhaps the 
most valuable work is that by Arthur Mid- 
dleton Reeves. The title of Mr. Reeves's 
work is The Finding of Wineland the 
Good: The History of the Icelandic Dis- 
covery of America (London, 1890). This 
work contains phototype plates of the 
original Icelandic vellums, English trans- 
lations of the two sagas, and very thor- 
ough historical accounts and critical dis- 
cussions. The translation used here is 
that of Mr. Reeves. De Costa's Pre-Co- 
lumbian Discovery of America by the 
"Northmen and Slafter's Voyages of the 
Northmen to America are earlier works 
of high authority, going over the same 
ground and also containing translations of 
the sagas. Dr. Slafter's book has an add- 
ed value from its critical accounts of all 
the important works on the subject which 

had appeared up to that time (1W7). 
A completer bibliography, now accessible, 
is that by Justin Winsor, appended to his 
chapter on " Pre-Columbian Explorations " 
in the Narrative and Critical History of 
America, vol. i. 

The best popular account of the Norse- 
man and their voyages is that by Mr. 
Fiske, in his Discovery of America, vol. 
i., chap. ii. Mr. Fiske is refreshingly 
sound and sane in his treatment of the 
whole subject, which with so many writ- 
ers has been a field for the wildest spec- 
ulations. He shows the absurdity of the 
earlier writers who used to associate the 
Old Mill at Newport and the inscriptions 
on the Dighton rock with the Northmen, 
and the slight grounds on which, at the 
present time, enthusiasts like Professor 
Horsford have attempted to determine de- 
tails so exactly as to claim that Leif 
"Erikson settled on the banks of Cbarjes 


River. "On the whole," concludes Mr. 
Fiske, " we may say with some confidence 
that the place described by our chroniclers 
as Vinland was situated somewhere be- 
tween Point Judith and Cape Breton; pos- 
sibly we may narrow our limits, and say 
that it was somewhere between Cape Cod 
and Cape Ann. But the latter conclusion 
is much less secure than the former. In 
such a case as this, the more we narrow 
our limits, the greater our liability to 

It should be said that many scholarly 
investigators hold that all the conditions 
of the descriptions of Vinland in the 
sagas are met by the shores of Labrador 
and Newfoundland, although the weight 
of opinion is in favor of the New England 
coast. The accounts themselves make 
any exacter determination impossible ; and 
no genuine Norse remains have ever been 
discovered in New England. 

The claim that Columbus knew of these 
discoveries of the Northmen is quite im- 
probable. He simply set out to find a 
western route to Asia. The course of his 
voyage was not such as he would have 
taken had he had in mind the Vinland of 
the Northmen; and he made no mention 
of Vinland in favor of his expedition at 
the Spanish Court. Had he known of it, 
he certainly would have mentioned it ; for, 
as Colonel Higginson so well says (see 
his Larger History of the United States), 
for the purpose of his argument, " an 
ounce of Vinland would have been worth a 
pound of cosmography." 

The Voyages to Vinland. — From the 
saga of Eric the Red. Translated by 
Arthur Middleton Reeves. 

After that sixteen winters had elapsed, 
from the time when Eric the Red went to 
colonize Greenland, Leif, Eric's son, sailed 

-,*-.- ' 







out from Greenland to Norway. He ar- 
rived in Drontheim in the autumn, when 
King Olaf Tryggvason was come down 
from the North, out of Halagoland. Leif 
put into Nidaros with his ship, and set 
out at onee to visit the king. King Olaf 

composed the Sea - Boiler's Song, which 
contains this stave: 

" Mine adventure to the Meek One, 
Monk-heart-searcher, I commit now ; 
He, who heaven's halls doth govern, 
Hold the hawk's-seat ever o'er me I" 


expounded the faith to him, as he did to 
other heathen men who came to visit 
him. It proved easy for the king to per- 
suade Leif, and he was accordingly bap- 
tized, together with all of his shipmates. 
Leif remained throughout the winter with 
the king, by whom he was well enter- 

Heriulf was a son of Bard Heriulfsson. 
He was a kinsman of Ingolf, the first 
colonist. Ingolf allotted land to Heriulf 
between Vag and Beykianess, and he 
dwelt at first at Drepstokk. Heriulf's 
wife's name was Thorgerd, and their son, 
whose name was Biarni, was a most prom- 
ising man. He formed an inclination for 
voyaging while he was still young, and 
he prospered both in property and public 
esteem. It was his custom to pass his 
winters alternately abroad and with his 
father. Biarni soon became the owner of 
a trading-ship; and during the last win- 
ter that he spent in Norway [his father] 
fleriulf determined to accompany Erie on 
his voyage to Greenland, and made his 
preparations to give up his farm. Upon 
the ship with Heriulf was a Christian 
man from the Hebrides, he it was who 


Heriulf settled at Heriulfsness, and was 
a most distinguished man. Eric the Bed 
dwelt at Brattahlid, where he was held 
in the highest esteem, and all men paid 
kim homage. These were Eric's children: 
Leif, Thorvald, and Thorstein, and a 
daughter whose nanie was Freydis; she 
was wedded to a man named Thorvard, 
and they dwelt at Gardar, where the 
episcopal seat now is. She was a very 
haughty woman, while Thorvard was a 
man of little force of character, and Frey- 
dis had been wedded to him chiefly because 
of his wealth. At that time the people 
of Greenland were heathen. 

Biarni arrived with his ship at Eyrar 
[in Iceland] in the summer of the same 
year, in the spring of which his father 
had sailed away. Biarni was much sur- 
prised when he heard this news, and 
would not discharge his cargo. His ship- 
mates inquired of him what he intended 
to do, and he replied that it was his pur- 
pose to keep to his custom, and make his 
home for the winter with his father; 
" And 1 will take the ship to Greenland, 
if you will bear me company." They all 
replied that they would abide by his de- 


cisicn. Then said Biarni, " Our voyage Biarni, — a course, forsooth, which won 
must be regarded as foolhardy, seeing him blame among his shipmates. He bade 
that no one of us has ever been in the them hoist sail, which they did, and turn- 
Greenland Sea." Nevertheless, they put ing the prow from the land, they sailed 
out to sea when they were equipped for out upon the high seas, with south-westerly 
the voyage, and sailed for three days, gales, for three " doegr," when they saw 
until the land was hidden by the water, the third land; this land was high and 
and then the fair wind died out, and mountainous, with ice mountains upon it. 
north winds arose, and fogs, and they They asked Biarni then whether he would 
knew not whither they were drifting, and land there, and he replied that he was not 
thus it lasted for many " doegr." Then disposed to do so, " because this land 
they saw the sun again, and were able to does not appear to me to offer any attrac- 
determine the quarters of the heavens; tions." Nor did they lower their sail, 
they hoisted sail, and sailed that " doegr " but held their course off the land, and 
through before they saw land. They dis- saw that it was an island. They left this 
cussed among themselves what land it land astern, and held out to sea with the 
could be, and Biarni said that he did not same fair wind. The wind waxed amain, 
believe that it could be Greenland. They and Biarni directed them to reef, and not 
asked whether he wished to sail to this to sail at a speed unbefitting their ship 
land or not. " It is my counsel " [said and rigging. They sailed now for four 
he] " to sail close to the land." They did " doegr," when they saw the fourth land, 
so, and soon saw that the land was level, Again they asked Biarni whether he 
and covered with woods, and that there thought this could be Greenland or not. 
were small hillocks upon it. They left Biarni answers, " This is likest Greenland, 
the land on their larboard, and let the according to that which has been reported 
sheet turn toward the land. They sailed to me concerning it, and here we will steer 
for two " doegr " before they saw another to the land." They directed their course 
land. They asked whether Biarni thought thither, and landed in the evening, below 
this was Greenland yet. He replied that a cape upon which there was a boat, and 

there, upon this cape, 
dwelt Heriulf, Biarni's 
father, whence the cape 
took its name, and was 
afterwards called Heri- 
ulfsness. Biarni now 
went to his father, gave 
up his voyaging, and re- 
mained with his father 
while Heriulf lived, and 
continued to live there 
after his father. 

Next to this is now to 
be told how Biarni Heri- 
ulfsson came out from 
he did not think this any more like Green- Greenland on a visit to Earl Eric, by whom 
land than the former, " because in Green- he was well received. Biarni gave an ac- 
land there are said to be many great ice count of his travels [upon the occasion] 
mountains." They soon approached this when he saw the lands, and the people 
land, and saw that it was a flat and thought that he had been lacking in enter- 
wooded country. The fair wind failed prise, since he had no report to give con- 
them then, and the crew took counsel to- cerning these countries; and the fact 
gether, and concluded that it would be brought him reproach. Biarni was ap- 
wise to land there, but Biarni would not pointed one of the Earl's men, and went 
consent to this. They alleged that they out to Greenland the following summer, 
were in need of both wood and water. There was now much talk about voyages 
" Ye have no lack of either of these," says of discovery. Leif, the son of Eric the 





Red, of Brattahlid, visited Biarni Heri- off the land. There they went ashore and 
ulfsson and bought a ship of him, and col- looked about them, the weather being fine, 
lected a crew, until they formed altogether and they observed that there was dew upon 
a company of thirty-five men. Leif invited the grass, and it so happened that they 
his father, Eric, to become the leader of touched the dew with their hands, and 
the expedition, but Eric declined, saying touched their hands to their mouths, and 
that he was then stricken in years, and it seemed to them that they had never be- 
adding that he was less able to endure the fore tasted anything so sweet as this. 
exposure of sea life than he had been. They went aboard their ship again and 
Leif replied that he would nevertheless be sailed into a certain sound, which lay be- 
the one who would be most apt to bring tween the island and a cape, which jutted 
good luck, and Eric yielded to Leif's so- out from the land on the north, and they 
lieitation, and rode from home when they stood in westering past the cape. At ebb- 
were ready to sail. When he was but a tide there were broad reaches of shallow 
short distance from the ship, the horse water there, and they ran their ship 
which Eric was riding stumbled, and he aground there, and it was a long distance 
was thrown from his back and wounded from the ship to the ocean ; yet were they 
his foot, whereupon he exclaimed, " It is so anxious to go ashore that they could 
not designed for me to discover more lands not wait until the tide should rise under 
than the one in which we are now living, their ship, but hastened to the land, where 
nor can we now continue longer together." a certain river flows out from the lake. 
Eric returned home to Brattahlid, and As soon as the tide rose beneath their 
Leif pursued his way to the ship with his ship, however, they took the boat and 
companions, thirty-five men. One of the rowed to the ship, which they conveyed up 
company was a German, named Tyrker. the river, and so into the lake, where they 
They put the ship in order; and, when cast anchor and carried their hammocks 
they were ready, they sailed out to sea, ashore from the ship, and built themselves 
and found first that land which Biarni and booths there. They afterward deter- 
his shipmates found last. They sailed up mined to establish themselves there for 
to the land, and cast anchor, and launched the winter, and they accordingly built a 
a boat, and went ashore, and saw no large house. There was no lack of salmon 
grass there. Great ice mountains lay in- there either in the river or in the lake, 
land back from the sea, and it was as a and larger salmon than they had ever 
[tableland of] flat rock all the way from seen before. The country thereabouts 
the sea to the ice mountains; and the seemed to be possessed of such good quali- 
country seemed to them to be entirely de- ties that cattle would need no fodder 
void of good qualities. Then said Leif, " It there during the winters. There was no 
has not come to pass with us in regard to frost there in the winters, and the grass 
this land as with Biarni, that we have not withered but little. The days and nights 
gone upon it. To this country I will now there were of more equal length than in 
give a name, and call it Helluland." Greenland or Iceland. On the shortest 
They returned to the ship, put out to sea, day of winter the sun was up between 
and found a second land. They sailed " eyktarstad " and " dagmalastad." When 
again to the land, and came to anchor, they had completed their house, Leif said 
and launched the boat, and went ashore, to his companions, "I propose now to 
This was a level wooded land; and there divide our company into two groups, and 
were broad stretches of white sand where to set about an exploration of the country, 
they went, and the land was level by the One-half of our party shall remain at 
sea. Then said Leif, "This land shall home at the house, while the other half 
have a name after its nature ; and we will shall investigate the land ; and they must 
call it Markland." They returned to the not go beyond a point from which they 
ship forthwith, and sailed away upon the can return home the same evening, and 
main with north-east winds, and were out are not to separate [from each other], 
two "dcegr" before they sighted land. Thus they did for a time. Leif, himself, 
They sailed toward this land, and came by turns joined the exploring party, or re- 
to an island which lay to the northward mained behind at the house. Leif was a 




large and powerful man, and of a most 
imposing bearing, — a man of sagacity, and 
a very just man in all things. 

It was discovered one evening that one 
of their company was missing; and this 
proved to be Tyrker, the German. Leif 
was sorely troubled by this, for Tyrker 
had .ived with Leif and his father for a 
long time, and had been very devoted to 
Leif when he was a child. Leif severely 
reprimanded his companions, and pre- 
pared to go in search of him, taking twelve 
men with him. They had proceeded but a 
short distance from the house, when they 
were, met by Tyrker, whom they received 
most cordially. Leif observed at once that 
his foster-father was in lively spirits. 
Tyrker had a prominent forehead, restless 
eyes, small features, was diminutive in 
stature, and rather a sorry-looking in- 
dividual withal, but was, nevertheless, a 
most capable handicraftsman. Leif ad- 
dressed him, and asked, " Wherefore art 
thou so belated, foster-father mine, and 
astray from the others?" In the begin- 

ning Tyrker spoke for some time in Ger- 
man, rolling his eyes and grinning, and 
they could not understand him; but after 
a time he addressed them in the Northern 
tongue: " I did not go much further [than 
you], and yet I have something of novelty 
to relate. I have found vines and grapes." 
" Is this indeed true, foster-father ?" said 
Leif. " Of a certainty it is true," quoth 
he, " for I was born where there is no lack 
of either grapes or vines." They slept tho 
night through, and on the morrow Leif 
said to his shipmates, " We will now 
divide our labors, and each day will either 
gather grapes or cut vines and fell trees, 
so as to obtain a cargo of these for my 
ship." They acted upon this advice, and 
it is said that their after-boat was filled 
with grapes. A cargo sufficient for the 
ship was cut, and when the spring came 
they made their ship ready, and sailed 
away; and from its products Leif gave 
the land a name, and called it Wineland. 
They sailed out to sea, and had fair winds 
until they sighted Greenland, and the fella 

pt ■•■V vf*L 

('if. ">•* ;■ > *»i4ff;. 



i>elo\v the glaciers. Then one of the men 
spoke up and said, " Why do you steer 
the ship so much into the wind?" Leif 
answers : " I have my mind upon my 
steering, but on other matters as well. 
Do ye not see anything out of the com- 
mon?" They replied that they saw noth- 
ing strange. "I do not know," says Leif, 
"whether it is a ship or a skerry that I 
see," Now they saw it, and said that it 
must be "a skerry; but he was so much 
keener of sight than they that he was 
able to discern men upon the skerry. " I 
think it best to tack," says Leif, " so that 
we may draw near to them, that we may 
be able to render them assistance if they 
should stand in need of it; and, if they 
should not be peaceably disposed, we shall 
still have better command of the situation 
than they." They approached the skerry, 
and, lowering their sail, cast anchor, and 

Now Thorvald, with the advice of his 
brother, Leif, prepared .to make this voy- 
age with thirty men. They put their ship 
in order, and sailed out to sea; and there 
is no account of their voyage before their 
arrival at Leifs-booths in Wineland. They 
laid up their ship there, and remained 
there quietly during the winter, supply- 
ing themselves with food by fishing. In 
the spring, however, Thorvald said that 
they should put their ship in order, and 
that a few men should take the after- 
boat, and proceed along the western coast, 
and explore [the region] thereabouts dur- 
ing the summer. They found it a fair, 
well-wooded country. It was but a short 
distance from the woods to the sea, and 
[there were] white sands, as well as great 
numbers of islands and shallows. They 
found neither dwelling of man nor lair of 
beast; but in one of the westerly islands 

launched a second small boat, which they they found a wooden building for the shel- 

had brought with them. Tyrker inquired 
■ who was the leader of the party. He re- 
plied that his name was Thori, and that 
he was a Norseman ; " but what is thy 
name?" Leif gave his name. "Art thou 
a son of Eric the Red of Brattahlid?" says 
be. Leif responded that he was : " It is 
now my wish," says Leif, " to take you all 
into my ship, and likewise so much of your 
possessions as the ship will hold." This 
offer was accepted, and [with their ship] 
thus. laden they held away to Ericsfirth, 
and sailed until they arrived at Brat- 
tahlid. Having discharged the cargo, 
Leif invited Thori, with his wife, Gudrid, 
and three others, to make their home 
with him, and procured quarters for the 
other members of the crew, both for his 
own and Thori's men. Leif rescued fifteen 
persons from the skerry. He was after- 
wards called Leif the Lucky. Leif had now 
goodly store both of property and honor. 
There was serious illness that winter in 
Thori's party, and Thori and a great num- 
ber of his people died. Eric the Eed also 
died that winter. There was now much 
talk about Leif's Wineland journey; and 
his brother, Thorvald, held that the coun- 
try had not been sufficiently explored. 
Thereupon Leif said to Thorvald, " If it 
be thy will, brother, thou mayest go to 

ter of grain. They found no other trace 
of human handiwork; and they turned 
back, and arrived at Leifs-booths in the 
autumn. The following summer Thorvald 
set out toward the east with the ship, 
and along the northern coast. They were 
met by a high wind off a certain promon- 
tory, and were driven ashore there, and 
damaged the keel of their ship, and were 
compelled to remain there for a long 
time and repair the injury to their ves- 
sel. Then said Thorvald to his compan- 
ions, " I propose that we raise the keel 
upon this cape, and call it Keelness " ; 
and so they did. Then they sailed away 
to the eastward off the land and into 
the mouth of the adjoining firth and to a 
headland, which projected into the sea 
there, and which was entirely covered 
with woods. They found an anchorage 
for their ship, and put out the gangway 
to the land; and Thorvald and all of his 
companions went ashore. " It is a fair re- 
gion here," said he; "and here I should 
like to make my home." They then re- 
turned to the ship, and discovered on the 
sands, in beyond the headland, three 
mounds: they went up to these, and saw 
that they were three skin canoes with 
three men under each. They thereupon 
divided their party, and succeeded in 

Wineland with my ship ; but I wish the seizing all of the men but one, who escaped 
ship first to fetch the wood which Thori with his canoe. They killed the eight men, 
had upon the skerry." And so it was done, and then ascended the headland again, 



and looked about them, and discovered departure and rejoined their companions, 
within the firth certain hillocks, which and they told each other of the experiences 
they concluded must be habitations. They which had befallen them. They remained 
were then so overpowered with sleep that there during the winter, and gathered 
they could not keep awake, and all fell grapes and wood with which to freight 
into a [heavy] slumber from which they the ship. In the following spring they re- 
were awakened by the sound of a cry ut- turned to Greenland, and arrived with 
tered above them; and the words of the their ship in Ericsfirth, where they were 
cry were these : " Awake, Thorvald, thou able to recount great tidings to Leif . 
and all thy company, if thou wouldst save In the mean time it had come to pass 
thy Jife; and board thy ship with all thy in Greenland that Thorstein of Ericsfirth 
men, and sail with all speed from the had maTricd, and had taken to wife Gu- 
land!" A countless number of skin ca- drid, Thorbrion's daughter, [she] who had 
noes then advanced toward them from been the spouse of Thori Eastman, as has 
the inner part of the firth, where- been already related. Now Thorstein Erics- 
upon Thorvald exclaimed, " We must son, being minded to make the voyage to 
put out the war-boards on both sides of Wineland after the body of his brother, 
the ship, and defend ourselves to the best Thorvald, equipped the same ship, and se- 
of our ability, but offer little attack." lected a crew of twenty-five men of good 
This they did; and the Skrellings, after size and strength, and taking with him 
they had shot at them for a time, fled his wife, Gudrid, when all was in readi- 
precipitately, each as best he^could. Thor- ness, they sailed out into the open ocean, 
vald then inquired of his men whether and out of sight of land. They were 
any of them had been wounded, and they driven hither and thither over the sea all 
informed him that no one of them had that summer, and lost all reckoning; and 
received a wound. " I have been wound- at the end of the first week of winter they 
ed in my arm-pit," says he. " An arrow made the land at Lysufirth in Greenland, 
flew in between the gunwale and the shield, in the Western settlement. Thorstein set 
below my arm. Here is the shaft, and out in search of quarters for his crew, and 
it will bring me to my end. I counsel you succeeded in procuring homes for all of 
now to retrace your way with the utmost his shipmates; but he and his wife were 
speed. But me ye shall convey to that unprovided for, and remained together 
headland which seemed to me to offer upon the ship for two or more days. At 
so pleasant a dwelling-place: thus it may this time Christianity was still in its 
be fulfilled that the truth sprang to my infancy in Greenland. [Here follows the 
lips when I expressed the wish to abide account of Thorstein's sickness and death 
there for a time. Ye shall bury me there, in the winter.] . . . When he had thus 
and place a cross at my head, and another spoken, Thorstein sank back again ; and 

his body was laid out for burial, and 
borne to the ship. Thorstein, the 
master, faithfully performed all his 
promises to Gudrid. He sold his 
lands and live stock in the spring, 
and accompanied Gudrid to the ship, 
with all his possessions. He put the 
ship in order, procured a crew, and 
then sailed for Ericsfirth. The bodies 
of the' dead were now buried at the 
church; and Gudrid then went home 
at my feet, and call it Crossness forever to Leif at Brattahlid, while Thorstein the 
after." At that time Christianity had ob- Swarthy made a home for himself on 
tained in Greenland: Eric the Red died, Ericsfirth, and remained there as long as 
however, before [the introduction of] he lived, and was looked upon as a very 
Christianity. superior man. 

Thorvald died; and, when they had car- That same summer a ship came from 
ried out his injunctions, they took their Norway to Greenland. The skipper's nnme 

70 •» 

kf\ x: 


vA &.\yf\h t: 



was Thorfinn Karlsefni. He was a son of Skrellings put down their bundles then, 
Thord Horsehead, and a grandson of and loosed them, and offered their wares 
Snorri, the son of Thord of Hofdi. Thor- [for barter], and were especially anxious 
finn Karlsefni, who was a very wealthy to exchange these for weapons; but Karl- 
man, passed the winter at Brattahlid with sefni forbade his men to sell their weapons, 
Leif Ericsson. He very soon set his heart and, taking counsel with himself, he bade 

upon Gudrid, and sought her hand in mar- 
riage. She referred him to Leif for her 
answer, and was subsequently betrothed 
to him; and their marriage was celebrated 
that same winter. A renewed discussion 

the women carry out milk to the Skrel- 
lings, which they no sooner saw than they 
wanted to buy it, and nothing else. Now 
the outcome of the Skrellings' trading was 
that they carried their wares away in 

arose concerning a Wineland voyage; and their stomachs, while they left their packs 

the folk urged Karlsefni to make the vent- 
ure, Gudrid joining with the others. He 
determined to undertake the voyage, and 
assembled a company of sixty men and 
Ave women, and entered into an agreement 
with his shipmates that they should each 
share equally in all the spoils of the en- 
terprise. They took with them all kinds 
of cattle, as it was their intention to set- 
tle the country, if they could. Karlsefni 
asked Leif for the house in Wineland; and 
he replied that he would lend it, but not 
give it. They sailed out to sea with the 
ship, and arrived safe and sound at Leifs- 
booths, and carried their hammocks ashore 
there. They were soon provided with an 
abundant and goodly supply of food ; for 
a whale of good size and quality was 
driven ashore there, and they secured it, 
and flensed it, and had then no lack of 
provisions. The cattle were turned out 
upon the land, and the males soon became 
very restless and vicious : they had 
brought a bull with them. Karlsefni 
caused trees to be felled and to be hewed 
into timbers wherewith to load his ship, 
and the wood was placed upon a cliff to 
dry. They gathered somewhat of all of 
the valuable products of the land — grapes, 
and alLkinds of game and fish, and other 
good things. In the summer succeeding 
the first -winter Skrellings 'were discovered, 

and peltries behind with Karlsefni and 
his companions, and, having accomplished 
this [exchange], they went away. Now it 
is to be told that Karlsefni caused a strong 
wooden palisade to be constructed and set 
up around the house. It was at this time 
that Gudrid, Karlsefni's wife, gave birth 
to a male child, and the boy was called 
Snorri. In the early part of the second 
winter the Skrellings came to them again, 
and these were now much more numerous 
than before, and brought with them the 
same wares as at first. Then said Karl- 
sefni to the women, " Do ye carry out 
now the same food which proved so profit- 
able before, and nought else." When they 
saw this, they cast their packs in over the 
palisade. Gudrid was sitting within, in 
the doorway, beside the cradle of her in- 
fant son, Snorri, when a shadow fell upon 
the door, and a woman in a black nam- 
kirtle entered. She was short in stature, 
and wore a fillet about her head; her hair 
was of a light chestnut color, and she was 
pale of hue, and so big-eyed that never 
before had eyes so large been seen in a 
human skull. She went up to where Gu- 
drid was seated, and said, " What is thy 
name?" "My name is Gudrid, but what 
is thy name 1" " My name is Gudrid," 
says she. The housewife Gudrid motioned 
her with her hand to a seat beside her; 

A great troop of men came forth from out but it so happened that at that very in- 
the woods. The cattle were hard by, and 
the^ bull began to bellow and roar with a 
great noise, whereat the Skrellings were 
frightened, and ran away with their packs, 
wherein ;were gray furs, sables, and all 
kinds a$ peltries. They fled towards 
Karlsefni's dwelling, and sought to ef- 
fect an entrance into the house; but 
Karlsefni caused the doors to be defended 
[against) 1 them]. Neither [people] could 
understand the other's language. The 


stant Gudrid heard a great crash, where- 
upon the woman vanished, and at the same 
moment one of the Skrellings, who had 
tried to seize their weapons, was killed by 
one of Karlsefni's followers. At this the 
Skrellings fled precipitately, leaving their 
garments and wares behind them; and not 
a soul, save Gudrid alone, beheld this 
woman. " Now we must needs take coun- 
sel together," says Karlsefni ; " for that 
I believe they will visit us a third time 


in great numbers, and attack us. Let us which they might succeed in obtaining 
now adopt this plan. Ten of our number there. To this they agreed, and she de- 
shall go out upon the cape, and show parted thence to visit her brother, Leif, 
themselves there; while the remainder of and ask him to give her the house which 
our company shall go into the woods and he had caused to be erected in Wineland; 
hew a clearing for our cattle, when the but he made her the same answer [as that 
troop approaches from the forest. We will which he had given Karlsefni], saying 
also take our bull, and let him go in ad- that he would lend the house, but not give 
vance of us." The lie of the land was it. It was stipulated between Karlsefni 
such that the proposed meeting-place had and Freydis that each should have on 
the lake upon the one side and the forest ship-board thirty able-bodied men, be- 
upon the other. Karlsefni's advice was sides the women; but Freydis immediately 
now carried into execution. The Skrel- violated this compact by concealing five 
lings advanced to the spot which Karl- men more [than this number], and this the 
sefni had selected for the encounter; and brothers did not discover before they ar- 
a battle was fought there, in which great rived in Wineland. They now put out to 
numbers of the band of the Skrellings sea, having agreed beforehand that they 
were slain. There was one man among would sail in company, if possible, and, al- 
the Skrellings, of large size and fine bear- though they were not far apart from each 
ing, whom Karlsefni concluded must be other, the brothers arrived somewhat in 
their chief. One of the Skrellings picked advance, and carried their belongings up 
up an axe; and, having looked at it for to Leif's house. Now, when Freydis ar- 
a time, he brandished it about one of his rived, her ship was discharged and the 
companions, and hewed at him, and on baggage carried up to the house, where- 
the instant the man fell dead. Thereupon upon Freydis exclaimed, "Why did you 
the big man seized the axe ; and, after carry your baggage in here V " Since we 
examining it for a moment, he hurled it believed," said they, " that all promises 
as far as he could out into the sea. Then made to us would be kept." " It was to 
they fled helter skelter into the woods, me that Leif loaned the house," says she, 
and thus their intercourse came to an end. " and not to you." Whereupon Helgi ex- 
Karlsefni and his party remained there claimed, " We brothers cannot hope to 
throughout the winter; but in the spring rival thee in wrong dealing." They there- 
Karlsefni announces that he is not minded upon carried their baggage forth, and built 
to remain there longer, but will return a hut, above the sea, on the bank of the 
to Greenland. They now made ready for ' a ke, and put all in order about it; while 
the voyage, and carried away with them Freydis caused wood to be felled, with 
much booty in vines and grapes and pel- which to load her ship. The winter now 
tries. They sailed out upon the high seas, set in, and the brothers suggested that 
and brought their ship safely to Ericsfirth, they should amuse themselves by playing 
where they remained during the winter. games. This they did for a time, until 
There was now much talk anew about the folk began to disagree, when dis- 
a Wineland voyage, for this was reckon- sensions arose between them, and the 
ed both a profitable and an honorable en- games came to an end, and the visits be- 
terprise. The same summer that Karl- tween the houses ceased; and thus it con- 
sefni arrived from Wineland a ship from tinued far into the winter. One morning 
Norway arrived in Greenland. This ship early Freydis arose from her bed and dress- 
was commanded by two brothers, Helgi ed herself, but did not put on her shoes 
and Finnbogi, who passed the winter in and stockings. A heavy dew had fallen, 
Greenland. They were descended from an and she took her husband's cloak, and 
Icelandic family of the East-firths. It is wrapped it about her, and then walked 
now to be added that Freydis, Eric's to the brothers' house, and up to the door, 
daughter, set out from her home at Gar- which had been only partly closed bj one 
dar, and waited upon the brothers, Helgi of the men, who had gone out a short 
and Finnbogi, and invited them to sail time before. She pushed the door open, 
with their vessel to Wineland, and to share and stood silently in the doorway for a 
with her equally all of the good things time. Finnbogi, who wag lying on the in- 



nermost side of the room, was awake, and 
said, "What dost thou wish here, Frey- 
dis I" She answers, " I wish thee to rise 
and go out with me, for I would speak 
with thee." He did so; and they walked 
to a tree, which lay close hy the wall of 
the house, and seated themselves upon it. 
" How art thou pleased here ?" says she. 
He answers, " I am well pleased with the 
fruitfulness of the land; but I am ill con- 
tent w^th the breach which has come be- 
tween us, for, methinks, there has been 
no cause for it." " It is even as thou 
sayest," says she, " and so it seems to me ; 
but my errand to thee is that I wish to 
exchange ships with you brothers, for that 
ye have a larger ship than I, and I wish 
to depart from here." " To this I must 
accede," says he, "if it is thy pleasure." 

was bound; and, as they came out, Frey- 
dis caused each one to be slain. In this 
wise all of the men were put to death, and 
only the women were left ; and these no one 
would kill. At this Freydis exclaimed, 
"Hand me an axe." This was done; and 
she fell upon the five women, and left 
them dead. They returned home after this 
dreadful deed; and it was very evident 
that Freydis was well content with her 
work. She addressed her companions, say- 
ing, " If it be ordained for us to come 
again to Greenland, I shall contrive the 
death of any man who shall speak of these 
events. We must give it out that we left 
them living here when we came away." 
Early in the spring they equipped the ship 
which had belonged to the brothers, and 
freighted it with all of the products of 


Therewith they parted; and she returned the land which they could obtain, and 
home and Finnbogi to his bed. She climb- which the ship would carry. Then they 
ed up into bed, and awakened Thorvard put out to sea, and after a prosperous 
with her cold feet; and he asked her why voyage arrived with their ship in Erics- 
she was so cold and wet. She answered with firth early in the summer. Karlsefni was 
great passion: "I have been to the broth- there, with his ship all ready to sail, and 
ers," says she, " to try to buy their ship, was awaiting a fair wind ; and people say 
for I wished to have a larger vessel; but that a ship richer laden than that which 
they received my overtures so ill that they he commanded never left Greenland, 
struck me and handled me very roughly; Freydis now went to her home, since 
what time thou, poor wretch, wilt neither it had remained unharmed during her 
avenge my shame nor thy own; and I find, absence. She bestowed liberal gifts upon 
perforce, that I am no longer in Green- all of her companions, for she was anx- 
land. Moreover I shall part from thee un- ious to screen her guilt. She now estab- 
less thou wreakest vengeance for this." lished herself at her home; but her com- 
And now he could stand her taunts no panions were not all so close-mouthed 
longer, and ordered the men to rise at concerning their misdeeds and wicked- 
once and take their weapons ; and this they ness that rumors did not get abroad at 
did. And they then proceeded directly to last. These finally reached her brother, 
the house of the brothers, and entered it Leif, and he thought it a most shameful 
while the folk were asleep, and seized and story. He thereupon took three of the 
bound them, and led each one out when he men, who had been of Freydis' party, 



and forced them all at the same time mother of Bishop Brand. Hallfrid was the 
to a confession of the affair, and their name of the daughter of Snorri, Karl- 
stories entirely agreed. "I have no. sefni's son: she was the mother of 
heart," says Lief, "to punish my sis- Runolf, Bishop Thorlak's father. Biorn 
ter, Freydis, as she deserves, but this I was the name of [another] son of Karl- 
predict of them, that there is little pros- sefni and Gudrid; he was the father of 
perity in store for their offspring." Thorunn, the mother of Bishop Biorn. 
Hence it came to pass that no one from Many men are descended from Karlsefni, 
that time forward thought them worthy and he has been blessed with a numerous 
of aught but evil. It now remains to and famous posterity; and of all men 
take up the story from the time when Karlsefni has given the most exact ac- 
Karlsefni made his ship ready, and sail- counts of all these voyages, of which 
ed out to sea. He had a successful voy- something has now been recounted, 
age, and arrived in Norway safe and Vinton, Francis Latjbens, military 
sound. He remained there ^during the officer; born in Fort Preble, Me., June 
winter, and sold his wares ; and both he 1, 1835 ; son of Maj. John Rogers Vinton ; 
and his wife were received with great graduated at West Point in 1856; entered 
favor by the most distinguished suen the 1st Cavalry, but resigned in Septem- 
of Norway. The following spring he put ber and devoted himself to the science of 
his ship in order for the voyage to Ice- metallurgy, becoming in 1857 a pupil of 
land; and when all his preparations had the Imperial School of Mines in Paris, 
been made, and his ship was lying at where he graduated with distinction. At 
the wharf, awaiting favorable winds, the beginning of the Civil War he was 
there came to him a Southerner, a na- made captain in the 16th United States 
live of Bremen in the Saxonland, who Infantry, and colonel of the 43d New 
wished to buy his " house-neat." " I do York Volunteers, with which he served 
not wish to sell it," says he. " I will through the Peninsular campaign ; was 
give thee half a ' miirk ' in gold for it," wounded in the battle of Fredericksburg. 
says the Southerner. This Karlsefni In March, 1863, he was promoted briga- 
thought a good offer, and accordingly dier-general of volunteers, resigned in May 
closed the bargain. The Southerner went following because of his wound; and be- 
his way with the " house - neat," and came Professor of Mining Engineering in 
Karlsefni knew not what wood it was, but Columbia College in 1864, fronl which he 
it was " mosur," come from Wineland. retired in 1877. He died in Leadville, Col., 

Karlsefni sailed away, and arrived Oct. 6, 1879. 

with his ship in the north of Iceland, Vinton; Frederic, librarian; born in 

in Skagaflrth. His vessel was beached Boston, Mass., Oct. 7, 1817; graduated at 

there during the winter, and in the spring Amherst College in 1837 ; studied theol- 

he bought Glaumboeiar-land, and made ogy; became first assistant in the Boston 

his home there, and dwelt there as long Public Library in 1856. He assisted in pre- 

as he lived, and was a man of the paring the Index to the Catalogue of Books 

greatest prominence. From him and his in Bates Hall; was first assistant in 1865- 

wife, Gudrid, a numerous and goodly 73 in the Congressional Library, where he 

lineage is descended. After Karlsefni's prepared six annual supplements to the 

death Gudrid, together with her son Alphabetical Catalogue of the Library of 

Snorri, who was born in Wineland, took Congress and the Index of Subjects; and 

charge of the farmstead; and, when was librarian of Princeton University 

Snorri was married, Gudrid went abroad, from 1873 till his death, Jan. 1, 1890. 

and made a pilgrimage to the South, Vinton, John Adams, clergyman; born 

after which she returned again to the in Boston, ,Mass., Feb. 5, 1801 ; graduated 

home of her son Snorri, who had caused at Dartmouth College in 1828, and at 

a church to be built at Glaumbcer. Andover Theological Seminary in 1831; 

Gudrid then took the veil and became ordained in the Congregational Church 

an anchorite, and lived there the rest of in 1832, and held pastorates in Maine, 

her days. Snorri had a son, named Thor- Vermont, and Massachusetts; was agent 

geir, who was the father of Ingveld, the of the American Society for Improving 



the Condition of the Jews; chaplain of 
the Massachusetts State almshouse in 
1859-60; and later devoted himself to 
genealogical researches. He contributed 
many articles to periodicals, and was 
author of Deborah Sampson, the Female 
Soldier of the Revolution, etc. He died 
in Winchester, Mass, Nov 13, 1877. 

Viomenil, Antoine Charles dtj 
Houx, Baron de, military officer; born^n 
Fauconcourt, Vosges, France, Nov. 30, 
1728. He attained the rank of major-gen- 
eral in the French army; and in 1780 
was appointed second in command of 
Count de Rochambeau's troops which were 
sent to assist the American colonists; was 

promoted lieutenant-general in 1781, and 
given the grand cross of St Louis for ser- 
vices at the siege of Yorktown. After 
the war he was governor of La Rochelle, 
in 1783-89. He died in Paris, Nov. 9, 1782. 
His brother, Charles Joseph Hya- 


born in the castle of Ruppes, Vosges, 
Aug. 22, 1734; attained the rank of major- 
general in the French army; accompanied 
Count de Rochambeau to the United 
States as commander of the French ar- 
tillery, and took a prominent part in the 
siege of Yorktown, for which he was grant- 
ed a pension of 5,000 francs. He died in 
Paris, March 5, 1827. 


Virginia, Colony of, the name given other company to settle between lat. 41 c 
to an undefined territory in America (of and 45" N. The space of about 200 miles 
which Roanoke Island, discovered in 1584, between the two territories was a broad 
was a part) in compliment to the un- boundary-line, upon which neither party 
married Queen, or because of its virgin was to plant a settlement. In December, 
soil. It was afterwards defined as ex- 1606, the London Company sent three 
tending from lat. 34° to 45° N, and was ships, under Capt. Christopher Newport, 
divided into north and south Virginia, with 105 colonists, to make a settlement 
The northern part was afterwards called on Roanoke Island (g. v.). They took 
New England ( q. v.). The spirit of ad- 
venture and desire for colonization were 
prevalent in England at the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, and circumstances 
there were favorable to such undertakings, 
for there was plenty of material for colo- 
nies, such as it was. Soon after the acces- 
sion of James I., war between England and 
France ceased, and there were many rest- 
less soldiers out of employment — so rest- 
less that social order was in danger. There 
was also a class of ruined and desperate 
spendthrifts, ready to do anything to re- 
trieve their fortunes. Such were the men 
who stood ready to go to America when 
Ferdinando Gorges, Bartholomew Gosnold, 
Chief-Justice Popham, Richard Hakluyt, 
Capt. John Smith, and others devised a 
new scheme for settling Virginia. 

The timid King, glad to perceive a new 
field open for the restless spirits of his 
realm, granted a liberal patent to a com- 
pany of " noblemen, gentlemen, and mer- 
chants," chiefly of London, to plant settle- 
ments in America, between lat. 34° and 38° 

N., and westward 100 miles from the sea. the coast of North Carolina a tempest 
A similar charter was granted to an- drove them farther north into Chesapeake 
x.—f 81 


the long southern route, by way of the 
West Indies, and when they approached 



Bay, where they found good anchorage. 
The principal passengers were Gosnold, 
Edward M. Wingfield, Captain Smith, and 
Rev. Robert Hunt. The capes at the en- 
trance to Chesapeake Bay Newport named 
Charles and Henry, in compliment to the 
King's two sons. 

Landing and resting at a pleasant point 
of land between the mouths of the York 
and James rivers, he named it Point 
Comfort, and, sailing up the latter stream 
50 miles, the colonists landed on the left 
bank, May 13, 1607, and there founded 
a settlement and built a village, which 
they named Jamestown, in compliment to 
the King. They gave the name of James 
to the river. On the voyage, Captain 
Smith, the most notable man among x them 
ieee Smith, John), had excited the jeal- 
osy and suspicion of his fellow-passen- 
gers, and he was placed in confinement on 
suspicion that he intended to usurp the 
government of the colony. It was not 
known who had been appointed rulers, for 
the silly King had placed the names of the 
colonial council in a sealed box, to be 
opened on their arrival. It was found 


that Smith was one of the council, and he 
was released. Wingfield was chosen presi- 
dent. Smith and others ascended the 
river in small boats to the falls at Rich- 
mond, and visited the Indian emperor 
Powhatan {q. v.), who resided a mile 

Early in June Newport returned to 
England for supplies and more emigrants. 
The supplies which they brought had beep 
spoiled in the long voyage, and the Ind- 
ians around them appeared hostile. The 
marshes sent up poisonous vapors, and 
before the end of summer Gosnold and 
fully one-half of the adventurers died of 
fever and famine. President Wingfielf' 
lived on the choicest stores, and was 
preparing to escape to the West Indies 
in a pinnace left by Newport, when his 
treachery was discovered, and a man equal- 
ly notorious, named Radcliffe, was put 
in his place. He, too, was soon dismissed, 
when Captain Smith was happily chosen 
to rule the colony. He soon restored 
order, won the respect of the Indians, 
compelled them to bring food to James- 
town until wild-fowl became plentiful in 


the autumn, and the harvest of maize or 
Indian corn was gatherec by the bar- 
barians. Smith and a few companions ex- 
plored the Chickahominy River, where he 
was captured and condemned to die, but 
was saved by the King's daughter. See 

Everything was in disorder on his return 
from the forest, and only forty men of the 
colony were living, who were on the point 
of escaping to the West Indies. Newport 
returned with supplies and 120 emigrants 
early in 1608. They were no better than 
the first. There were several unskilful 
goldsmiths, and most of the colonists be- 
came gold-seekers and neglected the soil. 
There " was no talk, no hope, no work, but 
dig- gold, work [earth supposed to be] 
gold, refine gold, and load gold." Some 
glittering earth had been mistaken for 
gold, and Newport had loaded his ship 
^with the worthless soil. Smith implored 
the settlers to plough _and sow. They re- 
fused, and, leaving Jamestown in disgust, 
he explored Chesapeake Bay and. its trib- 
utary streams in an open boat. In the 
course of three months he travelled 1,000 
miles and made a rude map of the coun- 
try. Newport arrived at Jamestown soon 
after Smith's return in 
September, with seventy 
more emigrants, among 
them two women, the 
first Europeans of their 
sex seen in Virginia 
proper. See Dare, Vtjb- 

These emigrants were 
no better than the first, 
and Smith entreated the 
company to send over 
farmers and mechanics ; 
but at the end of two 
years, when the settle- 
ment numbered 200 
strong men, there were 
only forty acres of land 
under cultivation. In 
1609 the company ob- 
tained a new charter, 
which made the settlers 
vassals of the council 
of Virginia and extended 
the territory to the head 
of Chesapeake Bay. 
Lord De la Wai" - (Dela- 

ware) was appointed governor of Virginia; 
Sir Thomas Gates, deputy-governor; Sir 
George Somers, admiral; Christopher 
Newport, vice-admiral, and Sir Thomas 
Dale, high-marshal, all for life. Nine 
vessels, with 500 emigrants, including 
twenty women and children, sailed for 
Jamestown in June, 1609. Gates and Som- 
ers embarked with Newport, and the three 
were to govern Virginia until the arrival 
of Lord Delaware. A hurricane dispersed 
the fleet, and the vessel containing these 
joint rulers or commissioners was Wrecked 
on one of the Bermuda Islands. Sevei 
vessels reached Jamestown. The new-com- 
ers were, if possible, more profligate than 
the first — dissolute scions of wealthy fam- 
ilies, who " left their country for their 
country's good." 

Smith continued to administer the gov- 
ernment until an accident compelled him 
to return to England in the fall of 1609. 
Then the colonists gave themselves up to 
every irregularity; the Indians withheld 
supplies; famine ensued, and the winter 
and spring of 1610 were long remembered 
as the starving time. The Indians pre- 
pared to exterminate the English, but they 
were spared by a timely warning from 



Pocahontas. Six months after Smith left, era Continent. A seal for the colony was 
the settlement of 500 souls was reduced adopted by the company. It was made of 
to sixty. The three commissioners reached beeswax, covered with very thin paper, 
Jamestown in June, 1610, and Gates de- and stamped on both sides with appro- 
termined to leave for Newfoundland with priate devices. On one side were the royal 

arms of Great 
Britain, and on 
the other an 
effigy of the 
reigning mon- 
arch, with the 
sentence in Latin 
"Seal of the 
Province of Vir- 
ginia." Kneeling 
before the mon- 
arch was an Ind- 
ian presenting a 
bundle of tobac- 
co, the chief 
product of the 
country. In the 
seal was a figure 
r e p r e s enting 
Queen Anne. 
The original from 
which the en- 
the famished settlers, and distribute them graving on preceding page was copied was 
among the settlers there. In four pinnaces somewhat defaced. It was sent to the col- 
they departed, and were met at Point Com- ony almost immediately after the begin- 
fort by Lord Delaware, with provisions ning of Queen Anne's reign, with instruc- 
and emigrants. Failing health compelled tions from the secretary of the privy 
him to return to England in March, 1611, council to break up the seal of her pred- 
and he was succeeded by a deputy, Sir eeessor, William III., and send the frag- 


Thomas Dale, who arrived with 300 set- 
tlers and some cattle. Sir Thomas Gates 
came with 350 more colonists in Septem- 

ments to England. 

The same year 1,200 colonists arrived, 
among whom were ninety " respectable 

ber following, and superseded Dale. These young women," to become the wives of 

were a far better class than any who had planters, who were purchased at a profit 

arrived, and there were then 1,000 Eng- to the company and were paid for in 

lishmen in Virginia. New settlements tobacco, then become a profitable agri- 

were planted at Dutch Gap and at Ber- cultural product. Within two years 150 

muda Hundred at the mouth of the Appo- respectable young women were sent to 

mattox. In 1616 Deputy-Governor Gates Virginia for the same purpose. Homes and 

was succeeded by Samuel Argall, but his families appeared, and so the foundation 

course was so bad that Lord Delaware of the commonwealth of Virginia was laid, 

sailed from England to resume the gov- Already the Indians had been made 

ernment of Virginia, but died on the pas- friendly by the marriage of Pocahontas 

sage, at the mouth of the bay that bears to an Englishman. The tribe of gold- 

his name. 

George Veardley was appointed governor 

seekers had disappeared, and the future of 
Virginia appeared bright. The King in- 

in 1617, and he summoned two delegates Juved the colony by sending" over 100 con- 
from each of seven corporations or bor- victs from English prisons, in 1619, to be 
oughs to assemble at Jamestown, July 30. sold as servants to the planters, and this 
These delegates formed a representative system was pursued for 100 years, in de- 
assembly, the first ever held on the West- fiance of the protests of the settlers. The 



same year the colonists bought twenty 
negro slaves of a Dutch trader, and so 
Blavery was introduced (see Slavery). On 
July 24, 1621, the London Company 
granted the colonists a written constitu- 
tion for their government, which provided 
for the appointment of a governor and 
council by the company, and a representa- 
tive assembly, to consist of two burgesses 
or representatives from each borough, to 
be chosen by the people and clothed with 
full legislative power in connection with 
the council. This body formed the Gen- 
eral Assembly. Sir Francis Wyatt was 
appointed governor, and brought the con- 
stitution with him. 

The first laws of the commonwealth 
were thirty-five in number, concisely ex- 
pressed, repealed all former laws, and 
clearly showed the condition of the col- 
ony. The first acts related to the Church. 
They provided that in every plantation 
there should be a room or house " for the 
worship of God, sequestered and set apart 
for that purpose, and not to be for any 
temporal use whatsoever " ; also a place 

of burial " sequestered and paled in." 
Absence from public worship " without 
allowable excuse " incurred the forfeiture 
of a pound of tobacco, or 50 lbs. if the 
absence were persisted in for a month. 
Divine public service was to be in con- 
formity to the canons of the Church of 
England. In addition to the Church fes- 
tivals, March 22 (O. S.) was to be annu- 
ally observed in commemoration of the 
escape of the colony from destruction by 
the Indians. No minister was allowed to 
be absent from his parish more than two 
months in a year, under pain of forfeiting 
one-half of his salary, or the whole of it, 
and his spiritual charge, if absent four 
months. He who disparaged a minister 
without proof was to be fined 500 lbs. 
of tobacco, and to beg the minister's par- 
don publicly before the congregation. The 
minister's salary was to be paid out of the 
first-gathered and best tobacco and corn; 
and no man was to dispose of his tobacco 
before paying his church-dues, under pain 
of forfeiting double. Drunkenness and 
swearing were made punishable offences. 




The levy and expenditure were to be 
made by the Assembly only; the governor 
might not draw the inhabitants from their 
private employments to do his work; the 
whole council had to consent to the levy 
of men for the public service; older set- 
tlers, who came before Sir Thomas Gates 
(1611), "and their posterity" were to be 
exempt from personal military service; the 
burgesses were not to be molested in going 
to, coming from, or during the sessions of 
the Assembly; every private planter's 
lands were to be surveyed and their bounds 
recorded; monthly courts were to be held 
by special commissioners at Elizabeth 
City, at the mouth of the James, and at 
Charles City, for the accommodation of 
more distant plantations; the price of 

go to work in the fields without being 
armed, nor to leave his house exposed to 
attack; no powder was to be spent un- 
necessarily, and each plantation was to 
be furnished with arms. Persons of 
" quality " who were delinquent might not 
undergo corjoral punishment like "com- 
mon " pecp!e, but might be imprisoned 
and fined. Any person wounded in the 
military service was to be cured at the 
public charge, and if permanently lamed 
was to have a maintenance according to 
his "quality"; and 10 lbs. of tobacco 
were to be levied on each male colo- 
nist to pay the expenses of the war. This 
war was that with the Indians after the 
massacre in 1622, and much of the legis- 
lation had reference to it, such as an 


corn was to be unrestricted; in every par- 
ish was to be a public granary, to which 
each planter was to bring yearly a bushel 
of corn to be disposed of for public use by 
a vote of the freemen, and if not disposed 
of to be returned to the owner; every set- 
tler was to be compelled to cultivate corn 
enough for his family; all trade in corn 
with the Indians was prohibited; every 
freeman was to fence in a garden of a 
quarter of an acre for the planting of 
grape-vines, roots, herbs, and mulberry- 
trees; inspectors, or "censors," of to- 
bacco were to be appointed; ships were 
to break bulk only at James City ; weights 
and measures were to be sealed; everv 
house was to be palisaded for defence 
against the Indians, and no man was to 


order for the inhabitants, at the beginning 
of July, 1624, to fall upon the adjoining 
savages " as they did last year." 

In 1624, of the 9,000 persons who had 
been sent to Virginia, only a little move 
than 2,000 remained. The same year the 
London Company was dissolved by a writ 
of quo warranto, and Virginia became a 
royal province. George Yeardly was ap- 
pointed governor, with twelve councillors. 
He died in 1627, and was succeeded by Sir 
John Harvey, a haughty and unpopu'ar 
ruler. Harvey was deposed by the Vir- 
ginians in 1635, but was reinstated by 
Charles T., and ruled until 1639. Sir Will 
iam Berkeley became governor in 1641, at 
the beginning of the civil war in Eng- 
land, and being a thorough loyalist, soon 


came in contact with the republican Par- ginia. That was Washington's first ap- 

liament. The colonists, also, remained pearance in public service. He performed 

loyal, and invited the son of the behead- the duty with so much skill and prudence 

ed King to come and reign over them, that he was placed at the head of a mili- 

Cromwell sent commissioners and a fleet tary force the next year, and fought the 

to Virginia. A compromise with the French at and near Fort Necessity. Dur- 

loyalists was effected. Berkeley gave way ing the French and Indian War that en- 

to Richard Bennett, one of the commis- sued, Virginia bore her share; and when 

sioners, who became governor. But when England began to press her taxation 

Charles II. was restored, Berkeley, who schemes in relation to the colonies, the 

had not left Virginia, was reinstated; the Virginia House of Burgesses took a patri- 

laws of the colony were revived; restric- otic stand in opposition, under the leader- 

tive revenue laws were enforced ; the ship of Patrick Henry ( q. v.). From 

Church of England — disestablished in Vir- that time until the breaking out of the 

ginia — was re-established, and severe legis- Revolutionary War the Virginians were 

lative acts against Non-conformists were conspicuous in maintaining the rights of 

passed. Berkeley proclaimed Charles II. the colonies. 

"King -of England, Scotland, Ireland, and On March 20, 1775, a convention of del- 
Virginia," and ruled with vigor. Under gates from the several counties and 
Berkeley, the colonists had become dis- corporations of Virginia met for the first 
contented, and in 1676 they broke out into time. They assembled in St. John's Church 
open rebellion, led by a wealthy and enter- in Richmond. Among the conspicuous 
prising young lawyer named Nathaniel members of the convention were Washing- 
Bacon (q. v.). ton and Patrick Henry. Peyton Randolph 
Charles II. had given a patent for Vir- was chosen president and John Tazewell 
ginia (1673) to two of his rapacious cour- clerk. A large portion of the members 
tiers (Arlington and Culpeper), and in yearned for reconciliation with Great Brit- 
1677 the latter superseded Berkeley as ain, while others saw no ground for hope 
governor. He arrived in Virginia in 1680, that the mother-country would be just. 
and his rapacity and profligacy soon so Among the latter was Patrick Henry. His 
disgusted the people that they were on judgment was too sound to be misled by 
the verge of rebellion, when the King, of- mere appearances of justice, in which 
fended at him, revoked his grant and his others trusted. The convention expressed 
commission. He was succeeded by an its unqualified approbation of the proceed- 
equally unpopular governor, Lord Howard ings of the Continental Congress, and 
of Effingham, and the people were again warmly thanked their delegates for the 
stirred to revolt; but the death of the part they had taken in it. They thanked 
King and other events in England made the Assembly of the island of Jamaica 
them wait for hoped-for relief. The Stu- for a sympathizing document, and then 
arts were driven from the throne forever proceeded to consider resolutions that the 
in 1688, and there was a change for the colony should be instantly put in a state 
better in the colonies. In 1699 Williams- of defence by an immediate organization 
burg was founded and made the capital of the militia. 

of Virginia, where the General Assembly This meant resistance, and the resolu- 

met in 1700. The code was revised for tions alarmed the more timid, who op- 

the fifth time in 1705, when by it slaves posed the measure as rash and almost 

were declared real estate, and this law impious. Deceived by a show of justice 

continued until 1776. Hostilities with the on the part of Great Britain, they urged 

French broke out in 1754, they having delay, for it was evident that the mimer- 

built a line of military posts along the ous friends of the colonists in England, 

western slope of the Alleghany Moun- together with the manufacturing interest, 

tains, in the rear of Virginia, and at the would soon bring about an accommoda- 

head-waters of the Ohio. To one of these tion. This show of timidity and tempor- 

posts young George Washington was sent izing roused the fire of patriotism in the 

on a diplomatic mission towards the close bosom of Henry, and he made an impas- 

of 1753, by Dinwiddie, governor of Vir- sioned speech, which electrified all hear- 



era and has become in our history an ad- tainder, with those of Randolph, Jeffersdn, 
mired specimen of oratory. The resolu- the two Adamses, and Hancock, 
tions to prepare for defence were passed, Governor Dunmore soon called a meet- 
ing of the Virginia 
Assembly to con- 
sider a conciliatory 
proposition made 
by Lord North. 
They rejected it, 
and in his anger 
he fulminated 
against Henry and 
the committees of 
vigilance which 
were formed in 
every county in 
Virginia. He 
declared that, 
should one of his 
officers be molested 
in the performance 
of his duty, he 
would raise the 
royal standard, 
proclaim freedom 
to the slaves, and 
arm them against 
their masters. He 
sent his family 
(May 4) on board 
the British man-of- 
and Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, war Fowey, in the York River, fortified 
Robert C. Nicholas, Benjamin Harrison, his " palace," and secretly placed powder 
Lemuel Riddick, George Washington, Adam under the magazine at Williamsburg, 
Stephen, Andrew Lewis, William Chris- with the evident intention of blowing it 
tian, Edmund Pendleton, Thomas Jeffer- up should occasion seem to require it. 
son, and Isaac Lane were appointed a The discovery of this " gunpowder plot " 
eommitee to prepare a plan accordingly, greatly irritated the people. A rumor 
Their plan for embodying the militia was came (June 7) that armed marines 
adopted, and Virginia prepared herself were on their way from the Fowey to 
for the conflict. Provision was made for assist Dunmore to enforce the laws, 
the enrolment of a company of volunteers The people flew to arms, and the gov- 
in each county. The convention reappoint- ernor, alarmed, took refuge on the mail- 
ed the Virginia delegates to seats in the of-war. He was the first of the royal 
second Continental Congress, adding governors who abdicated government at 
Thomas Jefferson, " in case of the non- the beginning of the Revolution. From the 
attendance of Peyton Randolph." Henry Fowey Dunmore sent messages, addresses, 
had said, prophetically, in his speech, and letters to the burgesses in session at 
" The next gale that comes from the North Williamsburg, and received communica- 
will bring to our ears the clash of arms!" tions from them in return. When all bills 
This prophecy was speedily fulfilled by passed were ready for the governor's sig- 
the clash of arms at Lexington. His bold nature, he was invited to his capitol to 
proceedings and utterances in this conven- sign them. He declined, and demanded 
tion caused his name to he presented to that they should present the papers at his 
the British government in a bill of at- residence on shipboard. Instead of this, 




the burgesses delegated their powers to a 
permanent committee and adjourned. So 
ended royal rule in Virginia. 

In May, 1776, a convention of 130 dele- 
gates assembled at Williamsburg. After 
having finished current business, the con- 
vention resolved itself into a committee 
of the whole on the state of the colony. 
On May 15, resolutions which had been 
drafted by Edmund Pendleton were unani- 
mously agreed to, 112 members being pres- 
ent. The preamble enumerated their chief 
grievances, and said, " We have no alterna- 
tive left but an abject submission or a 

total separation." Then they decreed that 
their " delegates in Congress be instructed 
to propose to that body to declare the 
united colonies free and independent 
States, absolved from all allegiance or de- 
pendence upon the crown or Parliament of 
Great Britain; and that they give the 
assent of this colony to such declaration, 
and to measures for forming foreign alli- 
ances and a confederation of the colonics; 
provided that the power of forming gov- 
ernment for, and the regulation of the 
internal concerns of each colony be left 
to the respective colonial legislatures." 


Virginia, State of. The State consti- as matter of right, and they and the 
tution was framed in June, 1776. While States respectively act with more energy 
the foremost citizen of Virginia was lead- than they have hitherto done, our cause is 
ing the army fighting for independence, lost. ... I see one head gradually chang- 
and was the most earnest advocate for a ing into thirteen. I see one army branch- 
national bond of all the States, the repre- ing into thirteen, which, instead of looking 
sentatives of her people, in her legislat- up to Congress as the supreme control- 
ure, always opposed the measures that ling power of the United States, are con- 
would make the States one union. Her leg- sidering themselves as dependent on their 
islature separately ratified (June 2, 1779) 
the treaty with France, and asserted in 
its fullest degree the absolute sovereignty 
of the separate States, and when Con- 
gress received petitions concerning lands 
in the Ohio country, the Virginia Assem- 
bly remonstrated against any action in 
the premises by that body, because it 
would " be a dangerous precedent, which 
might hereafter subvert the sovereignty 
and government of any one or more of the 
United States, and establish in Congress 
a power which, in process of time, must 
degenerate into an intolerable despotism." 
Patrick Henry, too, vehemently condemned 
the phraseology of the preamble to the 
national Constitution — " We, the people " 
— arguing that it should have been " We, 
the States." So, also, did George Mason. 
So jealous of their " sovereignty " were 

the -States in general that Congress, at several States." Towards the end of June 
the beginning of 1780, finding itself utter- General Greene wrote: "The Congress 
ly helpless, threw everything upon the have lost their influence. I have for a 
States. Washington deeply deplored this long time seen the necessity of some new 
state of things. " Certain I am," he wrote plan of civil government. Unless there is 
to Joseph Jones, a delegate from Virginia, some control over the States by the Con- 
in May, " unless Congress is vested with gress, we shall soon be like a broken band." 
powers by the several States competent to The marauding expedition of Arnold up 
the great purposes of war, or assume them the James River, early in 1781, was fol- 




lowed by a more formidable invasion in (May 20), General Phillips died (May 
the latter part of March. General Phil- 13) at Petersburg. On May 24 Cornwallis 
lips, of Burgoyne's army, who had been crossed the James and pushed on towards 
exchanged for Lincoln, joined Arnold at Richmond. He seized all the fine horses 
Portsmouth, with 2,000 troops from New he could find, with which he mounted 
York, and took the chief command. They about 600 cavalry, whom he sent after 
went up the James and Appomattox Lafayette, then not far distant from Rich- 
rivers, took Petersburg ( April 25 ) , and mond, with 3,000 men, waiting for the ai- 
destroyed 4,000 hogsheads of tobacco, rival of Wayne, who was approaching with 
which had been collected there for ship- Pennsylvania troops. The marquis fell 

slowly back, and at a ford on the 
North Anne he met Wayne with 
800 men. Cornwallis had pur- 
sued him as far as Hanover 
Court - house, from which place 
the earl sent Lieutenant-Colonel 
Simcoe, with his loyalist corps, 
the " Queen's Rangers," to capt- 
ure or destrjy stores in charge 
of Steuben at the junction of 
the Ravenna and Fluvanna riv- 
ers. In this he failed. 

Tarleton had been detached, 
at the same time, to capture 
Governor Jefferson and the mem- 
bers of the Virginia legislature 
at Charlottesville, whither they 
had fled from Richmond. Only 
seven "" il\em were made cap- 
ment to France on account of the Con- tives. Jefferson narrowly escaped by flee- 
gress. There were virtually no troops in ing from his house (at Monticello) on 
Virginia to oppose this invasion, for all horseback, accompanied by a single ser- 
tliat were really fit for service nad been vant, and hiding in the mountains. He had 
sent to the army of Greene, in the left his dwelling only ten minutes be- 
Carolinas. Steuben had about 500 half- fore one of Tarleton's officers entered it. 
starved and naked troops, whom he was At Jefferson's plantation, near the Point 
training for recruits. These were mostly of Forks, Cornwallis committed the most 
without arms, and retreated before Phil- wanton destruction of property, cutting 
lips to Richmond. Lafayette, who had the throats of young horses not fit for 
halted at Annapolis, now hurried forward, service, slaughtering the cattle, and burn- 
and, by a forced march of 200 miles, ing the barns with remains of previous 
reached Richmond twelve hours before crops, laying waste growing ones, burning 
rhillips and Arnold appeared on the oppo- all the fences on the plantation, and carry- 
site side of the river. Joined by Steuben, ing away about thirty slaves. Lafayette 
the marquis here checked the invaders, now turned upon the earl, when the latter, 
who retired to City Point, at the junction supposing the forces of the marquis to be 
of the James and Appomattox. After much greater than they were, retreated 
collecting an immense plunder in tobacco in haste down the Virginia peninsula to 
and slaves, besides destroying ships, mills, Williamsburg, blackening his pathway 
and every species of property that fell in with fire. It is estimated that during the 
his way, Phillips embarked his army and invasion — from Arnold's advent -in Janu- 
dropped some distance down the river. ary until Cornwallis reached Williamsburg 

When, soon afterwards, Cornwallis ap- late in June — property to the amount of 
proached Virginia from the south, he $15,000,000 was destroyed and 30,000 
ordered Phillips to meet him at Peters- slaves were carried away. The British, in 
burg. Before the arrival of the earl their retreat, had been closely followed by 




Lafayette, Wayne, and Steuben, and were During the War of 1812-15 its coasts 

not allowed a minute's rest until they were ravished by British marauders, 

reached Williamsburg, where they were In 1831 an insurrection occurred in 

protected by their shipping. 

Southampton county, led by a negro 

The convention to consider the Articles named Nat Turner, which alarmed the 
of Confederation, or to form a new con- whole State, but it was speedily sub- 
stitution, having met on the invitation of dued. In 1859 an attempt was made 
Virginia, courtesy assigned to the dele- by John Beown (q. v.) to free the slaves 
gates to that State the task of giving a of Virginia. Early in 1861 the question of 
start to the proceedings. Accordingly, secession divided the people. The Con- 
Governor Bandolph, after a speech on the federate leaders of Virginia found it hard 
defects of the confederation, on May 29, work to " carry out " the State, for there 
1787, offered fifteen resolutions suggest- was a strong Union sentiment among the 
ing amendments to the federal system, people, especially in the western or moun- 
They proposed a national legislature, to tain districts. They finally procured the 
consist of two branches, the members of authorization of a convention, which as- 
the first, or most numerous branch, to be sembled in Richmond, Feb. 13, 1861, with 
chosen by the people, and to be appor- John Janney as chairman. It had a 
tioned to the States in the proportion of stormy session from February until April, 
free population or taxes; those of the sec- for the Unionists were in the majority, 
ond branch to be chosen by the first, out Even as late as April 4 the convention re- 
of candidates to be nominated by the State fused, by a vote of 89 against 45, to pass 
legislatures. A separate national execu- an ordinance of secession. But the pressure 
tive was proposed, to be chosen by the of the Confederates had then become so 
national legislat- 
ure; a national 
judiciary and a 
council of revision, 
to consist of the 
executive and a 
part of the judi- 
ciary, with a quali- 
fied negative on 
every act of legis- 
lation, State as well 
as national. These 
were the principal 
features of the 
" Virginia plan," as 
it was called. It 
was referred to a 
committee, together 
with a sketch of a 
plan by Charles 
Cutes worth Pinck- 
ney, which, in its 
form and -arrange- 
ment, furnished the 
outline of the con- 
stitution as adopted. 

For many years 
the State of Vir- 
ginia maintained a 
influence in the af- 
fairs of the nation. 



nard that one weak Unionist after another 
gave way, converted by sophistry or 
threats. Commissioners were sent to 
President Lincoln, to ascertain his deter- 


mination about seceding States, who were 
told explicitly that he should defend the 
life of the republic to the best of his 
ability. Their report added fuel to the 
flame of passion then raging in Richmond. 
In the convention, the only question re- 
maining on the evening of April 15 was, 
Shall Virginia secede at once, or wait 
for the co-operation of the border slave- 
labor States? In the midst of the ex- 
citement pending that question, the con- 
vention adjourned until the next morn- 

The following day the convention as- 
sembled in secret session. For three days 
threats and persuasion had been brought 
to bear upon the faithful Union members, 
who were chiefly from the mountain dis- 
tricts of western Virginia, where slavery 
had a very light hold upon the people. On 
the adjournment, on the 15th, there was a 
clear majority of 153 in the convention 
against secession. Many of the Unionists 
gave way on the 16th. It was calculated 
that if ten Union members of the con- 
vention should be absent, there would be 
a majority for secession. That number of 
the weaker ones were waited upon on the 
evening of the 16th, and informed that 
they had the choice of doing one of three 
things — namely, to vote for a secession 
ordinance, to absent themselves, or be 

hanged.* Resistance would be useless, and 
the ten members did not appear in the con- 
vention. Other Unionists who remained in 
the convention were awed by their violent 
proceedings, and on Monday, April 17, an 
ordinance was passed by a vote of 85 
against 55 entitled, " An ordinance to re- 
peal the ratification of the Constitution 
of the United States of America by the 
State of Virginia, and to reserve all the 
rights and powers granted under said 
Constitution." ^ 

At the same time the convention passed 
an ordinance requiring the governor to 
call out as many volunteers as might be 
necessary to repel an invasion of the 
State. It was ordained that the secession 
ordinance should go into effect only when 
it should be ratified by the votes of a 
majority of the people. The day for the 
casting of such vote was fixed for May 23. 
Meanwhile the whole military force of 
Virginia had been placed under the con- 
trol of the Confederate States of America. 
Nearly the whole State was under the 
control of the military authority. At the 
time appointed for the vote, Senator 
James M. Mason, author cf the fugitive 
slave law, addressed a letter to the people, 
declaring that the ordinance of secession 
absolved them from all allegiance to the 
United States; that they were bound to 
support the " sacred pledge " made to the 
" Confederate States " by the treaty of an- 
nexation, etc. 

The Virginia convention had appointed 
ex-President John Tyler, W. Ballard Pres- 
ton, S. M. D. Moore, James P. Hol- 
combe, James C. Bruce, and Levi E. 
Harvie, commissioners to treat with 
Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President of 
the Confederate States of America, for 
the annexation of Virginia to the Southern 
Confederacy. Mr. Stephens was clothed 
with full power to make a treaty to 
that effect. It was then planned to seize 
the national capital; and at several 
places on his way towards Richmond, 
where he harangued the people, he raised 
the cry of " On to Washington!" (q. v.). 
Troops were pressing towards that goal 
from the South. He was received in 
Richmond, by the authorities of every 

* Statement by a member of the con- 
vention, cited In the Annual Cyclopaedia, 
1Sfi1. p. 735. 



kind, with as8urances that his mission 
would be successful. The leaders were 
eager for the consummation of the treaty 
before the people should vote on the 
ordinance of secession ; and on Stephens's 
arrival he and the Virginia commis- 
sioners entered upon their prescribed 
duties. On April 2-t they agreed to 
and signed a " convention between the 
commonwealth of Virginia and the Con- 
federate States of America," which pro- 
vided that, until the union of Virginia 
with the latter should be perfected, " the 
whole military force and military opera- 
tions, offensive and defensive, of said 
commonwealth in the impending con- 
flict with the United States, should be 
under the chief control and direction of 
the President of the Confederate States." 
On the following day the convention 
passed an ordinance ratifying the treaty, 
and adopting and ratifying the " pro- 
visional constitution of the Confederate 
States of America." On the same day 
John Tyler telegraphed to Governor 

Pickens, of South Carolina : " We are 
fellow-citizens once more. By an ordi- 
nance passed this day Virginia has adopt- 
ed the provisional government of the 
Confederate States." They also pro- 
ceeded to appoint delegates to the Con- 
federate Congress ; authorized the banks 
of the State to suspend specie payment; 
made provision for the establishment of 
a navy for Virginia, and for enlistments 
for the State army, and adopted other 
preparations for war. They also invited 
the Confederate States government to 
make Richmond its headquarters. The 
proclamation of the annexation was im- 
mediately put forth by John Letcher, the 
governor of Virginia. All this was done 
almost a month before the people of 
Virginia were allowed to vote on seces- 

The vote for secession was 125,950, and 
against secession 20,373. This did not in- 
clude the vote of northwestern Virginia, 
where, in convention, ten days before the 
voting, they had planted the seeds of a 





new commonwealth (see West Virginia). 
The State authorities immediately after- 
wards took possession of national property 
within the limits of Virginia, and on April 
25 action was taken for the annexation of 
the State to the Southern Confederacy, and 
surrendering the control of its military 
to the latter power. On May 7 the State 
was admitted to representation in the 
Confederate Congress, and large forces 
of Confederate troops were concentrated 
within its limits for the purpose of at- 
tempting to seize the national capital. 
From that time until the close of the Civil 

War Virginia suffered intensely from iti 

The Confederates assembled at Manas 
sas Junction attempted to take a posi- 
tion near the capital. Early in May the 
family of Col. Eobert E. Lee had left Ar- 
lington House, opposite Georgetown, with 
its most valuable contents, and joined 
him at Richmond. Under his guidance 
the Confederates were preparing to for- 
tify Arlington Heights, where heavy siege 
guns would command the cities of Wash- 
ington and Georgetown. This movement 
was discovered in time to defeat its ob- 


ject. Already Confederate pickets were 
on Arlington Heights, and at the Vir- 
ginia end of the Long Bridge across the 
Potomac. Orders were immediately given 
for National troops to occupy the shores 
of the Potomac River, opposite Wash- 
ington, and the city of Alexandria, 9 
miles below. Towards midnight, May 23, 
13,000 troops in Washington, under the 
command of General Mansfield, were put 
in motion for the passage of the Potomac 
at three points — one column to cross the 
Aqueduct Bridge at Georgetown; another 
at the Long Bridge, at Washington, and 
a third to proceed in vessels to Alexan- 
dria. Gen. Irvin McDowell led the col- 
umn across the Aqueduct Bridge, in the 
light of a full moon, and took possession 
of Arlington Heights. At the same time 
the second column was crossing the Long 
Bridge, 2 miles below, and soon joined 
McDowell's column on Arlington Heights 
and began casting up fortifications. The 

New York Fire Zouave Regiment, com- 
manded by Col. Ephraim Elmore Ells- 
wobth (q. v.), embarked in vessels and 
sailed for Alexandria, while another body 
of troops marched for the same desti- 
nation by way of the Long Bridge. The 
two divisions reached Alexandria about 
the same time. The United States frigate 
Pawnee was lying in the river off Alex- 
andria, and her commander had been in 
negotiation for the surrender of the city. 
Ignorant of this fact, Ellsworth marched 
to the centre of the town and took formal 
possession of it in the name of his gov- 
ernment, the Virginia troops having fled. 
The Orange and Alexandria Railway sta- 
tion was seized with much rolling-stock, 
and very soon Alexandria was in the quiet 
possession of the National forces. 

Governor Letcher had concentrated 
troops at Grafton, on the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railway, under Colonel Porterfield. 
A camp oif Ohio volunteers had assem- 





bled opposite Wheeling. General McClel- 
lan was assigned to the Department of 
the Ohio, which included western Vir- 
ginia and Indiana. A regiment of loyal 
Virginians had been formed at Wheeling, 
and B. F. Kelley, a native of New Hamp- 
shire, and once a resident of Wheeling, 
was invited to be its leader. It ren- 
dezvoused at the camp of the volunteers. 
Having visited Indianapolis and assured 
the assembled troops there that they 
would soon be called upon to fight for 
their country, McClellan issued an 'ad- 
dress (May 26) to the Union citizens 
of western Virginia; and then, in obe- 
dience to orders, he proceeded with volun- 
teers — Kelley's regiment and other Vir- 
ginians — to attempt to drive the Con- 
federate forces out of that region and 
advance on Harper's Ferry. He assured 
the people that the Ohio and Indiana 
troops under him should respect their 
rights. To his soldiers he said, " Your 

mission is to cross the frontier, to pro 
teet the majesty of the law, and secure 
our brethren from the grasp of armed 
traitors." Immediately afterwards Kel- 
ley and his regiment crossed over to 
Wheeling and marched on Grafton. Por- 
terfield fled in alarm, with about 1,500 
followers (one-third cavalry), and took 
post at Philippi, about 16 miles distant. 
The Ohio and Indiana troops followed 
JKelley, and were nearly all near Grafton 
on June 2. There the whole Union force 
was divided into two columns — one under 
Kelley, the other under Col. E. Dumont, 
of Indiana. These marched upon Phi- 
lippi by different routes, over rugged hills. 
Kelley and Porterfield had a severe skir- 
mish at Philippi. The Confederates, at- 
tacked by the other column, were already 
flying in confusion. The Union troops 
captured Porterfield's official papers, 
baggage, and arms. Colonel Kelley was 
severely wounded, and Colonel Dumont 


assumed the command of the combined 
columns. They retired to Grafton, where 
for a while the headquarters of the Na- 
tional troops in northwestern Virginia 
were established. So the Civil War was 
begun in western Virginia. 

After the dispersion of Garnett's forces 
in western Virginia, events seemed to 
prophesy that the war was ended in that 
region. General Cox had been successful 
in driving ex-Governor Wise and his fol- 
lowers out of the Kanawha region. He 
had crossed the Ohio at the mouth of the 
Guyandotte River, captured Barboursville, 
and pushed on to the Kanawha Valley. 
Wise was there, below Charlcstown. His 
outpost below was driven to his camp by 
1,500 Ohio troops under Colonel Lowe. 
The fugitives gave such an account of 
Cox's numbers that the general and all 

the Confederates fled (July 20), and did 
not halt until they reached Lewisburg, 
the capital of Greenbrier county. The 
news of Garnett's disaster and Wise's in- 
competence so dispirited his troops that 
la^ge numbers left him. He was rein- 
forced and outranked by John B. Floyd 
(formerly United States Secretary of 
War), who took the chief command. Mc- 
Clellan regarded the war as over in west- 
ern Virginia. " We have completely an- 
nihilated the enemy in western Virginia," 
he said in an address to his troops. 
" Our loss is about thirteen killed, and 
not more than forty wounded; while 
the enemy's loss is not far from 200 
killed, and the number of prisoners 
we have taken will amount to at least 
1,000. We have captured seven of the 
enemy's guns." Rosecrans succeeded Mc- 

X. — o 




Clellan in the chief command in that alyzed the Confederate power rn western 
region, the former having been called to Virginia. He left his troops (about 2,000 
the command of the Army of the Poto- in number) with Col. Edward Johnson, 
mac. But the Confederates were not will- of Georgia, and returned to that State, 
ing to surrender to the Nationals the gran- Reynolds had left his troops in charge of 
aries that would be needful to supply the Gen. Robert H. Milroy, consisting of a 
troops in eastern Virginia without a single brigade, to hold the mountain pass- 
struggle, and General Lee was placed in es. He scouted the hills vigorously, skir- 
the chief command of the Confederate mishing here and there, and finally, on 
forces there, superseding the incompetents. Dec. 12, moved to attack Johnson. He was 
After Lee was recalled to Richmond, at first unsuccessful, the Confederates be- 
in 1861, Floyd and Rosecrans were com- came the aggressors, and, after losing near- 
petitors for the possession of the Kana- ly 200 men, he retired. The Confederate 
wha Valley. The former, late in October, loss was about the same. Late in Decem- 
took post at a place where his cannon ber Milroy sent some troops under Major 
commanded the road over which supplies Webster to look up a Confederate force 
for the latter passed, and it was resolved at Huntersville. It was successful, after 
to dislodge or capture him. General a weary march of 50 miles over ground 
Schenck was sent to gain Floyd's rear, covered with snow. The Confederates were 
but he was hindered by a sudden flood dispersed, a large amount of stores burn- 
in New River, though the Confederates ed, and their soldiers, disheartened, al- 
were struck (Nov. 12) in front by Ken- most entirely disappeared from that re- 
_ tuckians under Major Leeper. Floyd fled gion. 
precipitately, strewing the way with tents, When McClellan's army went to the Vir- 
tent-poles, working utensils, and ammuni- ginia peninsula (April, 1862), there were 
tion in order to lighten his wagons. Gen- three distinct Union armies in the vicin- 
eral Benham, pursuing, struck Floyd's ity of the Blue Ridge, acting indepen- 
rear-guard of 400 cavalry in the flight; dently, but in co-operation with the Army 
but the pursuit was ended after a 30-mile of the Potomac. One was in the Mountain 
race, and the fugitives escaped. Floyd Department, under General Fremont; 
soon afterwards took leave of his army, a second in the Department of the Shen- 
Meanwhile General Reynolds was moving andoah, under General Banks; and a 
vigorously. Lee had left Gen. H. R. Jack- third in the newly created Department of 
son, of Georgia, with about 3,000 men, the Rappahannock, under General McDow- 
on Greenbrier River, at the foot of Cheat ell. Fremont was at Franklin, in Pendle- 
Mountain, and a small force at Hunters- ton county, early in April, with 15,000 
ville, to watch Reynolds. He was near a men; Banks was at Strasburg, in the 
noted tavern on the Staunton pike called Shenandoah Valley, with about 16.000 
"Travellers' Rest." Reynolds moved about men; and McDowell was at Frederieks- 
5,000 men of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and burg, on the Rappahannock, with 30.000 
Virginia against Jackson at the begin- men. When Washington was relieved by 
ning of October, 1861. On the morning the departure of Johnson for the penin- 
of the 2d they attacked Jackson, and sula, McDowell was ordered forward to 
were repulsed, after an engagement of co-operate with McClellan, and Shields's 
seven hours, with a loss of ten men killed division was added to his force, making it 
and thirty-two wounded. Jackson lost in about 40,000. 

picket-firing and in the trenches about Arrangements had been made for the 

200 men. Reynolds fell back to Elkwa- service of auxiliary or co-operating troops 

ter. Meanwhile General Kelley, who was in western Virginia, before the Army of 

guarding the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- the Potomac started for Richmond in May, 

road, had struck (Oct. 26) the Confeder- 1864. In that region Confederal cavalry! 

ates under McDonald at Romney, and, guerilla bands, and bushwhackers had been 

after a severe contest of two hours, rout- mischievously active for some time. Mose- 

ed them, capturing three cannon and a by was an active marauder there, and, as 

large number of prisoners. The blow early as January (1864), Gen. Fitzhtjgh 

given Jackson at "Travellers' Rest" par- Led (q. v.), with his mounted men, had 



made a fruitless raid on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railway west of Cumberland. 
A little later Gen. Jubal A. Early, in com- 
mand of the Confederates in the Shenan- 
doah Valley, sent a foraging expedition 
under Rosser in the same direction, who 
was more successful, capturing 1,200 cat- 
tle and 500 sheep at one place, and a 
company of Union soldiers at another. 
General Averill struck him near Romney 

portion of his own men and horses. Gen- 
eral Sigel was put at the head of a large 
force in the Shenandoah Valley (April, 
1804), who gave the command of the 
Kanawha Valley to General Crook. On 
his way up the valley from Staunton with 
8,000 men, Sigel was met at New Market 
by an equal force under Breckinridge. 
After much manoeuvring and skirmishing, 
Breckinridge charged on Sigel, near New 


and drove him entirely out of the new Market, and, after a sharp fight, drove 
commonwealth ( see West Virginia ), with him down the valley to the shelter of 
the loss of his prisoners and a large pro- Cedar Creek, near Strasburg, with a loss 



of 700 men, six guns, 1,000 small-arms, strength that when Hunter attacked it 

and a portion of his train. Sigel was im- (June 18) he was unable to take it. Mak- 

mediately superseded by General Hun- ing a circuitous march, the Nationals 

ter, who was instructed to move swiftly entered the Kanawha Valley, where they 

l> ~ :=^ — "-■ »- l^- _=^. 


on Staunton, destroy the railway between 
that place and Charlottesville, and then 
move on Lynchburg. Crook, meanwhile, 
had met General McCausland and fought 
and defeated him at Dublin Station, on 
the Virginia and Tennessee Railway, and 
destroyed a few miles of that road. Crook 
lost 700 men, killed and wounded. Aver- 
ill had, meanwhile, been unsuccessful in 
*,hat region. Hunter advanced on Staun- 
ton, and, at Piedmont, not far from that 
place, he fought with Generals Jones and 
McCausland (see Piedmont, Battle of). 
At Staunton, Crook and Averill joined 
Hunter, when the National forces concen- 
trated there, about 20,000 strong, moved 
towards Lynchburg by way of Lexington. 
That city was the focal point of a vast 
and fertile region, from which Lee drew 
supplies. Lee had given to Lynchburg such 


expected to find 1.500,000 rations left by 
Crook and Averill under a guard. A 
guerilla band had swept away the ra- 
tions and men, and the National army 
suffered dreadfully for want of food am 1 

May 9, 18G5, President Johnson recog 
nized Francis H. Pierpont as governor oi 
the State. He exercised jurisdiction from 
Alexandria until the installation of mil- 
itary government in 1867. • 

A new constitution was ratified on July 
6, 1869, by a majority of 197,044 votes out 
of a total of 215,422. The constitution 
was in accordance with the Fourteenth 
Amendment of the national Constitution. 
State officers and representatives in Con- 
gress were chosen at the same time ; and in 
January, 1870, Virginia was admitted to 
representation in the Congress. On June 


0, 1902, a new constitution was adopted 
by the constitutional convention, by a 
vote of 90 to 10. Population in 1890, 
1,655,980; in 1900, 1,854,184. See United 
States — Virginia, in vol. ix. 


Name. Term. 

Edward Muria Wlugfleld 1(507 

John Ratclitte 1607 to 1608 

Capl. John Smith 1008 '■ 1610 

t.eurge Percy ; 1610 " 1611 


Lord Delaware 1611 

Sir Thomas Dale 1611 

Sir Thomas Gates 1611 to 16H 


Sir Thomas Dale ,...'.. 10U 

George Yeardley 1616 

Samuel Argall 1617 

Sir George Yeardley 1619 

Sir Francis Wyatt 1621 

Sir George Yeardley 1626 

Francis West 1627 

John Potts. 1629 

John Harvey 1629 to 1636 

John West 1635 " 1036 

John Harvey 1036 " 1039 

Sir Francis Wyatt 1039 " 1641 

Sir William Berkeley 1641 " 1652 

Richard Bennett 1652 " 1055 

Edward Digges 1655 " 1656 

Samuel Matthews 1056 " 1660 

Sir William Berkeley 1600 " 1661 

CoL Francis Moryson 1661 " 1663 

Sir William Berkeley 1663 " 1677 

Sir Herhert Jeffreys 1677 " 1678 

Sir Henry Chichcley 1678 " 1680 

Lord Culpeper 1680 "1684 

Lord Howard of Effingham 1684 " 1688 

Nathaniel Bacon 1688 " 1690 

Francis Nicholson 1690 " 1692 

Sir Edmund Andros 1692 "1698 

Francis Nicholson 1698 "1705 

Edward Nott 1705 "1706 

Edmund Jennings 1706 " 1710 

Alexander Spotswood 1710 " 1722 

Hugh Drysdale 1722 " 1726 

William Gouch 1726 " 1749 

Thomas Lee and ) I7iq " nso 

Lewis Burwell ( 114B "" 

Robert Dinwiddle 1752 " 1758 

Francis Fauquier 1758 "1768 

Lord Bontetonrt 1768 " 1770 

William Nelson 1770 " 1772 

Lord Dunmore 1772 " 1776 

Provisional convention . . 

from July 17, 1775, to June 12, 1776 

Name. Term. 

Patrick Henry 1776 to 1779 

Thomas Jefferson 1779 "1781 

Thomas Nelson 1781 

Benjamin Harrison 1781 to 1784 

Patrick Henry 1784 " 1786 

Edmund Randolph.'. 1786 " 1788 

Beverly Randolph 1788 " 1791 

Henry Lee 1791 " 1794 

Robert Brooke 1794 " 1796 

James Wood 1796 " 1799 

James Monroe 1799 " 1802 

John Page 1802 " 1805 

WilllamJI. Cabell 1805 " 1808 

John Tyler 1808 "1811 

.fumes Monroe 1811 

George W. Smith 1811 to 1812 

Name, Tern. 

James Barbour 1812 to 1814 

Wilson C. Nicholas 1814 " 1816 

James P. Preston 1816 " 1819 

Thomas U. Randolph 1819 "1822 

James Pleasants. , 1822 "1826 

John Tyler i 8 25 " 1826 

William B. Giles 1826 " 1829 

John Floyd 1829 " 1830 

Littleton W Tazewell 1833 " 1836 

Wyndham Robertson 1836 " 1837 

David Campholt 1837 "1840 

fhomas W. Gilmer 1S40 " 1841 

John Rutherford 1841 "1842 

John M. Gregory 1842" 1843 

James Alclluwell 1843 " 1846 

William Smith 1846 " 1849 

John B. Floyd 1849 «< 1851 

John Johnson 1861 " 1852 

Joseph Johnson 1852 " 1856 

Henry A. Wise „. 1866 " 1860 

John Letcher i860 " 1864 

William Smith. 1864 " 1865 

Francis A. Pierpont , 1866 " 1867 

Henry A. Wells 1867 " 1869 

Gilbert C. Walker 1869 " 1874 

James L. Kemper 1874 " 1878 

F. W. M. Holliday 1878 " 1882 

W. E. Cameron 1882 "• 1886 

Fitz-Hugb 1886 " 1890 

Philip W. McKinney. 1890 " 1894 

Charles T. O'Ferrall 1894 " 1898 

J. Hoge Tyler 1898 " 1902 

A. J. Montague 1902 " 1906 

Llaude A. bwansun 1906 " 1910 



Richard Henry Lee 

Williahi Grayson 

John Walker 

James M onroe 

John Taylor. 

Henry .Tazewell 

Stevens Thomson Mason. . 

Wilson Cary Nicholas 

Andrew Moore 

William B. Giles 

John Taylor 

Abraham B. Venable. . 

Richard Brent 

James Barbour 

Armistead T. Mason 

John W. Eppes 

James Pleasants 

John Taylor 

Littleton W. Tazewell.... 

John Randolph 

John Tyler 

William C. Rives 

Benjamin W. Leigh 

Richard E. Parker 

William C. Rives 

William H. Roane 

William S. Archer 

Isaac S. Pennybacker 

James M. Mason 

Robert M. T. Hunter 

John S. Carlile 

Waiteman T. Willey.. ... . . 

John J. Bowden 

39th and 40th 

John W. Johnston 

John F. Lewis 

Robprt E Withers 

William Wnhone 

H. H. Rlddleherger 

John W. Daniel 

John S. -Barbour 

Eppa Hunton 

Thomas S. Martin 

No. of Congress. 

1st to 
1st to 
2d " 
3d " 
4th " 
6th " 

5 th 

11th to 13th 
13th " 19th 
16th to 17th 
17th " 18th 
27 th 
37 th 

37 th 

38 th 







24 th 







1789 to 1792 

1789 " 1790 

1790 to 1796 
1792 " 1794 

1794 " 1799 

1795 " 1803 
1800 " 1804 
1804 " 1809 

1814 " 1815 

1803 to 1804 
1809 " 1814 

1815 " 1826 

1816 " 1817 

1817 " 1819 
1819 " 1822 
1822 " 1824 

1824 " 1832 

1825 " 1827 
1827 " 1836 

1833 " 1834 

1834 " 1836 
1836 " 1837 

1836 " 1845 

1837 " 1841 
1841 " 1847 
1845 " 1847 
1847 " 1861 
1847 " 1861 

1861 to 1863 
1868 " 1864 

Congresses vacant. 



to 44th 

44 th 

" 47th 


" 60th 


" 51st 




" 62d 


" 54th 


ji __ 

1870 to 1883 
1870 " 1875 
1875 " 1881 
1881 " 1887 
1883 " 1889 

1887 " 

1889 " 1892 
1892 " 1896 
1895 " 



Virginia Resolutions of 1798. See tem to the Society of Arts, London, March 

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. 14, 1866, and published a book in 1867. 

Virginius, The. Troubles with the Vogdes, Israel, military officer; born 

Spanish authorities in Cuba and menaces in Willistown, Pa., Aug. 4, 1816; gradu- 

of war with Spain existed since filibuster- ated at West Point in 1837, where he 

ing movements from the United States remained two years assistant Professor 

to that island began, in 1850. An insur- of Mathematics. He entered the artillery, 

rection had broken out in Cuba, and as- and served in the Seminole War. In May, 

sumed formidable proportions, carrying on 1861, he was made major. He gallantly 

civil war for several years. When the defended Fort Pickens (q. v.) from Feb- 

Cuban junta in New York City began ruary to October, 1861, when he was made 

to fit out vessels to carry men and war prisoner in the night attack on Santa Rosa 

materials to the insurgent camps, the Island. He was active in the operations 

United States government, determined to on Folly and Morris islands against forts 

observe the strictest neutrality and im- Wagner and Sumter, and commanded the 

partiality, took measures to suppress the defences of Norfolk and Portsmouth in 

hostile movements; but irritations on the 1864-65. In April, 1865, he was brevetted 

part of the Spanish authorities continued, brigadier-general, United States army, and 

and, finally, late in 1873, war between in 1881 was retired. He died in New 

Spain and the United States seemed in- York, Dee. 7, 1889. 

evitable. The steamship . Virginius, flying Volk, Stephen Arnold Douglas, 
the United States flag, suspected of carry- artist; born in Pittsfield, Mass., Feb. 23, 
ing men and supplies to the insurgent 1856; studied in Italy in 1871-73; was the 
Cubans, was captured by a Spanish cruiser pupil of Ger6me in Paris in 1873-75; and 
off the coast of Cuba, taken into port, and was elected to the Society of American 
many of her passengers, her captain, and Artists in 1880. His works include The 
some of the crew were publicly shot by Puritan Maiden; The Puritan Captives; 
the local military authorities. The af- Accused of Witchcraft, etc. 
fair produced intense excitement in the Volney, Constantin Francois Chasse- 
United States. There was, for a while, bceuf Boisgirais, Comte de, author; born 
a hot war-spirit all over the Union; but in Craon, France, Feb. 3, 1757. When war 
wise men in control of the governments with France seemed to be inevitable, in 
of the United States and Spain calmly 1798, suspicions of the designs of French- 
considered the international questions in- men in the country were keenly awakened, 
volved, and settled the matter by diplo- Talleyrand, who had resided awhile in the 
macy. There were rights to be acknowl- United States, was suspected of having 
edged by both parties. The Virginius was acted as a spy for the French government, 
surrendered to the United States authori- and other exiled Frenchmen were suspected 
ties, and ample reparation for the out- of being on the same errand. It was known 
rage was offered, excepting the impos- that Frenchmen were busy in Kentucky 
sible restoration of the lives taken by and in Georgia fomenting discontents, and 
the Spaniards. While the vessel was on it was strongly suspected that M. de Vol- 
its way to New York, under an escort, ney, who had explored the Western coun- 
it sprang aleak off Cape Fear, at the try, ostensibly with only scientific views, 
close of December (1873), and went to was acting in the capacity of a spy for 
the bottom of the sea. See Cuba; Spain, the French government, with a view to 
War with. finally annexing the country west of the 

Visible Speech, a system of communi- Alleghany Mountains to Louisiana, which 
cation devised by Alexander Melville Bell, France was about to obtain by a secret 
who called it a " universal self-interpret- treaty with Spain. These suspicions led to 
ing physiological alphabet." It pomprises the enactment of the Alien and Sedition 
thirty symbols representing the forms of Laws (q. v.). The passage of the alien 
the mouth when uttering sounds. About law alarmed Volney and other Frenchmen, 
fifty symbols, the inventor asserts, would and two or three ship-loads left the Unit- 
be required to represent the sounds of all ed States for France. He died in Paris, 
known languages. He expounded his sys- France, April 25, 1820. 



Volunteer Refreshment Saloons, share. The citizens of Philadelphia so 

Working in harmony with the organiza- generously supplied these committees with 

tions of the United States Sanitaby means that during the war almost 1,200,- 

Commission and Christian Commission 000 Union soldiers received a bountiful 

(qq. v.), were houses of refreshment and meal at their saloons. In the Union Sa- 

temporary hospital accommodations fur- loon 750,000 soldiers were fed ; 40,000 were 

nished by the citizens of Philadelphia. That aocommodated with a night's lodging; 

city lay in the channel of the great stream 15,000 refugees and freedmen were cared 

of volunteers from New England after the for, and employment found for them; and 

call of the President (April 15, 1861) for in the hospital attached the wounds of al- 

75,000 men. The soldiers, crossing New most 20,000 soldiers were dressed. The 

Jersey, and the Delaware River at Cam- refreshment-tables and the sick-room were 

den, were landed at the foot of Washing- attended by women. At all hours of the 

ton Avenue, Philadelphia, where, wearied night, when a little signal-gun was fired, 

and hungry, they often vainly sought for these self-sacrificing women would repair 

sufficient refreshments in the bakeries and to their post of duty, 

groceries in the neighborhood before enter- Volunteers of America, The, a philan- 

ing the cars for Washington. One morning thropic and religious organization, in- 

the wife of a mechanic living near, com- augurated in March, 1896, by Commander 

miserating the situation of some of the and Mrs. Ballington Booth in response to 

soldiers who had just arrived, went with numerous requests on the part of Ameri- 

her coffee-pot and a cup and distributed can citizens. It is organized in military 

its contents among them. That generous style, having as its model the United 

hint was the germ of a wonderful system States army, but in conjunction with mili- 

of beneficent relief to the passing soldiers tary discipline and methods of work it 

which was immediately developed in that possesses a thoroughly democratic form of 

city. Some benevolent women living in government, having as its ideal the Con- 

the vicinity of this landing-place of the stitution of the United States of America, 

volunteers imitated their patriotic sister, Its adherence to American principles has 

and a few of them formed themselves into been further signalized by the movement 

a committee for the regular distribution having been incorporated in November, 

of coffee on the arrival of soldiers. 1896. The object of the volunteers is to 

Gentlemen in the neighborhood interest- reach with the gospel of the Bible the 
ed themselves in procuring other supplies, millions of this and other countries which 
and for a few days these were dispensed have hitherto been unreached by any exist- 
under the shade of trees in front of a ing religious organization. The fact is 
cooper-shop at the corner of Otsego Street recognized that these untouched m?sses 
and Washington Avenue. Then the cooper- pervade every section of society, and while 
shop (belonging to William Cooper) was those of the lowliest walks of life — the 
used. The citizens of Philadelphia be- poor, the vicious, the criminal, the drunk- 
came deeply interested in the benevolent ard, and others — will always be the ob- 
work, and provided ample means to carry ject of the tenderest solicitude of the 
it on. Whole regiments were supplied, volunteers, the teeming thousands of the 
The cooper-shop was too small to accom- middle class, and the sinful and godless 
modate the daily increasing number of in even aristocratic circles, will also be 
soldiers, and another place of refreshment confronted with the eternal truths of 
was opened on the corner of Washington divine revelation and the gospel of full 
Avenue and Swanson Street, in a building salvation. 

formerly used as a boat-house and rigger's The volunteers are represented in nearly 

loft. Two volunteer refreshment-saloon 150 cities and towns in this country. Dur- 

committees were formed, and known re- ing the nine months between Jan. 1 and 

spectively as the Cooper-shop and the Sept. 30, 1900, 1,113,683 persons were 

Union. They worked in harmony and ac- present at the 30,000 Sunday and week- 

complished wonderful results all through night services held in volunteer halls. Re- 

the period of the war. In these labors ports further show that 1,733,637 individ- 

the women of Philadelphia bore a large uals were attracted to the 11,532 open- 



air services conducted. This is an annual 
aggregate attendance of nearly four mill- 
ion persons. In addition to the many 
thousands who are fed during Thanks- 
giving, Christmas, and other holiday oc- 
casions, homes have been established in a 
number of the larger cities for housing the 

The prison branch of th» work has now 
organized leagues in thirteen of the lead- 
ing State-prisons, including nearly 7,000 
members, and is in touch with over 17,000 
men within the prison walls, and 75 per 
cent, of the 4,500 men who have come out 
under its influence are living reformed 

The volunteers seek to co-operate with 
all the existing evangelical churches and 
religious organizations. To this end the 
commander-in-chief was ordained a " pres- 
byter of the Church of God in general." 
The sacrament of the holy communion is 
administered in the volunteer meetings by 
properly qualified and ordained staff offi- 
cers at least once a month. The sacrament 
of baptism is also recognized, but its 
observance is left perfectly optional with 
every individual volunteer. „ 

Von Hoist, Hermann Edttard. See 
Holst, Hermann Eduard von. 

Voorhees, Daniel Wolsey, legislator; 
born in Liberty, O., Sept. 26, 1827; grad- 
uated at Indiana (now de Pauw) Uni- 
versity in 1849; admitted to the bar and 
began practice in Covington, Ind., in 1851; 
was United States district attorney for 
Indiana in 1859-61 ; member of Congress 
in 1861-66 and 1869-73; and United States 
Senator from Indiana in 1877-97. During 
his services in the Senate he was a mem- 
ber of the committees on elections, appro- 

priations, finance, immigration, library, 
and international expositions. Because of 
his tall, erect figure he was named " The 
Tall Sycamore of the Wabash." He died 
in Washington, D. C, April 10, 1897. 

Voorhees, Philip Falkerson, naval 
officer; born in New Brunswick, N. J., in 
1792; entered the navy as midshipman in 
1809; was promoted commander in 1828, 
and captain in 1838. He took part in the 
war of 1812-15; participating in the capt- 
ure of the Macedonia by the United 
States and the Epervier by the Peacock; 
served on the frigate Congress in 1842- 
45 ; during which time he assisted in rescu- 
ing the stranded British steamer Gorgon 
in the La Platte River; and also captured 
an armed Argentina squadron and an 
allied cruiser. The latter action occa- 
sioned a series of charges on which he was 
court-martialled in 1845; but was restored 
to his fuH rank in the navy, and given 
command of the East India squadron, 
where he remained till 1851; and was 
placed on the retired list in 1855. He 
died in Annapolis, Md., Feb. 26, 1862. 

Vose, Joseph, military officer; born in 
Milton, Mass., Nov. 26, 1738; led the ex- 
pedition which destroyed the light-house 
and hay on islands in Boston Harbor, May 
27, 1775. In November he was made lieu- 
tenant-colonel of Greaton's regiment, and 
accompanied it to Canada in the spring 
of 1776. In 1777 he joined the main army 
in New Jersey, and his last military ser- 
vice was under Lafayette at Yorktown. 
He died in Milton, Mass., May 22, 1816. 

Voyages. See United States of Amer- 
ica [Pre-Columbian History) . 

Vries, David Pi'eterssen de. See De 
Vries, David Pieterssen. 


Waddell, Hugh, military officer; born Wade, Benjamin Franklin, statesman; 
in Lisburn, Ireland, in 17S4; settled in born near Springfield, Mass., Oct. 27, 1800; 
North Carolina in 1753; was made lieu- removed to Ashtabula, O., in 1821; ad- 
teDant in the regiment of Col. James mitted to the bar in 1827; elected pros- 
Innes and took part" in the Virginia ecuting attorney in 1835 ; State Senator in 
campaign in 1758; built Fort Dobbs, 1837; and was United States Senator in 
which he commanded in 1756-57. During 
the expedition to Fort Duquesne in 1758 
he commanded the North Carolina troops; 
promoted colonel in 1759. When the 
English war - vessel Diligence, which 
brought over the stamped paper, endeav- 
ored to land a detachment of troops at 
Brunswick in 1765, he seized the ship's 
boat, and compelled William Houston, the 
stamp officer, to sign a pledge in public, 
promising that he would " never receive 
any stamped paper which might arrive 
from England, nor officiate in any way in 
the distribution of stamps in the province 
of North Carolina." In 1771 he con- 
ducted the campaign against the regu- 
lators. He died in Castle Haynes, N. C, 
April 9, 1773. 

Waddell, James Iredell, naval officer; 
born in Pittsboro, N. C, in 1824; gradu- 
ated at the United States Naval Acad- 
emy; resigned from the navy in 1861, 
and entered the Confederate service in the 
following year; commanded the ram Lou- 
isiana at New Orleans till the engagement 
with Farragut's fleet, when he destroyed 
that vessel by blowing her up ; later was 
ordered to England, where in 1864 he took 
command of the Shenandoah, with which 

he cruised in the Pacific Ocean, destroy- 1851-69. He was a conspicuous anti- 
ing vessels till Aug. 2, 1865, when he slavery leader, opposed the Kansas- 
learned that Lee had surrendered more Nebraska bill; favored the homestead bill 
than three months before. Returning to and the confiscation of property in slaves. 
England he surrendered his vessel to the He was acting Vice-President.of the United 
United States consul at Liverpool, and he States under President Johnson; and one 
and his crew were liberated. The Shen- of the commissioners to Santo Domingo in 
andoah, under Captain Waddell, was the 1871. He died in Jefferson, O., March 2, 
only vessel that ever carried the Confeder- 1878. 

ate flag around the world. He died in Wade, James F., military officer; born 
Annapolis, Md., March 15, 1886. in Ohio, April 14, 1843; was commission- 


m ' iffl 


pg^* Jill 


i^fea^ '^(BE&atetS 

^1 ~li&-'~%mSsm 







ed first lieutenant 6th United States Cav- by Horatio Seymour. In December h« 
airy, May 14, 1861 ; promoted captain and commanded a division under Burnside in 
major in 1866; lieutenant - colonel 10th the battle of Fredericksburg; also in the 
Cavalry in 1879; colonel 5th Cavalry on battles of Chancellorsville and Gettys- 
April 21, 1887; and brigadier-general, May burg in 1863. Early in 1864 he was sent 
26, 1897. In the volunteer service he was on special service to the Mississippi Val- 
commissioned colonel, Sept. 19, 1864; brev- ley; and at the opening of the campaign 
ctted brigadier-general, Feb. 13, 1865; and ■against Richmond he led a division of the 
mustered out of the service, April 15, 1866. 5th Corps, and was mortally wounded in 
On May 4, 1898, he was commissioned a the battle of the Wilderness, dying near 
major-general of volunteers for the war Chancellorsville, Va., May 8, 1864. 
against Spain, and was honorably dis- Wadsworth, Peleg, military officer; 
charged from this service, June 12, 1899. born in Duxbury, Mass., May 6, 1748; 
General Wade was chairman of the Ameri- graduated at Harvard College in 1769. As 
can commission to arrange and supervise captain of minute-men, he joined the army 
the evacuation of Cuba (Jan. 1, 1899), gathering around Boston in the spring of 
and subsequently ,was appointed command- 1775; became aide to General Ward; and 
er of the Military Department of Dakota, afterwards adjutant-general for Massa- 

Wadsworth, James, military officer; chusetts. He was in the battle of Long 
born in Durham, Conn., July 6, 1730; Island: and in 1777 was made brigadier- 
graduated at Yale College in 1748; was general of militia, serving, in 1779, as 
a member of the committee of safety at second in command in the Penobscot expe- 
the outbreak of the Revolutionary War; dition, where he was taken prisoner. In 
became brigadier-general of Connecticut February, 1781, he was captured and con- 
militia in 1776, and major-general in 1777, fined in the fort at Castine, whence he 
when he was assigned to the defence of escaped in June. After the war he en- 
the coast towns of_ his State. Later he gaged in business in Portland and in sur- 
presided over the New Haven county veying, and in 1792 he was elected a State 
court of common pleas, and was a mem- Senator. From 1792 to 1806 he was a 
ber of the Continental Congress in 1783- member of Congress. He died in Hiram, 
86. He died in Durham, Conn., Sept. 22, Me., Nov. 18, 1829. 
1817. Wadsworth., William, military officer; 

Wadsworth, James Samuel, military born in Durham, Conn., in 1732; was an 
officer; born in Geneseo, N. Y., Oct. 30, early settler, with his brother James, in 
1807; educated at Harvard and Yale col- western New York; and when the War of 
leges; studied law with Daniel Webster; 1812-15 broke out he was a brigadier-gen- 
and was admitted to the bar in 1833, but eral of New York militia. He served in 
never practised, having sufficient employ- that war from June 15 to Nov. 12, 1812, 
ment in the management of a large patri- and was distinguished in the assault on 
monial estate. He was a member of the Queenston Heights (Oct. 13, 1812), where 
peace convention in 1861, and was one of he was in command when the Ameri- 
the first to offer his services to the govern- cans surrendered, giving up his sword in 
ment when the Civil War broke out. When person to General Sheaffe. He died in 
communication between Washington and Geneseo, N. Y., in February, 1833. 
Philadelphia was cut off in April, 1861, Wagner, Arthur Lockwood, military 
tic chartered a vessel and filled it with officer; born in Ottawa, 111., March 16, 
supplies, with which he sailed for Annapo- 1853 ; graduated at the United States Mil- 
lis with timely relief for Union soldiers itary Academy in 1875; promoted captain, 
there. In June he was volunteer aide on April 2, 1892; major, Nov. 17, 1896; lieu- 
General McDowell's staff, and was noted tenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-gen- 
for bravery in the battle of Bull Run. In eral, Feb. 26, 1898 ; was instructor of 
August he was made brigadier-general of the art of war in the United States in- 
volunteers, and in March, 1862, military fantry and cavalry school at Fort Leav- 
governor of the District of Columbia. In onworth, Kan., in 1886-97; served on the 
that year he was Republican candidate for staff of General Miles during the war with 
governor of New York, but was defeated Spain; detached for duty on the staff of 



Major-General Lawton until the fall of - Destruction of Spanish Destroyers.— 

Santiago ; ordered to the Philippines in The following is Commander Wainwright'a 

December, 1899, where he was adjutant- report on the destruction of the dreaded 

general of the 1st Division of the 8th Spanish torpedo-boat destroyers Furor 

Army Corps, on the staff of Major-Gen- and Pluton during the naval battle off 

eral Bates till April, 1900; was then ap- Santiago: 
pointed adjutant-general for the Southern 

Department of Luzon. His publications United States Steamship Gloucester, 
include The Campaign of Koniggratz ; Off Santiago de Cuba, 
Organization and Tactics; The Service of July 6, 1898. 
Security and Information; A Catechism of Sir, — I have the honor to report that 
Outpost Duty; The Military Necessities at the battle of Santiago, on July 3, the 
of the United States and the Best Pro- officers and crew of the Gloucester were 
visions for Meeting Them (a prize es- uninjured, and the vessel was not injured 
say.) in hull or machinery, the battery only re- 
Wagner, Fort, a defensive work erected quiring some slight overhauling. It is now 
by the Confederates on the north end of in excellent condition. 
Morris Island, S. C, about 2,600 yards I enclose herewith a copy of the report 
from Fort Sumter. It was first assaulted of the executive officer, made in compliance 
by the Federals on July 11, 1863. Seven with paragraph 525, page 110, Naval Reg- 
days afterwards a more determined assault ulations, which report I /believe to be 
was made after a bombardment by bat- correct in all particulars. I also enclose 
teries and fleet, which failed with a loss copies of the reports of the several offi- 
to the Federals of 1,500 men. From this cers, which may prove valuable for future 
time it was under an almost continuous reference. 

fire until Sept. 7, 1863, when it was evacu- It was the plain duty of the Gloucester 
ated, the Federals having advanced their to look after the destroyers, and she was 
parallels, nearly to the fort. Although held back, gaining steam, until they ap- 
122,300 founds of metal had been hurled peared at the entrance. The Indiana 
at the fort during the last two days of the poured in a hot fire from all her secondary 
siege at short range from breaching guns, battery upon the destroyers, but Captain 
none of them less than 100-pounders, the Taylor's signal, " Gunboats, close in," 
bomb-proofs were found intact, showing gave security that we would not be fired 
the power of resistance in sand. upon by our own ships. Until the leading 
Wagner, Samuel, lawyer; born in destroyer was injured our course was con- 
Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 28, 1842; received verging, necessarily, but as soon as she 
a collegiate education ; was admitted to the slackened her speed we headed directly for 
bar in 1866 ; was a founder of the Pennsyl- both vessels, firing both port and star- 
vania Museum and School of Industrial board batteries as the occasion offered. 
Art; and became president of the Wagner All the officers and nearly all the men 
Institute of Science in 1885. deserved my highest praise during the 
Wainwright, Richard, naval officer; action. The escape of the Gloucester wa? 
born in Washington, D. C, Dec. 17, 1849; due mainly to the accuracy and rapidity 
graduated at the United States Naval of the fire. The efficiency of this fire, a.: 
Academy in 1868; promoted lieutenant- well as that of the ship generally, wa: 
commander, Sept. 16, 1884, and command- largely due to the intelligent and unremit- 
er, March 3, 1899; was executive officer on ting efforts of the executive officer, Lieut, 
the battle-ship Maine when she was de- Harry P. Huse. The result is more to his 
stroyed in Havana Harbor in February, credit when it is remembered that a large 
1898; served in the war against Spain as portion of the officers and men were un- 
commander of the Gloucester; partici- trained when the Gloucester was commis- 
pated in the destruction of Cervera's fleet, sioned. Throughout the action he was on 
in July, 1898; was superintendent of the the bridge, and carried out my orders with 
United States Naval Academy in 1900-02; great coolness. 

commanded the Newark in 1903. See That we were able to close in with the 

Santiago, Naval Battle of. destroyers— and until we did so they were 



not seriously injured — was largely due to The admiral, Ms officers and men, were 

the skill and constant attention of pass- treated with all consideration and care 

ed assistant Engineer George W. McEl- possible. They were fed and clothed as far 

roy. The blowers were put on, and the as our limited means would permit, 
speed increased to 17 knots without caus- Very Respectfully, 

ing a tube to leak or a brass to heat. Richard Wainwbight. 

Lieut. Thomas C. Wood, Lieut. George H. Lieutenant-Commander, U. S. N. 

Norman, Jr., and Ensign John T. Edson Tc the Commander-in-Chief, United States 
not only controlled the fire of the guns Naval Forces, North Atlantic Station. 
in their divisions and prevented waste of Waite, Davis Hansom, lawyer; born in 

ammunition, but they also did some ex- Jamestown, N. Y., April 9, 1825; received 

cellent shooting themselves. an academic education ; was a merchant 

Acting assistant Surgeon J. P. Brans- in Wisconsin in 1850-57; member of the 

ford took charge of one of the guns, and Wisconsin legislature in the latter year; 

fired it himself occasionally. Acting as- settled in Kansas in 1876 and there prac- 

sistant Paymaster Alexander Brown had tised law and carried on a ranch till 1879. 

charge of the two Colt guns, firing one He then removed to Leadville, Col., where 

himself, and they did excellent work. As- he followed his profession till 1881, when 

sistant Engineer A. M. Proctor carried my he became editor of the' Union Era, in 

orders from the bridge, and occasionally Aspen, Col. In 1892 he was a member of 

fired a gun when I found it was not being the St. Louis conference which formed the 

served quite satisfactorily. All were cool People's party; and in 1893-94 governor of 

and active at a time when they could have Colorado. He died at Aspen, Col., Nov. 

had but little hope of escaping uninjured. 27, 1901. 

Lieutenants Wood and Norman, Ensign Waite, Morrison Remick, jurist; born 

Edson and assistant Engineer Proctor in Lyme, Conn., Nov. 29, 1816; graduated 

were in charge of the boats engaged in at Yale College in 1837; settled in Mau- 

saving life. They all risked their lives mee City, 0., and was chosen a member 

repeatedly in boarding and remaining of the Ohio legislature in 1849. In 1850 

near the two destroyers and the two he made his residence at Toledo, and be- 

armored cruisers when their guns were came very prominent at the bar in Ohio, 

being discharged by the heat and their He declined an election to Congress and a 

magazines and boilers were exploding, seat on the bench of the Superior Court 

They also showed great skill in landing of Ohio. He was one of the counsel for the 

and taking off the prisoners through the United States "at the Geneva tribunal of 

surf. arbitration, was president of the Ohio 

Of the men mentioned in the several re- constitutional convention in 1873, and 
ports, I would call special attention to on March 4, 1874, he was appointed chief- 
John Bond, chief boatswain's mate. He justice of the United States Supreme 
would have been recommended to the de- Court. He died in Washington, D. C, 
partment for promotion prior to his gal- March 23, 1888. 

'ant conduct during the action of July 3. Wake Island, an island in the North 

i. would also recommend to your attention Pacific Ocean, about midway between 

Robert P. Jennings, chief machinist, men- Hawaii and Hong-Kong. On July 4, 1898, 

tioned in the report of Mr. McElroy. Gen. Francis V. Greene, with a few offi- 

l believe it would have a good effect cers, while en route to Manila, went 

to recognize the skill of the men and the ashore on the Island, made observations, 

danger incurred by the engineer's force, found no traces of inhabitants, planted a 

I would also recommend that the acting record of possession, and raised the flag 

appointments of those men mentioned by of the United States. On General Greene's 

the officers in their reports may be made report the United States government de- 

permanent. termined to take formal possession of the 

The wounded and exhausted prisoners island, which was not known to have 

were well and skilfully tended by assistant been inhabited for more than sixty years. 

Surgeon Bransford, assisted by Ensign Instructions were, accordingly, given to 

Edson, who is also a surgeon. Commander Taussig, of the Bennington. 



and on Jan. 17, 1899, that officer and his vessels are generally running fast before 
crew made a landing and erected a flag- the wind. " At 5 p.m.," he says, " the look- 
staff. When this was in place the sailors out on the foretop-gallant yard saw low 
were formed in two ranks, facing sea- land on the starboard bow. I went aloft 
ward, and, having called all to witness and saw from the topsail yard a very low 
that the island was not in the possession island, rather higher in the centre than 
of any other nation, Commander Taussig at the ends, and covered with low bui.hes. 
ordered the American flag to be raised It was dark before we approached it suffi- 
by Ensign Wettengell. Upon reaching ciently near to make observations, but 
the truck the flag was saluted by twenty- I am confident it would not be seen more 
one guns from the Bennington. After than 5 miles off deck by daylight, and in 
the salute the flag was nailed to the mast- a dark night never in time to avoid i£." 
head with battens, and a brass plate with The famous Wilkes expedition west- 
the following inscription was screwed to ward from San Francisco to New York 
the base of the flag-staff: " United States hove to off Wake Island on the night 
of America. William McKinley, Presi- of Dec. 19, 1841, and in the morning after 
dent ; John D. Long, Secretary of the breakfast a number of boats were sent 
Navy; Coiamander Edward D. Taussig, ashore to make a survey. They reported 
U. S. N., commanding the United States a coral island, not more than 8 feet high, 
steamship Bennington, this 17th day of and apparently at times submerged. The 

January, 1899, took possession of the atoll 
known as Wake Island, for the United 
States of America." 
Wake Island is supposed to be the Des- 

fish in the lagoon included some fine 
mullet. The birds were few in number, 
and very tame, ana " Mr. Peale found 
here the short-tailed albatross, and pro- 

ierta — that is, the " desert," and La Mira, cured an egg from its nest." There were 

1 take care " — of the charts of the Span 
ish galleon taken by Anson in 1743. It 
was discovered in 1796 by the 
William Henry, and is found on 
chart that accompanies Perouse's voy- 

low shrubs upon the is^nd, but no fresb 
water, and neither pandanus nor cocoa- 
Prince nut trees. The outlying reef was very 
the small. 

The chief importance of the island to 

ages, published in 1797. It is often seen the United States is its convenient lo- 
and reported as a reef or an island under cation for a station for the new cable 

various names — Wake, Week, Halcyon, 
Helsion, and Wilson being the most fre- 
quent. It Is not to be confounded with 
Weeks Island, or with another Wake Isl- 
and on the western coast of Patagonia. 

from San Francisco to the Philippine 
Islands. See Submarine Cables. 

Wakefield Estate, in Virginia, the 
birthplace of George Washington; about 
half a mile from the junction of Pope's 

Wake Island is nearly or quite awash Creek with the Potomac, in Westmoreland 

in heavy gales ; very low and steep to county. The house was destroyed before the 

seaward; from 9 to 20 miles in circum- Revolution, but upon its site George W. 

ference, according to wind and tide. The P. Custis placed a slab of freestone, June, 

larger portion of it is a lagoon. The 1815, with the simple inscription: "Here, 

vegetation is very scanty, and there is the 11th of February (0. S.), 1732, George 

no frssh water. The only food to be Washington was born." 
found consists of a few birds and plenty "Walbach, John Baptiste de Babth, 

of fish. The island has been examined by Baron de, military officer; born in Miin- 

Wilkes, of the United States exploring ster, Germany, Oct. 3, 1766; was in the 

expedition; by English, of the United French military service; came to America 

States navy; by Sproule, of the Maria; by in 1796; studied law with Alexander Ham 

Cargill, by Wood, by the missionary ship ilton ; and entered the United States army 

Morning Star, and by many others. It as lieutenant of cavalry in 1799. In June, 

was described by Captain Sproule, in 1848, 1813, he was made assistant adjutant- 

as a very dangerous spot lying immediate- general, with the rank of major, and did 

ly in the track of vessels from Peru, good service on the northern frontier in 

Central America, and the Sandwich Isl- the War of 1812-15. He died in Balti' 

anda, and in a part of the ocean where more, Md., June 10, 1857. 



Walcot, Charles Meton, playwright ; staff of the German army to succeed Count 

born in London, England, in 1815; re- von Moltke in 1888; field-marshal in 1895; 

ceived a collegiate education; became an and commander of the allied armies in 

architect, but later turned his attention China in 1900. The countess is credited 

to the stage; came to the United States with possessing a powerful influence in the 

and appeared first in Charleston, S. C, German Court, and with having brought 

in 1839; became popular; moved to Phila- about the marriage of Emperor William 

delphia in 1866. His original plays in- II. with the Princess Augusta Victoria, 

elude Washington, or Valley Forge; The Waldo, Aujigence, surgeon; born in 

Custom of the Country; The Haunted Pomfret, Conn., Feb. 27, 1750. At the 

Man; and Hiawatjia. He died in Phila- outbreak of the Revolutionary War he was 

delphia, Pa., May 10, 1868. made a surgeon's mate in the army, but 

Waldenses (also called Valdenses, Val- on account of feeble health was soon dis- 
lenses, and Vaudois), a sect inhabiting charged. In December, 1776, he was ap- 
the Cottian Alps, derive their name, ac- pointed chief surgeon of the ship Oliver 
cording to some authors, from Peter de Cromwell; in April, 1777, joined the regi- 
Waldo, of Lyons (1170). They were ment of Col. Jedediah Huntington, and 
known, however, as early as 1100, their was its surgeon during the campaigns in 
confession of faith published 1120. Their New Jersey and Pennsylvania. He won 
doctrine condemned by the council of distinction at Monmouth and Valley Forge 
Lateran, 1179. They had a translation of through his service in inoculating the 
the Bible, and allied themselves to the troops against emall-pox. He died in 
Albigenses, whose persecution led to the Windham county, Conn., Jan. 29, 1794. 
establishment of the holy office or in- Waldo, Daniel, clergyman; born in 
quisition. The Waldenses settled in the Windham, Conn., Sept. 10, 1762; gradu- 
valleys of Piedmont about 1375, but were ated at Yale College in 1788; was a soldier 
frequently dreadfully persecuted, notably in the Revolutionary army; suffered the 
1545—46, 1560, 1655—56, when Oliver Crom- horrors of imprisonment in a sugar-house 
well, by threats, obtained some degree of in New York, and was pastor and mis- 
toleration for them; again in 1663-64 and sionary from 1792. At the age of ninety- 
1686. They were permitted to have a three he was chaplain of the national 
chuTch at Turin, December, 1853. In House of Representatives, when his voice 
March, 1868, it was stated that there and step were as vigorous as a man of 
were in Italy twenty-eight ordained Wal- sixty. He died in Syracuse, N. Y., July 
densian ministers and thirty other teach- 30, 1864. 

ers. Early in 1893 a delegation was sent Waldo, Samuel Putnam, author; born 

to the United States to investigate the in Connecticut in 1780; applied himself 

advantages of forming a settlement in to literature, and published Narrative of a 

some favorable locality. It resulted in Tour of Observation made During the Sum- 

their purchasing several thousand acres mer of 1817, by James Monroe, President 

of land in Burke county, N. C, and estab- of the United States, with Sketch of His 

lishing a colony the same year, calling the Life; Memoirs of Gen. Andrew Jackson; 

place Waldese. Life and Character of Stephen Decatur; 

Waldersee, Mary Esther, Countess and Biographical Sketches of Com. Nicho- 
Von, born in New York City, Oct. 3, 1837 ; las Biddle, Paul Jones, Edwardi Preble, 
daughter of David Lee; spent her early and Alexander Murray. He died in Hart- 
years in Paris with her sister, Josephine, ford, Conn., in March, 1826. 
the wife of Baron August von Waechter, Waldron, Richard, military officer; 
ambassador from Wiirtemberg to Prance, born in Warwickshire, England, Sept. 2, 
There Mary became the wife of Prince 1615; came to Boston in 1635, and settled 
Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonder- at Dover, N. H., in 1645. He represented 
burg-Augustenburg-NoSr, who had been that district from 1654 to 1676, and was 
exiled. The prince died July 2, 1865, soon seven years speaker. He was councillor 
after his marriage. In 1871 his widow and chief-justice, ai.d in 1681 was presi- 
married Albert, Count von Waldersee, dent. Being chief military leader in that 
who was appointed chief of the general region, he took an active part in Kins 



Philip's War. Inviting Indians to Dover leans, La., where he established a law 

to treat with them, he seized several hun- practice and engaged in journalism; was 

dred of them, and hanged or sold into editor at different times of the Louisiana 

slavery 200. They fearfully retaliated Democracy, the Delta, the Times, the 

thirteen years afterwards. Two appar- Picayune, and the Herald. His publica- 

ently friendly Indians obtained a night's tions include Jackson and New Orleans; 

lodging at Waldron's house at Dover. At Life of Andrew Jackson; History of the 

midnight they arose, opened the door, and Battle of Shiloh; Duelling in Louisiana; 

admitted a party of Indians lying in wait. The Story of the Plague, a History of the 

They seized Waldron, who, though seventy- Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1852, etc. He 

four years of age, made stout resistance, died in Fort Scott, Ark., Jan. 24, 1893. 

They bound him in an arm-chair at the Walker, Amasa, political economist; 

head of a table in the hall, when they born in Woodstock, Conn., May 4, 1799; 

taunted him, recalled his treachery, and educated in North Brookfield, Mass.; 

tortured him to death, June 28, 1689. Professor of Political Economy at Oberlin 

Waldseemuller, Martin, cosmogra- College in 1842-49, and at Amherst Col- 

pher; born in Pribourg, Germany, about lege in 1861-66; held various political of- 

1470; published an Introduction to Cos- flees in Massachusetts in 1848-62, when 

mography, with the Four Voyages of he was elected to Congress. He wrote 

Americus Vespucius (1507), in which he The Nature and Uses of Money and Mixed 

proposed the name of " America " to the Currency, and Science and Wealth. He 

region discovered by Columbus and Ca- died in North Brookfield, Mass., Oct. 29, 

bot. He died about 1530. 1875. 

Wales, James Albert, cartoonist; born Walker, Benjamin, military officer; 
in Clyde, O., Aug. 30, 1852; settled in born in England in 1753; was a captain 
Cleveland, where he made cartoons for in the 2d New York Regiment at the 
the Ledger during the Presidential cam- beginning of the Revolutionary War; be- 
paign of 1872. In the following year ne came aide to Baron Steuben, and then 
removed to New York, where lie became to Washington (1781-82); and after the 
connected with Frank Leslie's Illustrated war was secretary to Governor Clinton. 
Newspaper, and afterwards with Puck, for He became a broker in New York City, 
both of which he drew some notable car- and naval officer there during Washing- 
toons, especially on the political move- ton's administration. From 1801 to 1803 
ments of the day; was one of the founders he was a member of Congress. In 1797 
of the Judge and for several years its he became agent for estates in western 
principal cartoonist. He died in New New York, and was long identified with 
York City, Dec. 6, .1886. the growth of Utica, where he died, Jan. 

Walhonding Canal. See Canals. 13, 1818. 

Walke, Henry, naval officer; born in Walker, Charles L., historian; born in 

Princess Anne county, Va., Dec. 24, 1808 ; Otsego county, N. Y., in 1814 ; taught 

entered the navy in 1827; served in the school in 1830; removed to Grand Rapids, 

war against Mexico; and a bold and Mich., in 1836, when he became secretary 

efficient commander in the naval warfare of the territorial convention; was elected 
on the rivers in the valley of the Mis-- to the State legislature in 1840; removed 

sissippi during the Civil War. He was to Springfield, Mass., in 1841, where he 

particularly distinguished in the attacks was admitted to the bar; and settled in 

on Fort Donelson, Island Number Ten, Detroit, Mich., in 1851. He became Pro- 

and in operations against Vicksburg. He fessor of Law in the University of Michi- 

was promoted commodore in 1866; rear- gan in 1857, and a judge of the Wayne 

admiral in 1870; and was retired in 1871. circuit court in 1867. He made a special 

He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 8, study of history and wrote Life of Cadil- 

1896. lac; Michigan from 1796-1805; The Civil 

Walker, Alexander, journalist; born Administration of General Hull; and The 

in Fredericksburg, Va., Oct. 13, 1819; Northwest Territory During the Bevolu- 

graduated at the law department of the tion. He died in Flint, Mich., Feb. 11, 

University of Virginia; settled in New Or- 1896. 



Walker, Charles Manning, journalist ; 
born in Athens, 0., Dee. 25, 1834; grad- 
uated at the University of Ohio in 1854; 
clerk in the United States Treasury De- 
partment in 1801-63, and fifth auditor 
there in 1862-69; head clerk of the Post- 
Dffice Department in 1883-85; subsequent- 
ly became associate editor of the Indian- 
apolis Journal. He is the author of His- 
tory of Athens County, 0.; First Settle- 
ment of Ohio at Marietta; Life of Oliver 
P. Morton; Life of Alvin P. Hovey, etc. 

Walker, Fort. See Port Royal. 

Walker, Francis Amasa, military offi- 
cer; born in Boston, Mass., July 2, 1840; 
graduated at Amherst in 1860; engaged 
in the military service in the spring of 

1861, in the 15th Massachusetts Volun- 
teers. In September he was assistant ad- 
jutant-general of Couch's brigade and ad- 
jutant-general of his division in August, 

1862. In December he became colonel on 
the staff of the 2d Army Corps, serving 'n 
the Army of the Potomac. He was wound- 
ed at Chancellorsville; was made prisoner 
fit Ream's Station, Va., and confined in 
Libby prison ; and when exchanged in 1865 
was compelled to resign on account of 
shattered health. He was in charge of 
the bureau of statistics in Washington, 
D. C. ; superintendent of the census of 
1870 and 1880; chief of the bureau of 
awards at the Centennial Exposition ; Pro- 
fessor of Political Economy and History in 
the Sheffield Scientific School in 1873-81 ; 
and then became president of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. He died 
in Boston, Mass., Jan. 5, 1897. 

Walker, Henderson, colonial governor ; 
born in North Carolina in 1660; became a 
judge of the Supreme Court and presi- 
dent of the council ; was governor of North 
Carolina in 1699-1704. Referring to his 
administration George Bancroft writes: 
" While England was engaged in world- 
wide wars, here the inhabitants multi- 
plied and spread in the enjoyment of 
peace and liberty." He died near Eden- 
ton, N. C„ April 14, 1704. His tombstone 
is marked with the epitaph " North Caro- 
lina, during his administration, enjoyed 

Walker, Sir Hovenden, military offi- 
cer ; born in Somersetshire, England, about 
1660; became a captain in the navy in 
1692, and rear-admiral of the white in 

1710. The next year he was knighted 
by Queen Anne. He made an attempt to 
capture Quebec in 1711, commanding the 
naval armament sent for that purpose 
(see Quebec). Returning to England, his 
ship, the Edgar, blew up at Spithead, when 
nearly all the crew perished. This acci- 
dent and the disastrous expedition to 
Quebec drew upon him almost unqualified 
censure, and he was dismissed from the 
service. He afterwards settled upon a 
plantation in South Carolina; but return- 
ed to Great Britain, and " died of a 
broken heart " in Dublin, Ireland, in Janu- 
ary, 1726. 

Walker, J ies Bradford Richmond, 
clergyman; bo j in Taunton, Mass., April 
15, 1821; graduated at Brown University 
in 1841 and at Andover Theological Semi- 
nary in 1S46; was ordained pastor in the 
Congregational Church in Bucksport, Me., 
in 1847; held charges in Holyoke, Mass., 
in 1855-64; and in Hartford, Conn., in 
1864-67. He then turned his attention to 
literature. His publications include Me- 
morial of the Walkers of the Old Plym- 
outh Colony, and The Genealogy of John 



Walker, John Grimes, naval officer; 
born in Hillsboro, N. H., March 20, 1835; 
graduated at the United States Naval 


Academy in 1856. In the Civil War he vania in 1819, In 1826 he settled in 
took part in the capture of New Orleans, Natchez, Miss.; was United States Sen- 
in operations against Vicksburg, almost ator from 1837 to 1845, being a Demo- 
all the battles on the Mississippi River in cratic leader in that body; warmly sup- 
1862 and 1803; and commanded the gun- ported the financial measures of Presi- 
boat Shaiemut in the capture of Wilming- dent Van Buren; and had great influence 
ton, N. C. He was secretary of the light- over President Tyler, counselling the vig- 
house board in 1873-78; chief of the orous steps which led to the annexation 
bureau of navigation in 1881-89; was of Texas. During the administration of 
promoted commodore in 1889 and rear-ad- President Polk he was Secretary of the 
rairal in 1894; was then assigned to com- Treasury, and in 1857-58 was governor 
mand the Pacific Station; and was retired of Kansas Territory. He resigned, being 
in 1897. He was president of the naval " unwilling," he said, " to aid in forcing 
retiring board in 1895; chairman of the slavery on that Territory by fraud and 
commission for the location of a deep- forgery." In 1863-64 he was financial 
water harbor on the coast of southern Cali- agent of the United States in Europe, ef- 
fornia in 1896-97; president of the Niea- fecting the sale of $250,000,000 of five- 
ragua Canal commission in 1897-99, of twenty bonds, and defeating the second au- 
the Isthmian Canal commission since thorized Confederate loan of $175,000,000. 
1899, and of the new Isthmian Canal com- He was an efficient advocate of the Pacific 
mission since 1904. Railroad and of free-trade. His celebrated 

Walker, Joseph Bttrbeen, agricult- report in favor of f ree-tra - 1 e was reprint- 

urist; born in Concord, N. H., June 12, ed by order of the British House of Com- 

1822 ; graduated at Yale College in 1844 ; mons. He died in Wasl ington, D. C, Nov. 

admitted to the bar in 1847, but later 11, 1869. 

abandoned law and devoted himself to Walker, Thomas, patriot; born in 

agriculture and literature. His publica- Gloucester county, Va., Jan. 25, 1715; 

tions include Land Drainage; Forests of educated at William and Mary College; 

New Hampshire ; Ezekiel Webster Di- studied medicine and practised in Freder- 

mond; History of Town Meeting-house ; ieksburg, Va. In 1750 he travelled west 

Prospective Agriculture in New Hamp- and was probably the first white man to 

shire; Rodgers, the Ranger, etc. pass the present boundaries of Kentucky. 

Walker, Joseph Reddefoed, guide; He was commissary-general under Wash- 
born in Knoxville, Tenn., in 1798; settled ington in General Braddock's army, and 
in Jackson county, Mo., in 1818. His career was present at the latter's defeat. In 
as a guide on the frontier began in 1822. 1775 he was elected to the Virginia House 
He led Captain Bonneville's expedition to of Burgesses, where he served on the see- 
the Rocky Mountains in 1832; guided an- ond committee of safety; in 1777 was ap- 
other expedition from Great Salt Lake to pointed with his son, Col. John Walker, 
California in 1833; discovered the Yo- to visit the Indians in Pittsburg, Pa., for 
Semite Valley, Yosemite Lake, and Walker the purpose of gaining their friendship 
River in the latter year; arid Walker's for the Americans; and in 1778 was made 
Pass in 1834. He died in Ignacio Valley, president of the commission to settle the 
Cal., Oct. 27, 1876. boundary between Virginia and North 

Walker, Lerot Pope, jurist; born near Carolina. Walker Mountains in south- 

Huntsville, Ala., July 8, 1817; was western Virginia were named after him. 

speaker of the Alabama House of Repre- He died in Albemarle county, Va., Nov. 9, 

sentatives in 1847-50 ', judge of the State 1794. 

circuit court in 1850-53; Confederate His son, John, legislator; born in Albe- 

•Secretary of War in 1861-62; and later a marie county, Va., Feb. 13, 1744, was an 

brigadier-general. After the war he re- aide to Washington during the Revolu- 

sumed practice in Huntsville, Ala., where tionary War, and was by him recommended 

he died, Aug. 22, 1884. to Patrick Henry on Feb. 24, 1777, for 

Walker, Robert James, financier ; born " ability, honor, and prudence." He sue- 
in Northumberland, Pa., July 23, 1801 ; ceeded William Grayson in the United 
graduated at the University of Pennsyl- States Senate, where he served in May- 

X.— H 113 


December, 1790. He died in Orange 
county, Va., Dec. 2, 1809. . 

Walker, Timothy, jurist; born in Wil- 
mington, Mass., Dec. 1, 1806; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1826; admitted to 
the bar in 1831, and began practice in 
Cincinnati, 0.; Professor of Law in Cin- 
cinnati College in 1835-44; established the 
Western Law Journal in 1843, and was 
its editor for several years. He was the 
author of An Introduction to American 
Law; On the History and General Char- 
acter of the State of Ohio; John Quincy 
Adams; The Reform Spirit of the Day; 
Daniel Webster, etc. He died in Cincin- 
nati, 0., Jan. 15, 1856. 

Walker, William, filibuster; born in 
Nashville, Tenn., May 8, 1824; was an 
editor in New Orleans for a while; went 
to California in 1850; and in 1853 organ- 
ized an expedition to invade a Mexican 
territory. Me dng war on the govern- 
ment of Hondu.-as, he was captured, con- 
demned by a court-martial, and shot at 
Truxillo, Honduras, Sept. 12, 1860. See 

Walker, William H. T., military 
officer; born in Georgia in October, 1816; 
graduated at the United States Military 
Academy in 1837 ; was assigned to Florida, 
where he was thrice wounded during the 
battle of Okeechobee, Dec. 25, 1837; pro- 
moted captain in 1845 ; took part in all 
of the important battles of the Mexican 
War, winning distinction at Contreras, 
Churubusco, and Molino del Rey; was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel; and was in- 
structor of military tactics and comman- 
dant of cadets at the United States Mili- 
tary Academy in 1854-56. He joined the 
Confederate army in 1861 ; was made 
major-general, and served chiefly in the 
West. He was killed in the battle of 
Decatur, Ga., July 26, 1864. 

Walker's Expedition. See Walkeb, 

Walking Purchase, The. In 1682 Will- 
iam Penn purchased of the Indians a tract 
of land in the present Bucks and North- 
ampton counties, bounded on the east by 
the Delaware River, and in the interior 
at a point as far as a man could walk in 
three days. Penn and the Indians start- 
ed on the walk, beginning at the mouth 
of Neshaminy Creek. At the end of a 
walk of a day and a half Penn con- 


eluded that it was as much land as he 
wanted, and a deed was given for the 
lands to that point — about 40 miles 
from the starting-place — in 1686. This 
agreement was confirmed by the Delawares 
in 1718, the year when Penn died. White 
settlers, however, went over this boundary 
to the Lehigh Hills. The Indians became 
uneasy, and, to put an end to disputes, 
a treaty was concluded in 1737, by which 
the limits of the tract were defined as 
in the deed of 1682 — not beyond the Le- 
high Hills, or about 40 miles from the 
place of the beginning of the " walk." 
It was then proposed that a " walk " of 
a " day and a half," as agreed upon by 
Penn, should be again undertaken. 

Thomas and Richard Penn, sons of Will- 
iam Penn, were then proprietors, and, con- 
trary to the spirit of their father, they de- 
vised a plan to cheat the Indians out of 
a large tract of most valuable land at the 
forks of the Delaware and the Minisink 
country beyond. They advertised for the 
most expert walkers in the province. Three 
were selected — Edward Marshall, James 
Yeates, and Solomon Jennings — and the 
covetous proprietors caused them to violate 
the spirit of the agreement by almost run- 
ning much of the way and being fed by 
persons who accompanied them on horse- 
back, the walkers eating as they moved 
on. They started from the present 
Wrightsville on the morning of Sept 19, 
1737, going northerly along the old Dur- 
ham Road to Durham Creek; then wester 
ly to the Lehigh, which they crossed neat 
Bethlehem; then northwesterly, passing 
through Bethlehem into Allen county; and 
halted at sunset near an Indian town. The 
next morning they passed the Blue Moun- 
tains at the Lehigh Water-gap, and at 
noon completed the " walk," at a distance 
of about 70 miles from the starting-point, 
instead of 40 miles in Penn's time, and 
as the Indians expected. Then, by run- 
ning a line northeasterly, instead of more 
directly from that point to the Delaware, 
it embraced the coveted region of the 
forks of the Delaware and the Minisink 
lands. The Indians protested against the 
intended fraud on the first day of the 
walk. The result exasperated them. The 
greedy proprietors had obtained about 
1,200 square miles of territory, when they 
were not entitled to more than 800. Thia 


transaction alienated the Delawares, and Treasury. On the porch of that building 
it was one of the chief causes that im- George Washington was inaugurated the 
pelled them to join the French against first President of the republic, 
the English in 1755. Wallace, David Duncan, educator 

Walk-in-the- Water, or, My-ee-Rah, born in Columbia, S. C, May 23, 1874 
chief of the Wyandotte tribe of Huron graduated at Wofford College in 1894 
Indians. He tried to persuade Gen. Will- elected Professor of History and Econom 
iam Hull to accept his services in the War ics at Wofford College in 1899. He is 
of 1812, but that officer, unwilling to use the author of Constitutional History of 
savages, declined his offer. Though he South Carolina, 1725 to 1775; Arrival of 
was later compelled through circumstances the Tea, and the Origin of the Extra- 
to join the English, he influenced a num- Legal Organs of Revolution in South Caro- 
ber of tribes to remain neutral. Sub- Una, etc.; and editor of HcCrady's South 
sequently with his associates he abso- Carolina Under the Proprietary Govern- 
lutely refused to aid the English and de- ment. 

serted at Chatham, Canada. He then Wallace, Sir James, naval officer ; com- 
offered to ally himself to Gen. William H. manded the British fleet at Newport, E. I., 
Harrison, but his services were again in 1775, where he had a laconic corre- 
declined and he returned to the Detroit spondence with Capt. Abraham Whip- 
River. He died about 1817. ple (q. v.). He bore General Vaughan's 

Wall, James Walter, legislator ; born marauding land force up the Hudson River 
in Trenton, N. J., May 26, 1820; gradu- in October, 1777; and in 1779 was capt- 
ated at Princeton College in 1838; ad- ured by D'Estaing. In Rodney's battle 
mitted to the bar in 1841 ; settled in Bur- with De Grasse, on April 12, 1782, he 
lington, N. J., in 1847; was alleged to commanded the Warrior. In 1794 he was 
have interfered with the liberty of the made rear-admiral; in 1795 vice-admiral; 
press during the early part of the Civil and in 1801 admiral of the blue. He was 
War and to have made an offer of 20,000 governor of Newfoundland from 1793 
rifles to the "Knights of the Golden Cir- to 1795. He died in London, March 6, 
cle," to be used against the United States; 1803. 

appointed to fill an unexpired term in the Wallace, John William, lawyer; born 
United States Senajte, and served from Jan. in Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 17, 1815; gradu- 
21 till March 3, 1863; settled in Eliza- ated at the University of Pennsylvania 
beth, N. J., in 1869. He died in Elizabeth, in 1833 and later was admitted to the bar; 
N. J., June 9, 1872. . reporter of the United States Supreme 

Wall Street, a noted thoroughfare in Court in 1863-76; and president of the 
the part of New York City extending from Pennsylvania Historical Society in 1860- 
Broadway at Trinity Church to the East 84. His publications include Reporters, 
River, about half a mile long. This title, Chronologically Arranged, i&ith Occasional 
however, designates a region extending Remarks upon their Respective Merits; 
about a quarter of a mile on either side of Cases Argued and Abridged in the United 
the greater part of Wall Street proper. States Supreme Court (23 volumes 1864- 
The locality is famous the world over for 76) ; An Old Philadelphian, Col. William 
its financial institutions, which include a Bradford of 1776, etc. He died in Phil- 
large number of banking houses, the Unit- adelphia, Pa., Jan. 13, 1884 
ed States Sub-Treasury, the Custom-house, Wallace, Joseph, lawyer; born in Car- 
the Stock Exchange, etc. The name is de- roll county, Ky., Sept. 30, 1834; received 
rived from a wall of palisades which was a collegiate education; admitted to the 
built in Dutch colonial days as a defence bar in 1858 and engaged in practice in 
against the Indians. The location of great Springfield, 111. He is the author of 
financial houses here is due to the fact Biography of Col. Edward D. Baker; His- 
that the principal early government build- tory of Illinois and Louisiana Under the 
ings were erected on the street. After the French Rule; and (joint author) Spring- 
adoption of the Constitution of the United field City Code. 

States the First Congress met here in a Wallace, Lewis, military officer and 
building on the site of tha present Sub- author; born in Brookville, Ind., April 10, 



1827; son of Gov. David Wallace; stud- 
ied law, and began practice in Craw- 
fordsville, Ind. He served as lieutenant 
of Indiana volunteers in the war with 
Mexico, and afterwards resumed his pro- 
fession. He served one term in the State 
Senate; and when the Civil War broke 
out he was appointed adjutant-general 
of Indiana. Soon afterwards he was made 
colonel of the 11th (Zouave) Indiana Vol- 
unteers, with which he performed signal 


service in western Virginia (see Rom- 
ney, Skiemtsh at). When he fell back 
to Cumberland, after his dash on Rom- 
ney, the Confederates took heart and 
advanced, 4.000 strong — infantry, cav- 
alry, and artillery — under Colonel McDon- 
ald. They pushed on to New Creek and 
destroyed the bridge of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railway there. They pressed on, 
destroyed all communication between Cum- 
berland and Grafton, and completely iso- 
lated Wallace. He had neither cannon nor 
cavalry, and for twenty-one days his men 
had only twenty-one rounds of cartridges 
apiece. He prepared to retreat to Bedford, 
Pa., if attacked. He could not hold Cum- 
berland, and sent his sick and baggage 
in that direction. 

Then he boldly led his regiment out 
upon the same road, halted, changed front, 
and prepared for battle, believing that 
if the Confederates should entpr Cumber- 
lard thev would scatter in search of plun- 


dci ; and in that case he would rush into 
the town and defeat them in detail. In- 
formed of Wallace's bold stand, the Con- 
federates halted within 5 miles of Cumber- 
land, and at night hastened to Romney. 
Wallace retired to Cumberland and ap- 
pealed to MeClellan, Morris, and Patter- 
son for reinforcements, but none could 
be spared, for there was danger and weak- 
ness at all points. The governor of Penn 
sylvania sent him ammunition and for- 
warded two regiments of the Pennsylvania 
Reserves to the borders of that State to 
assist the Indianians if they should be 
attacked. That gallant regiment success- 
fully guarded the railway for about 100 
miles, for the Confederates felt a whole- 
some fear of these Zouaves, who were often 
engaged in little skirmishes. Wallace had 
impressed thirteen horses into his ser- 
vice and mounted thirteen picked men 
of his regiment. While these were on a 
scout on June 26 they attacked forty-one 
mounted Confederates, killing eight of 
them, chasing the remainder 2 miles, and 
capturing seventeen of their horses. On 
their way back they were attacked by 
seventy-five mounted men. They had a ter- 
rible hand-to-hand fight that ceased only 
when night came on. The Zouaves had only 
one man killed, and the rest made their 
way back to camp in the darkness. For 
his eminent services in that region for 
thrpp months Colonel Wallace was re- 
warded with the commission of brig- 
adier - general. For his bravery and 
vigilance in s-uardine the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railway, the sreat line of 
communication with the West. Wallace 
was heartily commended by McClellhn and 

As brigadier-general of volunteers he led 
a division in the siege and capture of 
Fort Donelson. For his services on that 
occasion he was promoted to major-gen- 
eral. In the battle of Shiloh he was con- 
snieuous for srallantry. In command at 
Baltimore. Md., in the summer of 1884, 
he arallantly held in check a large Con- 
federate force, under Gen era 1 Early, en- 
deavoring to strike Washington, until the 
arrival of troops that secured the latter 
place from capture (see Monocacy. Bat- 
tle op.) After the war he resumed his pro- 
fession. In 1878 he was governor ot 
New Mexico, and in 1881-85 was Uuiten 


States minister to Turkey. He wrote relations; opposed the Civil War, and 

Ben-Bur; The Boyhood of Christ; The spoke openly against the national govern- 

Prince of India; etc. He died in Craw- ment; was arrested with others in Sep- 

fordsville, Ind.. Feb. 15, 1905. tember, 1861, and imprisoned for ovet 

Wallace, William Harvey Lamb, mili- fourteen months. On his release he re- 

tary officer; born in Urbana, 0., July 8, sumed law practice in Baltimore. Hia 

1821; served in the war with Mexico, in publications include Glimpses of Spain; 

Hardin's regiment; and was State's attor- Discourse on the Life and Character o\ 

ney for the ninth circuit of Illinois, in George Peaoody ; etc. He died in 1894. 

1853. In May, 1861, he became colonel of Walloons, a people which inhabited the 

the 11th Illinois Volunteers. He command- southern Belgic provinces and adjoining 

ed a brigade in McClernand's division at parts of France, and numbered, at the 

the capture of Fort Donelson, and was time of their dispersion by persecution 

made brigadier-general of volunteers. On (1580), over 2,000,000. They were of a 

the first day of the battle of Shiloh ( q. mixed Gallic and Teutonic blood, and most 

v.) he was mortally wounded, and died of them spoke the old French dialect, 

in Savannah, Tenn., April 10, 1862. When the northern provinces of the Neth- 

Wallen, Henry Davies, military offi- erlands formed their political union at 

cer; born in Savannah, Ga., April 19, 1819; Utrecht (1579), the southern provinces, 

graduated at the United States Military whose people were chiefly Roman Catholics, 

Academy in 1840; served in the Seminole declined to join the confederation. Many 

War in Florida in 1840-42; was wounded of the inhabitants were Protestants, and 

at the battle of Palo Alto in the Mexican against these the Spanish government at 

War; promoted major, Nov. 25, 1861; once began the most relentless persecution, 

served through the Civil War; was in- Thousands of them fled to Holland, where 

spector-general of the Department of New strangers of every race and creed were 

Mexico in 1862-64; commanded a regiment welcomed and protected; and from these 

at Fort Schuyler, N. Y., till May, 1865; the Dutch gained a knowledge of many 

brevetted brigadier-general and promoted branches of manufacture. They were skil- 

lieutenant-colonel in 1865; promoted colo- ful and industrious. 

nel in 1873; and was retired in the follow- Having heard of the fertility of the 

ing year. He died in New York City, Western Continent, some of them wished 

Dee. 2, 1886. - to emigrate thither, and a proposition 

Walley, John, military officer; born in was made to the Virginia Company to 

London, England, about 1644. He led have them favor a settlement there. Ne- 

the first expedition against the French gotiations to that end failed. Hearing of 

and Indians in Canada, Feb. 12, 1689; was this, the directors of the Dutch West 

lieutenant to Sir William Phipps on a India Company made them satisfactory 

similar expedition in August, 1690; offers, and arrangements were soon made 

landed near Quebec with 1,200 men, and for the emigration of several families to 

after a daring but ineffectual attack re- NewNetherland. In the spring of 1623 the 

embarked; was one of the founders of ship New Netherland, of 260 tons burden, 

Bristol, Conn. His diary of the expedi- Capt. Cornelius Jacobus May, sailed 

tion against Canada was published in the from the Texel with thirty families, 

History of Massachusetts by Thomas chiefly Walloons, for Manhattan. These 

Hutchinson. He died in Boston, Mass., landed on a morning in May, and were 

Jan. 11, 1712. welcomed by Indians and traders. They 

Wallis, Severn Teackle, lawyer; born were feasted under a tent made of sails 

in Baltimore, Md., Sept. 8, 1816; gradu- .stretched between several trees, when 

ated ai St. Mary's College, Baltimore, in their Christian teacher gave public thanks 

1832; admitted to the bar in 1837; to God for their safety, and implored 

snecial United States agent to Spain in blessings on their future career. May, 

1849 to investigate the title to public who was to remain as governor of the 

lands in east Florida; elected to the colony, then read his commission and as- 

Maryland House of Delegates in 1861 ; be- sumed the functions of his office. .The 

came chairman of the committee on federal emigrants soon dispersed and formed sep- 



arate settlements. Some of the Walloons to consult upon measures for the defence 

settled on Long Island, on the borders of of the liberties of their country. Mr. 

a cove at the site of the present navy- Walton was one of the committee who 

yard, which soon became known as the prepared a petition to the King; also 

"Waalbogt" (corrupted to Wallabout), patriotic resolutions adopted on that oc- 

or Walloon's Cove. There, in June, 1625, casion. From February, 1776, to Octo- 

Sarah Rapelje was born — the first ascer- ber, 1781, he was a delegate in Congress 

tained offspring of European parentage from Georgia, and warmly favored the 

in New Netherland. See New Yobk, resolution for independence. As colonel 

Colony of. of militia, he assisted in defending Sa- 

Walsh, Robert, author; born in Balti- vannah in December, 1778, where he was 

more, Md., in 1784; received a collegiate dangerously wounded, made prisoner, and 

education; admitted to the bar and began kept so until September, 1779. In 1779 

practice in Philadelphia, Pa., but later and 1789 he was chosen governor of Geor- 

abandoned law and engaged in journal- gia; in 1783 was appointed chief-justice 

ism; founded the National Gazette in of the State; and in 1795-96 was United 

1819, and was connected with it till 1836; States Senator. He died in Augusta, Ga., 

editor of the American Review in 1827- Feb. 2, 1804. 

37; United States consul at Paris, France, Walworth, Eixen Hardin (Mrs.), au- 

in 1845-51. He was the author of Essay thor; born in Jacksonville, 111.; received 

on the Future State of Europe; Appeal an academic education; one of the three 

from the Judgment of Great Britain Re- founders of the National Society of the 

specting the United States; The Select Daughters of the American Revolution; 

Speeches of George Canning; The Select director-general of the Woman's National 

Speeches of Windham and William Hus- War Relief Association of 1898; served 

kisson, etc. He died in Paris, Franco, at the field hospital of Fort Monroe, where 

Feb. 7, 1859. she met with nurses, supplies, etc., the 

Walthall, Edward Cart, legislator; first wounded brought from Santiago, 
born in Richmond, Va., April 4, 1831; ad- Her publications include Battles of Sara- 
mitted to the bar in 1852 and began prac- toga; Parliamentary Rules; and the 
tice in Coffeeville, Miss.; elected attorney essays, Battle of Buena Vista; Preserva- 
of the tenth Mississippi judicial district tion of "National Archives; Colonial Worn- 
in 1856 and 1859; joined the Confederate en ; and Field Work for Amateurs. 
army as lieutenant in the 15th Mississippi Walworth, John, pioneer; born in 
Infantry in 1861; promoted brigadier- Groton, Conn., in 1765; removed to Paines- 
general in December, 1862, and major- ville, O., in 1800; became associate judge 
general in 1864; distinguished himself in of the Superior Court of Ohio in 1803; 
the battle of Missionary Ridge and in the and filled four offices in 1806 — viz., in- 
action at Nashville, where he covered the spector of the port of Cuyahoga, collector 
retreat of Gen. John B. Hood and pre- of the district of Erie, postmaster at 
vented the capture of his army by Gen. Cleveland, where he had settled in 1805, 
George H. Thomas. He resumed law prac- and associate judge of Geauga county, 
tice in Grenada, Miss., in 1871 ; was United During his term as postmaster, Cleveland 
States Senator in 1885-98, with exception had a population of scarcely fifty persons, 
of the period from January, 1894, to and the total receipts of the village at 
March, 1895. He died in Washington, the end of the first quarter were only 
0. C, April 21, 1898. $2.83. He died in Cleveland, O., Sept. 10, 

Walton, George, signer of the Declara- 1812. 
tion of Independence; born in Frederick Walworth, Reuben Hyde, jurist; born 
i-ounty, Va., in 1740; was early appren- in Bozrah, Conn., Oct. 26, 1788; admitted 
ticed to a carpenter, who would not al- to the bar in 1809 and began practice in 
tow him a candle to read by; but he Plattsburg, N. Y. During the British in- 
found a substitute in pine knots. He was vasion of Plattsburg, in September, 1814, 
admitted to the bar in Georgia in 1774, he was aide to Gen. Benjamin Mooers, by 
and was one of four persons who called whom he was assigned to view the naval 
a meeting at Savannah (July 27, 1774) fight from the shore and to report the re- 



suits. He held a seat in Congress in afterwards as currency among the inte 

1821-23; was judge of the fourth judicial rior tribes. The settlers at Plymouth 

district of New York in 1823-28; and first learned the use and value of warn- 

chancellor of New York State in 1828-48. pum from the Dutch at Manhattan, and 

In the latter year the court ef chancery found it profitable in trade with the 

was abolished by the adoption of the new Eastern Indians; for the shells of which 

constitution. He published Rules and it was made were not common north of 

Orders of the New York Court of Chan- Cape Cod. It soon became a circulat- 

cery, and Hyde Genealogy (2 volumes), ing medium, first in the Indian traffic, 

He died in Saratoga Springs, N. Y., Nov. and then among the colonists generally. 

27, 1867. Three of the black beads, or six of the 

His son, Mansfield Tract, born in Al- white, passed for a penny. They were 
bany, N. Y., Dec. 3, 1830, graduated at strung in known parcels for convenience 
Union College in 1849 and at the Harvard of reckoning — a penny, threepence, a 
Law School in 1852; was admitted to the shilling, and five shillings in white; two- 
bar in 1855, but soon abandoned law and pence, sixpence, two - and - sixpence, and 
devoted himself to literature. He was the ten shillings in black. A fathom of 
author of Life of Chancellor Livingston white wampum was worth ten shillings, 
and many novels. He was shot and killed or two dollars and a half; a fathom 
by his son, who claimed that he com- of black, twice as much. Wampum 
mitted the act to save his mother's life, was also used in the form of belts in 
in New York City, June 3, 1873. The making treaties, they being pledges of 
trial of the son is famous in American fidelity. 

law history. He was acquitted on the Wanamaker, John, merchant; born in 
plea of insanity and was placed in an Philadelphia, Pa., July 11, 1838; re- 
asylum, ceived a public school education; was er- 

Wampanoag-, or Pokanoket, Indians; rand-boy in a book-store in 1852; retail 

one of the most powerful of the Massa- salesman of clothing in 1856-61 ; then 

chusetts tribes of the Algonquian nation, founded, in conjunction with Nathan 

Massasoit was their sachem when the Brown, the clothing house of Wanamaker 

English came to the New England shores. & Brown, in Philadelphia, Pa., and the de- 

Their domain extended over nearly the partment store under the same firm name 

whole of southern Massachusetts, from in 1869; and later established a depart- 

Cape Cod to Narraganset Bay, and at ment store on the up-town premises of 

one time the tribe numbered 30,000. Just the firm of A. T. Stewart & Co., in New 

before the landing of the Pilgrims a ter- York. He was United States Postmaster- 

rible disease had reduced them to less General in 1889-93. Mr. Wanamaker 

than 1,000. While Massasoit lived the founded and became superintendent of the 

Wampanoags were friendly to the Eng- Bethany Presbyterian Sunday-school in 

lish; but a growing discontent ripened Philadelphia in 1858, which has since 

into war in 1675, led by King Philip, a son grown to be the largest one in the United 

of Massasoit, which involved many of the States. 

New England Indians. The result was Wanton, Joseph, governor; born in 

the destruction of the tribe. King Philip's Newport, R. I., in 1705 ; graduated at 

son, while yet a boy, with others, was Harvard College in 1751 and engaged in 

sent to the West Indies and sold as a mercantile business; was elected governor 

slave. in 1769. He was appointed by the Eng- 

Wampum, an Indian currency, con- lish government to investigate the burn- 

sisting of cylindrical white, blue, and ing of the ship Gaspee by the Whigs in 

black beads, half an inch long, made 1773, and was also made superintendent 

from certain parts of sea-shells. The of the British soldiers during their occu- 

shores of Long Island Sound abounded pation of Newport. These and other 

in these shells, and the Pequods and Nar- causes made him an object of suspicion, 

ragansets grew " rich and potent " by and in 1775 the Assembly stripped him of 

their abundance of wampum, which was all power and placed the executive pre- 

mnch in demand, first for ornament, and rogative in the hands of Deputy-Gtov. 



Nicholas Cooke. Governor Wanton died 
in Newport, R. I., July 19, 1780. 

War, Articles of. See Articles of 

War, Board of. On June 13, 1776, the 
Congress appointed John Adams, Roger 
Sherman, Benjamin Harrison, James 
Wilson, and John Rutledge commissioners 
constituting a board of war and ord- 
nance, and appointed Richard Peters their 
secretary. This was the germ of the War 
Department of the government. It had 
a general supervision of all military af- 
fairs; kept exact records of all trans- 
actions, with the names of officers and 
soldiers; and had charge of all prisoners 
of war and of all correspondence on the 
subject of the army. The secretary and 
clerks were required to take an oath of 
secrecy before entering upon their du- 
ties. The salary of the secretary was 
fixed at $800 a year ; of the clerks, $266.66. 
A seal was adopted. Owing to the extent 


of the field of war, subordinate boards 
were authorized in 1778. In November, 
1777, a new board was organized, con- 
sisting of three persons not members of 
Congress, to sit in the place where that 
body should be in session, each member 
to be paid a salary of $4,000 a year. In 
1778 another organization of the board 
occurred. It then consisted of two mem- 
bers of Congress and three who were not 
members, any three to constitute a 
quorum. Then the salary of the secretary 
of the board was increased to $2,000. On 
the new organization of the government 
in 1781, the Congress resolved to create a 


Secretary of War, and General Lincoln 
was chosen. His salary was $5,000 a 
year. He held the office until the close 
of the war. After that military affairs 
were managed by a board of war until 
the organization of the government under 
the national Constitution, when they 
were placed under the supreme control of 
a Secretary of War. See Board of Ord- 
nance and Fortification; Board of 

War Department, one of the executive 
branches of the United States government, 
the chief of which is popularly known as 
the Secretary of War, who performs such 
duties as the President may enjoin on him 
concerning the military service. 

He is charged by law with the super- 
vision of all estimates of appropriations 
for the expenses of the department, of 
all purchases of army supplies, of all ex- 
penditures for the support and transpor- 
tation of the army, and of such expendi- 
tures of a civil nature as may be placed by 
Congress under hrs direction. He also has 
supervision of the United States Military 
Academy at West Point, of the board of 
ordnance and fortification, of the various 
battle-field commissions, and of the publi- 
cation of the Official Records of the War 
of the Rebellion. He has charge of all 
matters relating to national defence and 
sea - coast fortifications, army ordnance, 
river and harbor improvements, the pre- 
vention of obstruction to navigation, and 
the establishment of harbor lines, and ap- 
proves all plans and locations of bridges 
authorized by Congress to be constructed 
over the navigable waters of the United 
States. He also has charge of the estab- 
lishment or abandonment of military 
posts, and of all matters relating to leases, 
revocable licenses, and all other privileges 
upon lands under the control of the War 

The functions of the department are 
exercised by means of a number of 
bureaus, the chief of which are those under 
the supervision of the adjutant-general, 
inspector-general, quartermaster-general, 
commissary-general of subsistence, sur- 
geon-genera), paymaster-general, chief of 
engineers, chief of ordnance, judge-advo- 
cate-general, chief signal officer, and the 
chief of the record and pension office. See 
Cabinet, President's. 

WAR OF 1812 

War of 1812, the popular name of the with new levies, the regular force to con- 
second war between the United States and sist of twenty regiments of foot, foui 
Great Britain. Blessed with prosperity of artillery, two of dragoons, and one 
and dreading war, the people of the Unit- of riflemen, which, with engineers and 
ed States submitted to many acts of artificers, would make a force of 36,- 
tyrannyfrom Great Britain and France 700 men. Little reliance could be placed 
rather than become involved in armed on the militia, who would not be com- 
conflicts with them. Consequently, the pelled, by law, to go beyond the bounds 
government of the United States was of their respective States. The navy 
only nominally independent. Socially was very weak, in comparison with that 
and commercially, the United States of the enemy, the acknowledged " mis- 
tacitly acknowledged their dependence on tress of the seas." It consisted of only 
Europe, and especially upon England; twenty vessels, exclusive of 170 gunboats, 
and the latter was rapidly acquiring a and actually carrying an aggregate of lit- 
dangerous political interest and influence tie more than 500 guns. 
in American affairs when the war broke The following is a list of forts in ex- 
out. The war begun in 1775 was really istenee when war was declared in 1812, 
only the first great step towards inde- and their location: Port Sumner, Portland, 
pendcnce; the war begun in 1812 first Me. ; Port William and Mary, Portsmouth, 
thoroughly accomplished the indepen- N. H.; Fort Lily, Gloucester, Cape Ann; 
dence of the United States. Franklin once Fort Pickering, Salem, Mass. ; Fort Sea- 
,heard a person speaking of the Revolu- wall, Marblehead, Mass.; Fort Indepen- 
tion as the war of independence, and dence, Boston Harbor; Fort Wolcott, near 
reproved him, saying, " Sir, you mean the Newport, R. I. ; Fort Adams, Newport 
Revolution; the war of independence is Harbor; Fort Hamilton, near Newport; 
yet to come. It was a war for inde- North Battery, a mile northwest of Fort 
pendence, but not of independence." Wolcott; Dumplings Fort, entrance to 

When it was determined, early in 1812, Narraganset Bay, R. I.; 'Tonomy Hill, a 
to declare war against Great Britain, mile east of North Battery, R. L; Fort 
preparations were at once made for the Trumbull, New London, Conn. ; Fort Jay, 
crisis. In February the congressional Governor's Island, New York Harbor; 
committee of ways and means reported works on Ellis and Bedloe's islands, New 
a financial scheme, which was adopted. York Harbor; Fort Mifflin, Delaware 
It was a system adapted to a state of war River, below Philadelphia; Fort McHenry, • 
for three years. It eon temp' ated the sup- Baltimore; Fort Severn, Annapolis; Forts 
port of war expenses wholly by loans, and Norfolk and Nelson, on Elizabeth River, 
the ordinary expenses of the government, below Norfolk, Va.; forts Pinckney, Moul- 
including interest on the national debt, trie, and Mechanic, for the protection of 
by revenues. The estimated expense of Charleston, S. C. ; Fort Mackinaw, island 
the war the first year was $11,000,000. of Mackinaw; Fort Dearborn, Chicago; 
Duties on imports were doubled, a direct Fort Wayne, at the forks of the Maumee, 
tax of $3,000,000 was levied, and an Ind.; Fort Detroit, Michigan; Fort Ni- 
extensive system of internal duties and agara, mouth of the Niagara River; Fort 
excise was devised. In March, Congress Ontario, Oswego; Fort Tompkins, Sack- 
authorized a loan of $11,000,000, at an ett's Harbor, N. Y. Some of these were 
annual interest not to exceed 6 per cent., unfinished. 

reimbursable in twelve years. When war While the army of General Hull was 

was declared, only little more than half lying in camp below Sandwich, in Canada, 

the loan was taken, and the President was he was absent at Detroit two or three days, 

authorized to issue treasury notes, paya- There had been some skirmishing with 

ble in one year, bearing an annual inter- detachments of his army, under Colonels 

est of 5'/n per cent. Measures were also Cass and McArthur, near the Tarontee; 

devised for strengthening the military and the apparent supineness of the general 

force. It was weak when war was de- made the younger officers and the men sus- 

clared. Congress passed an act, June 26, pect him of incapacity, if not of treachery. 

1812, for the consolidation of the old armv While Hull was absent at Detroit the 


WAB OE 1812 

command of the American troops in Can- who always favored measures for increas- 
ada devolved on Colonel McArthur, and ing the navy, and the opposition of the 
he resolved to attack Fort Maiden. He Democrats to it ceased. These naval vic- 
detached some rangers to seek a convenient tories astounded the British public. The 
passage of the Tarontee above the bridge, lion was bearded in his den. The claims 
so as to avoid the guns of the British of Great Britain to the mastery of the 
armed vessel Queen Charlotte, lying in seas were vehemently and practically dis- 
the river. This was impracticable. A puted. Nor were the naval triumphs of 
scouting party was sent under Major Den- the Americans confined to the national 
ny to reconnoitre, who found an Indian vessels. Privateers swarmed on the oceans 
ambuscade between Turkey Creek and the in the summer and autumn of 1812, and 
Tarontee, in the Petit C6te settlement, were making prizes in every direction. Ac- 
There Denny had a sharp skirmish with counts of their exploits filled the news- 
the Indians, when a part of his line gave papers and helped to swell the tide of 
way, and he was compelled to retreat in joy throughout the Union. It is esti- 
confusion, pursued nearly 3 miles by the mated that during the last six months 
victors. He tried to rally his men, but of 1812 more than fifty armed British 
in vain. In the skirmish he lost six men vessels and 250 merchantmen, with an ag- 
killed and two wounded. This was the gregate of over 3,000 prisoners and a vast 
first blood shed in the War of 1812-15. amount of booty, were captured by the 

The defeat of Hull weakened the con- Americans. The British newspapers raved 
fidence of the government and the people and uttered opprobrious epithets. A lead- 
in an easy conquest of Canada, and im- ing London journal petulantly and vulgar- 
mediate steps were taken, when the ar- ly gave vent to its sentiments 'by express- 
mistice of Dearborn was ended, to place ing an apprehension that England might 
troops along the northern frontier suffi- be stripped of her maritime supremacy 
cient to make successful invasion, or pre- " by a piece of striped bunting flying at 
vent one from the other side. Vermont the mast-heads of a few fir-built frigates, 
and New York joined, in co-operation with manned by a handful of bastards and cow- 
the United States, in placing (September, ards." The position of the American army 
1812) 3.000 regulars and 2,000 militia at the close of 1812 was as follows: The 
on the borders of Lake Champlain, under Army of the Northwest, first under Hull, 
Dearborn's immediate command. Another and then under General Harrison, was oc- 
force of militia was stationed at different cupying a defensive position among the 
points along the south bank of the St. snows of the wilderness on the banks of 
Lawrence, their left resting at Sackett's the Maumee River; the Army of the Cen- 
Harbor, at the eastern end of Lake On- tre, under General Smyth, was resting on 
tario. A third army was placed along the defensive on the Niagara frontier ; and 
the Niagara frontier, from Fort Niagara the Army of the North, under General 
to Buffalo, then a small village. This lat- Bloomfield, was also resting on the de- 
ter force of about 6,000 men, half regu- fensive at Plattsburg, on the western shore 
lars and volunteers and half militia, were of Lake Champlain. 

under the immediate command of Maj.- Admiral Cochrane, who succeeded Ad- 
Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer, a leading miral Warren in command on the Ameri- 
Federalist of New York. can Station, issued a proclamation, dated 

The reverses that befell the American at Bermuda, the rendezvous of the more 

army during 1812 spread a gloom over southern blockading fleet, April 2, 1813. 

the people, justified the warnings of the It was addressed to slaves under the 

opposition who prophesied disaster, and denomination of " persons desirous to emi- 

increased the activity and machinations grate from the United States." Owing 

of the peace party. But before the close to the inability of nearly all the slaves 

of the year the brilliant exploits of the to read, the proclamation had very little 

little American navy dispelled the brood- effect. It is said that a project had been 

ing gloom that hung over the people and suggested by British officers for taking 

filled them with joy and confidence. These possession of the peninsula between the 

justified the judgment of the Federalists, Delaware and Chesapeake bays, a.nd there 


WAR OP 1813 

training for British service an army of boats, at the beginning of a dark night, 

negro slaves. The project was rejected with an impending storm hovering over 

only because the British, being then slave- the lake. Before morning there was a 

holders themselves, did not like to en- furious gale, with rain and sleet, and the 

courage insurrection elsewhere. boats were scattered in every direction, 

General Armstrong, Secretary of War, The shores of the little islands in that 
planned a second invasion of Canada in region were strewn with wrecks, and 
the autumn of 1813. There had been a fifteen large boats were totally lost. On 
change in the military command on the the 20th a large number of the troops and 
northern frontier. For some time the in- saved boats arrived at Grenadier Island, 
firmities of General Dearborn, the com- near the entrance to the St. Lawrence, 
mander-in-chief, had disqualified him for There they were finally all gathered. The 
active service, and in June (1813) he was damage and loss of stores, etc., was ini- 
superseded by Gen. James Wilkinson, who, mense. The troops remained encamped un- 
like Dearborn, had been an active young til Nov. 1. The snow had fallen to the 
officer in the Revolution. Leaving Flour- depth of 10 inches. Delay would be dan- 
noy in command at New Orleans, Wilkin- gerous, and on Nov. 9 General Brown and 
son hastened to Washington, D. C., when his division pushed forward, in the face 
Armstrong assured him he would find of a tempest, to French Creek, at the 
15,000 troops at his command on the present village of Clayton, on the St. 
borders of Lake Ontario. On reaching Lawrence. Chauncey at the same time 
Sackett's Harbor (Aug. 20), he found made an ineffectual attempt to blockade 
one-third of the troops sick, no means for the British vessels in the harbor of 
transportation, officers few in number, and Kingston. British marine scouts were out 
both officers and men raw and undis- among the Thousand Islands. They dis- 
ciplined. After some movements on the covered the Americans at French Creek, 
lake, Wilkinson returned to Sackett's Har- where, on the afternoon of Nov. 1, there 
bor in October, sick with lake fever, was a sharp fight between the troops and 
Armstrong was there to take personal British schooners and gunboats filled with 
charge of preparations for an attack upon infantry. The remainder of the troops, 
Kingston or Montreal. Knowing the per- with Wilkinson, came down from Grena- 
sonal enmity between Wilkinson and Wade dier Island, and on the morning of the 
Hampton, Armstrong, accompanied by the 5th the whole flotilla, comprising 300 
adjutant-general, had established the bateaux, preceded by gunboats, filled with 
headquarters of the War Department at 7,000 troops, went down the St. Lawrence, 
Sackett's Harbor to promote harmony be- pursued by British troops in a galley and 
tween these two old officers, and to add gunboats, through the sinuous channels of 
efficiency to the projected movements, the Thousand Islands. The same evening 
Wilkinson, not liking this interference of the belligerents had a fight by moonlight 
Armstrong, wished to resign; but the lat- in Alexandria Bay, and land troops from 
ter would not consent, for he had no other Kingston reached Prescott, opposite Og- 
officer of experience to take his place, densburg, at the same time. 
After much discussion, it was determined Wilkinson disembarked his army just 
to pass Kingston and make a descent upon above Ogdensburg, and marched to some 
Montreal. distance below to avoid the batteries at 

For weeks the bustle of preparation was Prescott. Brown, meanwhile, successfully 

great, and many armed boats and trans- took the flotilla past Prescott on the night 

ports had been built at the Harbor. On of the 6th, and the forces were reunited 4 

Oct. 17 orders were given for the em- miles below Ogdensburg. There Wilkin- 

barkation of the troops at Sackett's Har- son was informed that the Canada shores 

bor, and General Hampton, then halting of the St. Lawrence were lined with posts 

on the banks of the Chateaugay Kiver, was of musketry and artillery to dispute the 

ordered -to move to the St. Lawrence, at passage of the flotilla. To meet this 

the mouth of that stream. The troops at emergency, Col. Alexander McComb was 

the harbor were packed in scows, bateaux, detached with 1,200 of the best troops of 

Durham boats, and common lake sail- the army, and on the 7th landed on the 


WAR OF 1812 

Canada shore. He was followed by Lieu- can, and whose friendship has recently 
tenant-Colonel Forsyth with his riflemen, been shown to be of such great importance 
On the 8th a council of war was held, and, to us, we cannot do too much." 
after receiving a report from Col. J. G. Towards the close of 1813, the whole of 
Swift, the chief engineer, concerning the the New England States presented a unit- 
strength of the army, the question " Shall ed front in opposition to the national ad- 
the army proceed with all possible rapid- ministration and the war. The peaee 
ity to the attack of Montreal 1" was con- faction was very active and industriously 
sidered, and was answered in the affirma- sowed discontent. The newspapers and 
tive. General Brown at once crossed the orators of the ultra-Federal party de- 
river with his brigade. Meanwhile a large nounced the administration as hostile to 
reinforcement had come down from Kings- New England, which, it was asserted, was 
ton to Prescott, and were marching rap- treated as a conquered province; her great 
idly forward to meet the American in- interests — commerce and navigation — 
vaders. A severe engagement ensued at being sacrificed, and her sentiments of 
Chrysler's Field, a few miles below Will- right and justice trampled upon. They de- 
iamsburg (Nov. 11, 1813). The flotilla clared that every New England man of 
was then at the head of the Long Rapids, promise in public affairs had been for 
20 miles below Ogdensburg. The Ameri- twelve years proscribed by the national 
cans were beaten in the fight and driven government, and that, reduced as New 
from the field (see Chrysler's Field, England was by follies and oppressions 
Battle of), and that night they with- to the brink of ruin, it was her first duty 
drew to the boats. The following morning to consult her own interest and safety, 
the flotilla passed the Long Rapids safely. The idea was broached in a Boston news- 
General Wilkinson was ill, and word came paper (Daily Advertiser) that it would be 
from Hampton that he would not form a desirable for New England to conclude a 
junction with Wilkinson's troops at St. separate peace with Great Britain, or, at 
Regis. The officers were unwilling to serve least, assume a position of neutrality, 
longer under the incompetent Wilkinson, leaving it to the States that chose to 
and it was determined, at a council of war, fight it out to +1 ieir hearts' content. No 
to abandon the expedition against Mon- person appear.a as the avowed champion 
treal. The troops went into winter quar- of such a step. It was denounced as a 
ters at French Mills (afterwards Coving- treasonable suggestion, and produced con- 
ton ) , on the Salmon River. siderable anxiety at Washington. These 
The newt of Perry's victory on Lake discontents finally led to the Harttord 
Erie (see Erie, Lake, Battle on) Convention (q. v.). 

startled the British public, and strange For nearly two years the Americans 
confessions of weakness were made in the waged offensive war against Great Britain 
English and provincial newspapers. "We (1812-14), when they were compelled to 
have been conquered on the lake," said a change to a war of defence. The entire 
Halifax paper, " and so we shall be on sea-coast from the St. Croix to the St. 
every other lake, if we take as little care Mary's, and of the Gulf of Mexico to New 
to protect them." Others urged the neces- Orleans and beyond, was menaced by 
sity of an alliance with the Indians to British squadrons and regiments. At 
secure tjje possession of Canada. " We Portland, Boston, Providence, J^ew Haven, 
dare assert," said a writer in one of the New York, Baltimore, Norfolk, Charles- 
leading British reviews, "and recent ton, and Savannah, which were exposed to 
events have gone far in establishing the attack, the people were soon busy casting 
truth of the proposition, that the Canadas up fortifications for defence, 
cannot be effectually and durably defend- On Jan. 0, 1814, the United States gov- 
ed without the friendship of the Indians ernment received from that of Great 
and command of the lakes and river St. Britain an offer to treat for peace directly 
Lawrence." He urged his countrymen to at London, that city being preferred be- 
consider the interests of the Indians as cause it would afford greater facilities for 
their own ; " for men," he said, " whose negotiation. It was proposed, in case 
very name is so formidable to an Ameri- there should be insuperable objections to 


WAR OP 181S 

London, to hold the conference at Gotten- the purchase, for $225,000, of the vessels 

burg, in Sweden. This offer, with the captured on Lake Erie. At a cost of about 

selection of Gottenburg, was accepted by $2,000,000 in bounties, 14,000 recruits were 

President Madison, who, at the same time, obtained, of whom the New England States 

complained of the rejection of Russia's furnished more than all the rest of the 

mediation, which had been offered three States put together. 

separate times. He nominated as com- At the beginning of August, 1814, 
missioners to negotiate for peace John Armstrong, the Secretary of War, ordered 
Quincy Adams and James A. Bayard, to General Izard, in command of a large 
whom Henry Clay and Jonathan, Russell body of troops at Plattsburg, to march 
were added as special representatives of a larger portion of them to co-operate 
the war party. At the same time, Russell with the army on the Niagara frontier, 
was nominated and confirmed as minister This order produced amazement and 
to Sweden. indignation in the minds of Izard and 
Early in 1814 the most serious business his officers, for they knew the imminent 
of Congress was to provide for recruiting peril of immediate invasion, from the 
the army. The enlistment of twelve- region of the St. Lawrence, of a large 
months' men, it was found, stood in the body of Wellington's veterans, who had 
way of more permanent engagements, and lately arrived in Canada. Both the army 
the fourteen regiments of that charaeter and people were expecting an occasion 
then existing were to be replaced by men for a great battle near the foot of Lake 
to serve five years. Nor were any volun- Champlain very soon, and this order pro- 
teers to be retained except for a like duced consternation among the inhabi- 
period. Three additional rifle regiments tants. Izard wrote to the War Depart- 
were to be raised; two regiments of light ment in a tone of remonstrance, Aug. 11: 
dragoons were consolidated, and three " I will make the movement you direct, if 
regiments of artillery were reorganized possible; but I shall do it with the appre- 
into twelve battalions. Could the ranks hension of risking the force under my 
be filled under this organization, there command, and with the certainty that 
would be an army of 60,000 regulars. To everything in this vicinity but the lately 
fill these ranks the money bounty was erected works at Plattsburg and Cumber- 
raised to $124 — $50 when mustered in and land Head will, in less than three days 
the remainder when discharged, the latter after my departure, be in the possession 
sum, in case of death, to go to the soldier's of the enemy." Nine days afterwards 
representatives. To anybody who should Izard wrote to the Secretary : " I must 
bring in a recruit, $8 were allowed. In the not be responsible for the consequences 
debate on this subject Daniel Webster of abandoning my present strong posi- 
made his first speech in Congress, in which tion. I will obey orders, and execute 
he declared that the difficulty of raising them as well as I know how." The re- 
troops grew out of the unpopularity of moval of this force invited the invasion 
the war, and not from political opposition of Prevost immediately afterwards, which 
to it. The enormous bounties offered was checked by the American army and 
proved that. And he advised giving over navy at Plattsburg, where, with great 
all ideas of invasion, and also all restric- diligence, General Macomb concentrated 
tive war waged against commerce by em- troops for defence immediately after Izard 
bargoes and non-importation acts. " If left. 

war must be continued, go to the ocean," From the beginning of the war the gov- 

he said, " and then, if the contention was ernment had to depend upon loans for 

seriously for maritime rights, the united funds, and in this matter the peace faction 

wishes .and exertions of the nation would found an excellent chance for embarrass- 

go^with the administration." Little was ing the administration. They took meas- 

dene towards increasing the force of the ures to injure the public credit, and so 

navy, excepting an appropriation of $500,- much did they do so that upon each loan 

000 for the construction of a steam- after 1812 a ruinous bonus was paid. On 

frigate or floating battery, for which a loan of $16,000,000, at the beginning of 

Fulton offered a plan, and the authorizing 1813, the lender received a bonus of ahinn 


WAB Ot 1812 

$2,000,000. In March, 1814, the darkest the reach of the government and put into 
period of the war, a loan of $25,000,000 the hands of the enemy, 
was authorized, when the peace faction, In January, 1815, Alexander J. Dallas, 
at public meetings, through the news- Secretary of the Treasury, in a report to 
papers, and even from the pulpit, cast Congress, laid bare the poverty of the na- 
every possible embarrassment in the way tional treasury. The year had closed with 
of the government. Their opposition as- $19,000,000 unpaid debts, to meet which 
sumed the character of virtual treason, there was a nominal balance in the treas- 
They violently denounced the government ury of less than $2,000,000 and about 
and those who dared to lend it money; $4,500,000 of uncollected taxes. For the 
and by inflammatory publications and next year's services $50,000,000 would be 
personal threats they intimidated many required. The total revenue, including the 
capitalists who were disposed to lend. The produce of the new taxes, was estimated 
result was, not half the amount of the at about $11,000,000 — $10,000,000 from 
proposed loan was obtained, and that only taxes, and only $1,000,000 from duties on 
by the payment of $2,852,000 on $11,400,- imports, to such a low ebb had the com- 
000. Then this unpatriotic faction pointed merce of the United States been reduced, 
to this event as evidence of the unwilling- Various schemes for raising money were 
ness of the people to continue the war. So devised, but the prospect was particularly 
disastrous were these attempts to borrow gloomy. The government was without 
money that only one more of a like nature money or credit; the regular military force 
was made through the remainder of the was decreasing; the war party were at 
war, the deficiency being made up by variance, Great Britain refusing to treat 
treasury notes. Foiled in their efforts to on admissible terms; a victorious British 
utterly prevent the government from army threatening the Northern frontier; 
making loans, the peace faction struck Cockburn in possession of Cumberland Isl- 
another blow at the public credit, and the and, off the coast of Georgia; the Southern 
complicity of Boston banks gave it in- States threatened with servile insurrec- 
tensity. The banks out of New England tion; a formidable British armament pre- 
were the principal lenders to the govern- paring to invade the Gulf region; and 
ment, and measures were taken to drain the peace faction doing all in their power 
them of their specie, and so produce an to embarrass the government. It was at 
utter inability on their part to pay this juncture that the complaints of the 
their subscriptions. Boston banks demand- Hartford Convention (q. v.)., and a corn- 
ed specie for the notes of New York banks mission from the legislature of Massa- 
and those farther south which they held, chusetts appeared before the government, 
and at the same time drafts were drawn Fortunately, the news of the treaty of 
on the New York banks for the balances peace and the victory at New Orleans went 
due the Boston corporations, to the total over the country in February and saved 
amount of about $8,000,000. A panic was the people from utter discouragement, 
created, and great commercial distress The government took heart and author- 
ensued, for the banks so drained were com- ized a loan of $18,400,000, the amount of 
pelled to contract their discounts. This treasury notes then outstanding; and as 
conspiracy against the public credit was an immediate means to go on with, a new 
potent and ruinous in its effects. To make issue of treasury notes to the amount of 
the blow more intensely fatal, the con- $25,000,000 (part of them in sums under 
spirators made arrangements with agents $100, payable to bearer, and without in- 
of the government authorities of Lower terest) was authorized. The small notes 
Canada, whereby a very large amount of were intended for currency; those over 
British government bills, drawn on Quebec, $100 bore an interest of 5 a / 5 per cent, 
were transmitted to New York, Philadel- All acts imposing discriminating duties on 
phia, and Baltimore, and offered on such foreign vessels of reciprocity nations, and 
advantageous terms that capitalists were embargo, non-importation, and non-inter- 
induced to purchase them. By this means course laws, were repealed; and so com- 
an immense amount of gold was trans- merce was immediately revived and the 
mitted to Canada, and so placed beyond revenue increased. 


WAR Off 1812 

The whole number of captured British British sloop Peacock near the mouth ot 

vessels during the war, on the lakes and the Demerara River, South America 
on the ocean, including those taken by Feb. 24, 1813 

privateers (of which there remained forty York (now Toronto), Upper Canada, 

or fifty at sea when peace was proclaimed) , captured April 27, 1813 

and omitting those recaptured, was reck- Defence of Fort Meigs, 0., by General 

oned at 1,750. There were captured or de- Harrison April 28-May 9, 1813 

stroyed by British ships 42 American na- Gen. Green Clay is checked in attempt- 

tional vessels (including 22 gunboats) , 133 ing to reinforce Fort Meigs. . .May 5, 1813 
privateers, and 511 merchant-vessels — in Fort George, on the west side of 

all 686, manned by 18,000 seamen. Niagara Eiver, near its mouth, is capt- 

Chronology. The following is a record ured by the American troops under Gen- 

of the chief battles and naval engagements eral Dearborn May 27, 1813 

between the United States forces and the Frigate Chesapeake surrenders to the 

combined British and Indian forces: British ship Shannon June 1, 1813 

Action at Brownstown, Mich. Action at Stony Creek, Upper Canada 

Aug. 5, 1812 June 6, 1813 

Action at Maguaga, 14 miles below De- Affair at Beaver Dams, Upper Canada 
troit Aug. 9, 1812 June 24, 1813 

Surrender of Fort Dearborn and mas- Maj. George Croghan's gallant defence 

saere (Chicago) Aug. 15, 1812 of Fort Stephenson Aug. 2, 1813 

Surrender of Detroit by Gen. William British sloop-of-war Pelican captures the 

Hull (Michigan) ) Aug. 16, 1812 brig Argus in the British channel 

Frigate Constitution captures British Aug. 14, 1813 

frigate Guerriere Aug. 19, 1812 Massacre at Port Mimms, Ala., by the 

Defence of Fort Harrison, Indiana, Creek Indians Aug. 30, 1813 

Capt. Zachary Taylor commanding Brig Enterprise captures British brig 

Sept. 4, 1812 Boxer off the coast of Maine. .Sept. 5, 1813 

Battle of Queenston Oct. 13, 1812 Perry's victory on Lake Erie 

Sloop-of-war Wasp captures British Sept. 10, 1813 

3loop Frolic Oct. 18, 1812 Detroit, Mich., reoccupied by the United 

Action at St. Regis, ST. Y.. .Oct. 23, 1812 States forces Sept. 28, 1813 

Frigate United States captures British Battle of the Thames, Upper Canada; 

frigate Macedonian Oct. 25, 1812 Harrison defeats Proctor; death of Te- 

.Affair at Black Bock, N. Y.; attempt- cumseh Oct. 5, 1813 

ed invasion of Canada by the Ameri- Action at Chrysler's Field, on the north- 
cans under Gen. Alexander Smyth ern shore of the St. Lawrence, about 90 
Nov. 28, 1812 miles above Montreal Nov. 11, 1813 

Frigate Constitution captures British Jackson's campaign against the Creek 

frigate Java off the coast of Brazil Indians November, 1813 

Dec. 29, 1812 Gen. George McClure, commanding a Bri- 

Schooner Patriot sails from Charleston, gade on the Niagara frontier, burns the 

S. G, for New York Dec. 30, 1812 village of Newark, Canada, and evacuates 

[This vessel, having on board Theodosia, Fort George, opposite Fort Niagara (he 

the wife of Governor Alston and only child is severely censured) Dec. 10, 1813 

of Aaron Burr, is never heard of after : Fort Niagara captured by the British 
wards.] Dec. 19, 1813 

Action at Frenchtown, now Monroe, Buffalo and Black Rock burned by the 

Mich Jan. 18, 1813 British and Indians Dec. 30, 1813 

Defeat and capture of General Win- General Jackson defeats and crushes the 

Jiester at the river Raisin, Mich - Creek Indians at Great Horse Shoe Bend, 

Jan. 22, 1813 on the Tallapoosa March 27, 1814 

British fleet, Vice-Admiral Cockburn, at- Frigate Essex, Capt. David Porter, sur- 

tempts to blockade the Atlantic coast renders to the British ships Phoebe and 

January et seq. 1813 Cherub in the harbor of Valparaiso, Chile 

Sloop-of-war Hornet captures and sinks March 28, 1814 


WAR, OF 1812 

General Wilkinson, with about 2,000 Fleet on Lake Champlain under Cora, 
troops, attacks a party of British, forti- Thomas Macdonough defeats the British 
tied in a stone mill, at La Colle, Lower under Commodore Downie. .Sept. 11, 1814 
Canada, near the north end of Lake British approaching Baltimore, Md., un- 
Champlain, and is repulsed der General Ross; he is killed at North 
March 30, 1814 Point Sept. 12, 1814 

British blockade extended to the whole They find the city too well fortified, and 
coast of the United States. .April 23, 1814 retire Sept. 13, 1814 

Sloop-of-war Peacock captures the Brit- British fleet bombard Fort McHenry 
ish brig Epervier off the coast of Florida Sept. 13, 1814 

with $118,000 in specie April 29, 1814 [During this attack Francis Scott Key 

British attack and destroy the fort at wrote The Star-Spangled Banner.] - 
Oswego, 1ST. Y May 6, 1814 British attack on Fort Bowyer, Mobile 

Action at Big Sandy Creek, N. Y. Bay, repulsed Sept. 15, 1814 

May 29, 1814 Garrison at Fort Erie by asortie break 

Sloop-of-war Wasp captures the British up the siege Sept. 17, 1814 

sloop Reindeer in the British Channel General Drummond raises the siege of 
June 28, 1814 Fort Erie Sept. 21, 1814 

Fort Erie, with about 170 British sol- Wasp captures the British brig Atlanta 
diers, surrenders to Gen. Winfield Scott Sept. 21, 1814 

and General Ripley July 3, 1814 Gallant fight of the privateer, the General 

Battle of Chippewa, Upper Canada Armstrong, with the British 74-gun ship- 

July 5, 1814 of-the-line, the Plantagenet, in the harbor 

Battle of Lundy's Lane, or Bridgewa- of Fayal, one of the Azores. .Sept. 26, 1814 
ter, Upper Canada July 25, 1814 Gen. George Izard, on the Niagara fron- 

Congress appropriates $320,000 for one tier, moves on Chippewa with a force of 

or more floating batteries, designed by 6,000 men Oct. 13, 1814 

Bobert Fulton; one finished. .July, 1814 General Izard, after a skirmish with 

[This was the first steam vessel of war the British near Chippewa, Oct. 19, re- 
built.] tires to the Niagara River, opposite Black 

Expedition from Detroit against Fort Rock Oct. 21, 1814 

Mackinaw fails Aug. 4, 1814 Fort Erie abandoned and blown up by 

British troops land at Pensacola, Fla. the United States troops .... Nov. 5, 1814 
Aug. 4, 1814 British approach New Orleans 

British troops, 5,000 strong, under Gen- Dec. 22, 1814 

eral Drummond, invest Fort Erie General Jackson attacks the command 

Aug. 4, 1814 of General Keane on ViHerg's plantation, 

Stonington, Conn., bombarded by the about 9 miles below the city, and checks 
British fleet under Commodore Hardy its advance on the night of 

Aug. 9-12, 1814 Dec. 23, 1814 

British fleet, with 6,000 veterans from He intrenches about 7 miles below the 

Wellington's army under General Ross, city Dec. 24, 1814 

appears in Chesapeake Bay. .Aug. 14,1814 [His line, extending at right angles to 

Midnight assault by the British on Fort the river, reached to a cypress swamp 
Erie repulsed Aug. 15, 1814 about I 1 /, miles distant, and was pro- 
Battle of Bladensburg, the Capitol at tected by rudely constructed breast- 
Washington burned Aug. 24, 1814 works of cotton bales and earth, with 

Nantucket Island stipulates with the a shallow ditch in front. At the ex- 
British fleet to remain neutral treme left of this -line was stationed the 
Aug. 31, 1814 brigade of General Coffee, 800 strong; 

Sloop-of-war Wasp sinks the British then came Carroll's brigade, about 1,400 
sloop Avon Sept. 1, 1814 men, while the right towards the river 

British General Prerost crosses the was held by 1,300 men under Colonel 
Canadian frontier towards Plattsburg, Ross, including all the regulars; Gen- 
N. Y., with 12,000 veteran troops eral Adair was placed in the rear 

Sept. 1, 1814 with about 500 men as a reserve. Along 

WAR 0E 1812— WARD 

the line were placed at intervals eigh- 
teen guns, carrying from six to twenty- 
three pound balls, and several guns 
across^the river under Patterson. Antici- 
pating an advance on the west bank of the 
river as well, Jackson had placed Gen. 
David B. Morgan with about 1,200 men 
and two or three guns a little in advance 
of his own position.] 

British attack General Jackson with ar- 
tillery, but are forced to retire 

Dec. 28, 1814 
Another attempt made.... Jan. 1, 1815 

Final assault fails Jan. 8, 1815 

[The British commander, Sir Edward 
Pakenham, in his final assault designing 
to attack on both sides of the river at 
once, ordered Col. William (afterwards 
Sir) Thornton to cross on the night of 
Jan. 7 with 1,200 men and attack General 
Morgan at early dawn. The main assault 
under Pakenham • was made as early as 
6 a.m., the 8th, in two columns, the right 
under Ma j. -Gen. Sir Samuel Gibbs, the 
left under Ma j. -Gen. John Keane, and the 
reserve under Ma j. -Gen. John Lambert; 
total force probably numbered about 7,000 
men. General Gibbs's column in close 
ranks, sixty men front, came under fire 
first, which was so severe and deadly that 
a few platoons only reached the edge of 
the ditch and broke. In this advance Gibbs 
was mortally wounded, and Pakenham, in 
his attempt to rally the men, was almost 
instantly killed. The left advance under 
Keane fared no better, Keane being severe- 
ly wounded and carried off the field, and 
his column routed. By 8 A.M. the assault 
was at an end. Colonel Thornton's attack 
on the west side of the river was success- 
ful, for he routed General Morgan's mili- 
tia, which were poorly armed, and drove 
them beyond Jackson's position towards 
the city, and compelled Patterson to spike 
his guns and retire, but owing to the 
failure of the main assault, together with 
the loss of the chief officers, General Lam- 
bert, now chief in command, recalled Thorn- 
ton from his successes, and on Jan. 9 be- 
gan preparations for retreating. Of 7,000 
British troops engaged in the assault, 
2,036 were killed and wounded, the killed 
being estimated at over 700; Americans 
lost eight killed and thirteen wounded in 
the main assault; total loss on both sides 
of the. river, seventy-one.] 

x.— I 


Frigate President, forty-four guns, Com- 
modore Decatur commanding, is captured 
by the British frigates Endymion, forty 
guns, the Pomone, Tenedos, and Majestic 

Jan. 15, 1815 

Frigate Constitution captures the Cy- 

ane and the Levant, British sloops-of-war 

February, 1815 

Fort Bowyer, invested by the British 
fleet, surrenders Feb. 12, 1815 

Sloop-of-war Hornet, Capt. James Bid- 
die, captures the British brig - of - war 
Penguin off the Cape of Good Hope 

March 23, 1815 

See also Jackson, Andrew; New Or- 
leans; and readily suggestive names of 
persons and places that were conspicuous 
in the war. 

War of 1812, Society of. See Societt 
of the War of 1812. 

Warburton, George, author; born near 
Tullamore, Ireland, presumably about 
1812; joined the British army, and reached 
the rank of major. He spent some time 
in Canada; then returned to England, 
and represented Harwich in Parliament. 
His publications include Hochelaga, or 
England in the New World; The Conquest 
of Canada, etc. He died in 1857. 

Ward, Andrew Henshaw, historian 
born in Shrewsbury, Mass., May 26, 1784 
graduated at Harvard College in 1808 
admitted to the bar in 1811 and practised 
in Shrewsbury; was engaged in the cus- 
tom-house in Boston in 1829-53, with 
the exception of two years; and was a 
justice of peace for over fifty years. 
His publications include History of the 
Town of Shrewsbury; Ward Family: De- 
scendants of William Ward; and Genea* 
logical History of the Rice Family. Ha 
died in Newtonville, Mass., Feb. 18, 

Ward, Artemas, military officer; borr; 
in Shrewsbury, Mass., Nov. 27, 1727; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1748, 
served as major in the Northern army 
from 1755 to 1758, and became lieuten- 
ant-colonel. Taking an active part against 
the ministerial measures, he was appoint- 
ed a general officer by the Massachusetts 
Provincial Congress, and in May became 
commander-in-chief of the forces gath- 
ered at Cambridge, in which post be act- 
ed until the arrival of Washington at the 
beginning of July, 1775. Ward was made 


the first major-general under Washing- ceived an answer was mortally wounded in 

ton; resigned in the spring of 1776 on ac- an action at Tsekie, and died in Ningpo, 

count of ill -health; was then appointed Sept. 21, 1862. 

chief- justice of the court of common pleas Ward, Henri Augustus, naturalist; 

for Worcester county. He was president born in Kochester, N. Y., March 9, 1834; 

of the council in 1777, and in 1779 was educated at Williams College and at the 

chosen a delegate to Congress, but ill- Harvard Scientific School, where he became 

health prevented his caking a seat in that assistant to Professor Agassiz in 1854; 

body. For sixteen years he was in the was Professor of Natural Sciences at 

Massachusetts legislature, and was speaker Rochester University in 1860-65 ; manager 

of the Assembly in 1785. From 1791 to of gold-mines in Montana in 1866-69; 

1795 he was in Congress. He died in travelled extensively in various parts of 

Shrewsbury, Mass., Oct. 28, 1800. the world, making large and valuable 

Ward, Durbin, lawyer; born in Augus- cabinets of mineralogy and geology, which 
ta, Ky., Feb. 11, 1819; settled in Fayette have been distributed among universities, 
county, Ind.; admitted to the bar in 1842; colleges, and schools throughout the Unit- 
prosecuting attorney of Warren county, ed States. He was naturalist to the Unit- 
0., in 1845-51; served throughout the ed States expedition to Santo Domingo in 
Civil War; won distinction at the battle 1871, and a member of many geological 
of Chickamauga, where he was severely and zoological societies, 
wounded; promoted lieutenant - colonel, Ward, James Habman, naval officer; 
Dec. 31, 1862, and brevetted brigadier- born in Hartford, Conn., in 1806; was 
general in October, 1865; was United educated at Norwich Military Academy 
States attorney for the southern district and Trinity College; entered the navy in 
of Ohio in 1866-68; elected to the State 1823, and rose to commander in 1858. 
Senate in 1870; and drew up the plan of He lectured on gunnery, and urged the 
the present circuit court system of Ohio, establishment of a naval school. In May, 
He died in Lebanon, O., May 22, 1886. 1861, he was placed in command of the 

Ward, Frederick Townsend, military Potomac flotilla; silenced the batteries 
officer; born in Salem, Mass., Nov. 29, at Aquia Creek, and in an attack upon 
1831; became a sailor; went to Shanghai, a battery upon Mathias Point was mor- 
China, in 1860, when the Taeping rebels tally wounded by a Minis ball, June 27, 
were being victorious everywhere. He 1861. See Matthias Point. 
recruited a band of men from various Ward, John Henry Hobart, military 
countries and their services were accepted officer; born in New York City, June 17, 
by the government. He first captured the 1823; was educated at Trinity School; 
walled town of Sungkiang, in which there served in the Mexican War as sergeant- 
were 10,000 rebels, in recognition of which major ; was assistant commissary-general 
he was created a mandarin of the fourth of the State of New York in 1851-55; and 
degree. He next dispersed the rebels commissary-general in 1855-59; went into 
around Shanghai and later prevented them the Civil War as colonel of the 38th New 
from taking that city. Afterwards he York Volunteers, and led his regiment at 
was made admiral-general and created a both battles of Bull Pun, in all the battles 
mandarin of the highest grade, married of the Peninsular campaign, and at Chan- 
the daughter of a powerful native, and was tilly ; promoted brigadier-general of volun- 
named Hwa. When Captain Wilkes re- teers, and commanded a brigade in the 3d 
moved the Confederate commissioners Corps, at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
from the Trent and war seemed probable Gettysburg, the Wilderness. Spottsyl- 
between the United States and England, vania, Kelly's Ford, and Wapping Heights, 
he planned the seizure of the British war- He died in Monroe, N. Y., July 24, 
ships and merchant vessels in Chinese 1903. 

waters. At the outbreak of the Civil War Ward, John Quincy Adams, sculptor; 

he tried to close up his affairs in China born in Urbana, O., June 29, 1830; studied 

in order to enlist in the National army, under and assisted Henry K. Browne, in 

and made an offer of $10,000 to the Unit- 1850-57: resided in Washington, D. C, in 

ed State* government, but before he re- 1850-61, where he made portrait butts 



of many of the public men, and in New annihilated. The date of her death is un- 
York City since 1861. Among his statues known. 

are The Indian Hunters; 7th Regiment Ward, Nathaniel, author; born in 
Citizen Soldiers; and The Pilgrims, all in Haverhill, Suffolk, England, about 1578; 
Central Park, New York City; The Freed- graduated at Emmanuel College, Cam- 
more, in Washington, D. C. ; Henry Ward bridge, in 1603; practised law and preach- 
Beecher; Commodore Perry; and the ed ; became a member of the Massachusetts 
crowning group of Victory on the naval Company in 1630, and emigrated to the 
arch in New York City, erected for the colony in 1634, where he was pastor at 
Dewey reception. Agawam till 1637; took part in the set- 

Ward, Marcus Laurence, born in tlement of Haverhill in 1640; returned to 
Newark, N. J., Nov. 9, 1812; was a dele- England in 1646, and was author of Body 
gate to the National Republican con- of Liberties; The Simple Cobbler of 
ventions in Chicago in 1860 and in Balti- Agawam, etc. He died in Shenfield, Essex, 
more in 1864; governor of New Jersey England, in October, 1652. 
in 1865-68; chairman of the national Re- Ward, Richard, colonial governor; 
publican committee in 1866; member of born! in Newport, R. I., April 15, 1689; 
Congress in 1873-75. He was a member of was attorney-general of Rhode Island in 
the New Jersey Historical Society, im- 1712-13; deputy and clerk of the As- 
proved the condition of the State^prison, sembly in 1714; recorder in 1714-30; 
and was an active philanthropist. He died deputy-governor in 1740 and governor in 
in Newark, N. J., April 25, 1884. 1740-43. He died in Newport, R. I., Aug. 

Ward, Nancy, Cherokee Indian prophet- 21, 1763. 
ess; born presumably about 1740; daugh- Ward, Samuel, patriot; born in New- 
ter of an officer in the British army named port, R. I., May 27, 1725 ; was already 
Ward and an Indian squaw, sister of Atta- a man of note when the Revolution oc- 
culla-culla, the vice-king. She was re- curred. He had acquired a competence 
garded as the inspired messenger of the in business, and had served in the Assem- 
Great Spirit, and is reported to have bly of Rhode Island. . In 1761 he was 
been a woman of singular beauty, with a made chief-justice, and was twice gov- 
tall, straight form, raven silk hair, flash- ernor (in 1762 and from 1765 to 1767). 
ing black eyes, and a strong personality; He was one of the founders of the Rhode 
and had a powerful influence over the Island College (now Brown University). 
Cherokees, whom she many times restrain- A firm and persistent patriot, he was re- 
ed from atrocious acts against the white garded as a safe leader and had great 
settlers. Her first recorded exploit was influence, and, with Stephen Hopkins, was 
the rescue of Jeremiah Jack and William sent a delegate from Rhode Island to the 
Rankin, two pioneers who had been capt- first Continental Congress in 1774. He 
ured by a hostile band. She next rescued was also a member of the second Con- 
from the stake the wife of William Bean, gress in 1775, in which he usually presided 
who was the first settler beyond the Alio- when in committee of the whole. He died 
ghany Mountains. Mrs. Bean was taken in Philadelphia, Pa., March 26, 1776. 
prisoner near the fort at Watauga. Af- Ward, William Thomas, military offi- 
ter securing her liberty Nancy sent her cer; born in Amelia county, Va., Aug. 9, 
back to her husband with a strong escort. 1808; educated in St. Mary's College, near 
Her greatest service, however, to the Lebanon, Ky. ; studied law and practised 
whites was the constant warning of out- in Greensburg; served in the Mexican War 
breaks against them, which she conveyed as major of a regiment of Kentucky volun- 
through the Indian trader, John M. Lea. teers; was a member of the State legislat- 
Owing to this information the whites were ure; Representative in Congress in 1851- 
always prepared for the assaults of the 53; served through the Civil War as 
Indians. It is said she once declared: brigadier-general of Kentucky volunteers, 
"The white men are our brothers; the and commanded all troops south of Louis- 
same house holds us, the same sky covers ville. He was in General Sherman's cam- 
all." Had it not been for her friendship paigns, and took part in the battles pre- 
the settlers would doubtless have been ceding the fall of Atlanta and in the 



march to the sea. He was brevetted ma- Warfleld, Ethelbebt Dudley, educa- 
jor-general in 1865; mustered out of the tor; born in Lexington, Ky., March 16 ; 
service on Aug. 24, 1865; and resumed 1861; graduated at Princeton College in 
law practice. He died in Louisville, Ky., 1882 and at Columbia Law School in 
Oct. 12, 1878. 1885; president and Professor of History 

Warden, David Bailie, author; born at Miami University in 1888-91; became 
in Ireland in 1778; graduated at the New president and Professor of History at 
York Medical College; was United States Lafayette College in the latter year; 
consul at Paris in 1805-45. His publica- is chaplain-general of the Sons of the 
tions include Inquiry Concerning the In- American Revolution. His publications 
telleetual and Moral -Faculties and Litera- include The Kentucky Revolutions of 
ture of the Negroes; Origin and Nature 1798, an Historical Study; Memoir of 
of Consular Establishments; Description Joseph Cabell Breckinridge, TJ. S. N.,etc. 
of the District of Columbia; Statistical, Waring, Geoboe Edwin, sanitary en- 
Political, and Historical Account of the gineer; born in Poundridge, N. Y., July 
United States of North America (3 vol- 4, 1833; educated in public and private 
umes) ; Inquiry Into the Antiquities of schools and took a course in agriculture 
North America; etc. He died in Paris, and agricultural chemistry under Pro- 
France, Oct. 9, 1845. fessor Mapes in 1853. He was agricult- 

Warden, Robert Bruce, author; born 
in Bardstown, Ky., Jan. 18, 1824; was 
admitted to the bar in 1845; became pres- 
ident-judge of the Court of Common Pleas 
of Cincinnati; reporter of the Supreme 
Court of Ohio; and an associate judge of 
that court. He wrote A Voter's Version 
of the Life and Character of Stephen 
Arnold Douglas; An Account of the 
Private Life and Public Services of Salmon 
Portland Chase, etc. 

Ware, Nathaniel A., author; born 
near Abbeville, S. C, Aug. 16, 1780; 
taught school; studied law and practised; 
removed to Natchez, Miss., where he be- 
came major of militia and secretary of 
the territorial government. He removed 
to Philadelphia, and later to Cincin- 
nati; travelled extensively, making a 
study of botany, geography, and natural 
science; and wrote Views of the Federal 
Constitution; Notes on Political Econ- 
omy, as Applicable to the United States, 
etc. He died in Galveston, Tex., in 

Ware, William, author; born in Hing- 
liam, Mass., Aug. 3, 1797; graduated at 
Harvard College in 1816 and at Harvard ural engineer of Central Park, New York 
Divinity School in 1819; ordained in the City, in 1857; planned the present system 
Congregational Church and held pastor- of drainage there, and was drainage en- 
fites in Massachusetts and New York. He gineer of the park till the Civil War broke 
was editor and proprietor of the Chris- out, when he entered the Union army as 
tian Examiner in 1839-44. He wrote major of the 39th New York Volunteers, 
Lectures on the Works and Oenius of and later served as colonel of the 4th Mis- 
Washington Allston; a Memoir of Na- souri Cavalry, till its close. After the 
thaniel Bacon, etc. He died in Cam- epidemic of yellow fever in Memphis in 
bridge, Mass., Feb. 19, 1862. 1878, he changed the sewerage system of 




the city on an original plan, which was 
adoptee 1 in many cities of the United 
States. He was a member of the national 
board of health for many years; was ap- 
pointed assistant engineer of New Orleans 
in 1894; and was commissioner of street 
cleaning in New York City in 1895-98. 
In 1898 he was sent to Cuba by the gov- 
ernment at the head of a commission for 
the purpose of selecting camp sites on the 
island and making provision for sanitary 
improvements in Havana and other large 
cities. He spent several weeks on the isl- 
and, and made a special study of condi- 
tions in Havana. On his return to New 
York City he was prostrated with yellow 
fever, and died Oct. 29, 1898. He pub- 
lished many works on drainage and sani- 
tary science. 

Warmoth, Henry Clay, lawyer; born 
in McLeansboro, 111., May 9, 1842 ; was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Lebanon, Mo., in 
1861 ; entered the National army as lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 32d Missouri Infan- 
try in 1862; served later on the staffs of 
Gen. John A. McClernand and Gen. E. O. 
C. Ord; participated in the battles of 
Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Mis- 
sionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain, etc.; 
was appointed military judge in the De- 
partment of the Gulf, where he served till 
the close of hostilities, having jurisdiction 
over civil, criminal, and military cases; 
was with President Johnson during his 
" swing around the circle " through the 
Northern and Eastern States; governor of 
Louisiana in 1868-73; and collector of 
customs in New Orleans in 1889-93. In 
1890 he built the New Orleans, Fort 
Jackson, and Grand Isle Railroad, of which 
he became president. 

Warner, Charles Dudley, author; 
born in Plainfield, Mass., Sept. 12, 1829; 
graduated at Hamilton College in 1851; 
admitted to the bar in 1856; practised in 
Chicago in 1856-60; engaged in journal- 
ism in Hartford in 1860; became co-editor 
of Harper's Magazine in 1884. He was 
the author of A Book of Eloquence; The 
American Newspaper; In the Wilderness; 
Life of Washington Irving; Our Italy, 
Southern California, etc., and the editor 
of American Men of Letters; Captain John 
Smith, Sometime Governor of Virginia 
and Admiral of New England: A Study 
of His Life and Writings; A Library of 



the World's Best Literature, etc. He 
died in Hartford, Conn., Oct. 20, 1900. 

Warner, Hieam, jurist; born in Hamp- 
shire county, Mass., Oct. 29, 1802; re- 
ceived an academic education; removed 
to Georgia in 1819, and taught school 
there for three years; admitted to the bar 
and began practice in Knoxville, Ga., in 
1825; member of the State House of Rep- 
resentatives in 1828-31 ; judge of the 
Superior Court of the State in 1833 and 
in 1836-40; judge of the Supreme Court 
of the State in 1845-53; and was elected 
to Congress in 1855. He was again ap- 
pointed a judge of the Supreme Court, on 
the reorganization of the judiciary of 
the State, and became its chief-justice in 
1872. He died in Atlanta, Ga., in 1881. 

Warner, Seth, military officer; born in 
Roxbury, Conn., May 17, 1743; was a 
man of noble bearing, sound judgment, 
energy, and pure patriotism. With his 
father, Dr. Benjamin Warner, he went to 
Bennington in 1765, and became, with 
Ethan Allen, a principal leader in the 
disputes between New York and the New 
Hampshire Grants. He and Allen were 
outlawed by the State of New York, 
and a reward was offered for their ar- 
rest. He captured Ticonderoga, May 12, 
1775, and on July 27 was appointed colo- 
nel of Vermont militia. He joined the 
Northern army and was at the siege 


of St. John. He defeated an attempt circuit attorney in 1869; and mayor in 
of General Carleton to relieve the garri- 1871; was United States district attorney 
son. The next year he performed signal for western Missouri in 1882-84; member 
service during the retreat of the Ameri- of Congress in 1885-89; and was the first 
cans from Canada. On the retreat of the department commander of the Grand Army 
Americans from Ticonderoga (July 4) of the Republic of Missouri, and command- 
in 1777 he again performed good service, er-in-chief of the national encampment in 
In the command of the rear-guard he 1888. 

fought a severe battle at Hubbardton, Warren, Gouvernetjb Kemble, military 

and was compelled to retreat. At the officer; born in Cold Spring, N. Y., Jan. 8, 

battle near Bennington he and his com- 1830; graduated at West Point in 1850, 

mand were essential aids in obtaining a entering the topographical engineers, and 

was assistant Professor of Mathematics 
at the Military Academy from 1859 to 
1861. He was made colonel of the 5th 

victory over the invaders, and shared in 
the glory of the exploit. Warner remain- 
ed in the service until 1782, when his con- 
stitution gave way under the strain of 
fatigue and hardship, and he returned 
home. He died in Eoxbury, Conn., Dec. 
26, 1784. 

Warner, Willaed, military officer; 
born in Granville, O., Sept. 4, 1826; grad- 
uated at Marietta College in 1845; re- 
moved to California in 1849; and engaged 
in mercantile business in Cincinnati, O., 
in 1852. He was a delegate to the Re- 
publican National Convention in 1860. He 
served through the Civil War; was en- 
gaged at Fort Donelson, in the siege of 
Corinth, the Vicksburg campaign, the 
march from Vicksburg to Chattanooga, 
and in the battles of Lookout Mountain, 
Missionary Ridge, and Ringgold. He was 
brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers 
in March, 1865, for gallantry; and mus- 
tered out of the service in the following 
July, when he returned to Ohio, served 
in the State Senate for a year, removed to 
Alabama in 1867, and engaged in cotton- 
planting. He was a member of the State 
legislature in 1868; United States Sena- 
tor in 1868-71; collector of customs at New York Volunteers, August, 1861, and 
Mobile, Ala., in 1871-72; and member of commanded a brigade in the campaign of 
the Republican National conventions of 1862. In September he was promoted 
1868 and 1876. In 1873 he organized the brigadier-general. He engaged in the bat- 
Tecumseh Iron Company, of which he was ties of Manassas (or second Bull Run), 
general manager, and became president Antietam, and Fredericksburg. After Feb. 
and manager of the Nashville Iron, Steel, 4, 1863, he was chief of topographical en- 
and Charcoal Company in 1887. gineers of the Army of the Potomac. He 

Warner, William, lawyer; born in was engaged in the battles of Chancellors- 
Wisconsin in 1840; educated at Laurence ville and Gettysburg (where he was wound- 
University, Wis., and at the University of ed), and in the combats at Auburn and 
Michigan; admitted to the bar; served Bristow's Station. In March, 1864, he 
through the Civil War in the 33d and was placed in command of the 5th Army 
44th Wisconsin regiments ; and at its close Corps, which post he held until April, 
engaged in law practice in Kansas City, 1865, in the campaign against Richmond, 
Mo. He became city attorney in 1867; having been made major-general of volun- 




teers in May, 1863. In that campaign he 
was exceedingly active and efficient, from 
the battle of the ^Wilderness to the battle 
of Five Forks. In March, 1865, he was 
brevetted major - general, United States 
army. He was the author of Explorations 
in the Dakota Country; Preliminary Re- 
port of Explorations in Nebraska and Da- 
kota in the Tears 1855-57; and An Ac- 
count of the 5th Army Corps at the Bat- 
tle of Five Forks. He died in New- 
port, E. I., Aug. 8, 1882. A memorial 
statue of him was erected on Little Kound 
Top, Gettysburg, in 1888. 

Warren, John Collins, surgeon; born 
in Boston, Mass., Aug. 1, 1778; graduated 
at Harvard College in 1797; began prac- 
tice of medicine in Boston, in 1802; was 
assistant Professor of Anatomy and Sur- 
gery in the Harvard Medical School in 
1806-15, professor in 1815— 47; and emeri- 
tus professor in 1847-56. He was one of 
the founders of the Massachusetts General 
Hospital and the McLean Asylum for the 
Insane; president of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, of the Massachusetts 
Temperance Society, and of the Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History; and founder and 
editor of the Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal. He successfully applied ether in 
a surgical operation in the Massachusetts 
General Hospital in 1846. He was one of 
the editors of the Monthly Anthology and 
Boston Review. He died in Boston, Mass., 
May 4, 1856. 

Warren, Joseph, physician; born in 
Roxbury, Mass., June 11, 1741; killed in 
battle, June 17, 1775; graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1759; studied medicine; 
began practice in 1764 in Boston, and by 
his successful treatment of small-pox pa- 
tients acquired a high reputation among 
the faculty. In politics he was in ad- 
vance of public opinion in general, hold- 
ing the doctrine that the British Par- 
liament had no right to levy a tax of any 
kind upon the colonies. When, in 1772, 
Samuel Adams declined to deliver the an- 
nual oration on the anniversary of the 
Boston massacre, Dr. Warren took his 
place, and exhibited great ability. He 
again delivered the anniversary oration in 
1775 in the midst of the danger caused 
by the presence of British troops and the 
exasperation of the citizens. He had been 
made a member of the Boston committee 



of correspondence in 1772, and worked in- 
cessantly and effectively for the cause of 
the colonists. He was a delegate to the 
Suffolk county convention, and was chair- 
man of the committee appointed to ad- 
dress Governor Gage on the subject of the 
fortifications on Boston Neck and other 
grievances. He sent him two papers, writ- 
ten by himself, which were communicated 
to the Continental Congress. As delegate 
in the Massachusetts Provincial Congress 
in 1774 he was made its president; also 
the chairman of the committee of safety. 

The successful result to the patriots of 
the affair at Lexington and Concord was 
mainly due to the energy and vigilance 
of Dr. Warren. He was commissioned ma- 
jor-general by the Massachusetts Congress, 
June 14, 1775. Warren opposed the project 
of fortifying Charlestown Heights — Bunk- 
er (Breed's) Hill — because of the scarcity 
of powder, and to this cause the defeat 
of the provincials is chiefly chargeable. 
When a majority of a council of war 
and the committee of safety decided to 
fortify Bunker Hill, he resolved to take 
part in the enterprise. " I beg you not 
to expose your person, Dr. Warren," said 
Elbridge Gerry, " for your life is too valu- 
able to us." " I know that I may fall," 


replied Warren, " but where's the man plish the dame thing by individual sover- 
who does not think it glorious and delight- eignty. In his opinion a righteous reward 
ful to die for his country?" Just before for labor was a similar amount of labor, 
the battle began he went to the redoubt which view he illustrated by the hypoth- 
on Breed's Hill with a musket in his hand, esis, " If I am a bricklayer, and need the 
and was offered the command by Colonel services of a physician, an hour of my 
Prescott and General Putnam, but de- work in bricklaying is the proper recom- 
clined, and fought as a volunteer in the pense to be given the physician for an 
ranks. He was one of the last to leave hour of his services." He carried out 
the redoubt. As he moved away towards this plan in Cincinnati, O., where for two 
Bunker Hill an officer of the British army years he was successful in an enterprise 
who knew him called the " time store." He was the au- 
called out to him thor of True Civilization, in which he ex- 
by name to sur- plained his theories. He died in Boston, 
render, at the Mass., April 14, 1874. 
same time com- Warren, Mercy, historian; born in 
manding his men Barnstable, Mass., Sept. 25, 1728; was 
to cease firing. 
As Warren turn- 
ed, attracted by 
the voice, a bul- 
let penetrated his 
brain and he fell 
dead. The Con- 
tinental Congress 
voted him a mon- 
ument, and re- 
solved to educate 
his infant son at 
the public ex- 
pense. The mon- 
ument was never 
erected by the government, but the Bunker 
Hill monument was unveiled on the 
famous hill, June 17, 1857. A masonic 
lodge in Charlestown erected a monu- 
ment in 1794 on the spot where he fell. 
Tt was composed of a brick pedestal 8 
feet square, rising 10 feet from the ground, 
and supporting a Tuscan column of wood 
18 feet in height. This was surmounted 
by a gilt cross, bearing the inscription 
" J. W., aged 35," entwined with masonic 
emblems. Upon the pedestal was an ap- 
propriate inscription., The monument stood 
thus forty years, when it gave way to the 
Bunker Hill monument. A beautiful model 
of Warren's monument stands within the 
base of the huge granite obelisk. 

Warren, Jostah, reformer; born in 
1799; became known through his connec- and active as that of her fiery brother 5 , 
tion with Robert Owen in the latter's but she was restrained from taking public 
attempt to establish a socialistic commu- part in the politics of the day by her 
nity in 1825-26 in New Harmony, Ind. sex. She was a poet of much excellence, 
The failure of this experiment greatly dis- and corresponded with the leading states- 
couraged him, but he sought to accom- men of the day. She excelled in dramatic 




■ '■' ■'■ ri 

^=H l^pffe :■ 



'ii iiiiiiiliiiiiiiiE?; 

mwnm i 

,,■„,, W -;. fr .,;j}-. 

warren's monument. 


the wife of Gen. James Warren and sister 
of James Otis. Her mind was as strong 


composition, and produced The Group, a in 1798, and entered the navy in 1800, 

political satire; The Adulator; and two He was an officer of the Chesapeake at the 

tragedies of five acts each, called The Sack time of her encounter with the Leopard, 

of Rome, and Ladies of Castile. The latter (see Chesapeake, The). For his capture 

were written during the earlier years of of the Epervier (see Peacock, The) Con- 

the Revolutionary War, and published in gress gave him the thanks of the nation 

1778, and were full of patriotic sentiments, and a gold medal. In June, 1815, while 

Her complete poetical works were publish- cruising in the East India waters, he capt- 

ed in 1790. In 1805 Mrs. Warren com- ured the N autilus, the last prize of the war. 

pleted and published a History of the Rev- He died in Washington, D. C, Oct. 12, 1851. 

olutionary War (3 volumes). She died Wars of the United States. The fol- 

in Plymouth, Oct. 19, 1814. lowing is a list of the most important wars 

Warren, Sir Peter, naval officer; born in which the United States have engaged: 

in Ireland, in , 1702 ; entered the British 

navy in 1727, and was commodore in w»r» of the United state*. 

1745, when he commanded an expedition Revo]ution 

against Louisburg, joining the land forces Northwestern Indian ) 

from Massachusetts under General Pepper- - <Gel " '"' : i:l: ' : " ! 

ell. He took possession of Louisburg on 

June 17. Afterwards he was made a 

rear-admiral, and, in 1747, defeated the 

French in an action off Cape Finis- 

terre, capturing the greater part of 

their fleet. Admiral Warren married the 

eldest daughter of Stephen De Lancey, of 

New York, and became the owner of a 

large tract of land in the Mohawk region, 

in charge of which he placed his nephew, 

William Johnson, afterwards Sir William. 

Sir Peter died in Ireland, July 29, 1752. 

Warrington, Lewis, naval officer; born 
in Williamsburg, Va., Nov. 3, 1782; grad- 
uated at the College of William and Mary NezPercS Indian. 

Ute Indian 

Witli France* 

With Tripoli* 

Tecumseb Indian (Gen- 1 

eral Harrison) j 

Creek Indian 

1812, with Great Britain.. 


Seminole Indian 

Black Hawk Indian 

Cherokee Disturbance or | 

Removal \ 

Creek Indian Disturbance. 

Florida Indian 

Aroostook Disturbance. 

With Mexico 

Apache, Navajo, and Utah. 

Comanche Indian 

Seminole Indian 

The Civil, or Rebellion... 

Sioux Indian 

Modoc Indian 

Sioux Indian 

With Spain. 

April 19, 1775 

Sept. 19, 1T90 

July 9, 1798 
June 10, 1801 

Sept. 11, 1811 

Aug. 13, 1813 
June 19, 1812 
May, 1815 
Nov. 20, 1817 
April 21, 1831 


May 5, 1836 

Dec.;23, 1835 


April 24, 1S46 

April 21, 1861 

June 25, 1876 

April 21, 1898 

April 11, 1783 

Aug. 3, 1795 

Sept. 30, 180C 
June 4, 1805 

Nov. 11, 1811 

Aug. 9,1814 
Feb. 17, 1815 

June 28, 1815 
Oct. 21, 1818 

Sept. 31, 1832 


Sept. 30, 1837 
Aug. 14, 1843 

July 4, 1848 



May 11, 1865 

June, 1873 

October, 1877 

Aug. 12, 1898 


* Naval warfare. 

Warwick River, Skirmish on. On 
April 16, 1862, a division of the 4th 
Corps, General Smith, attacked some Con- 
federates between the mills of Lee and 
Wisner, on the Warwick Eiver. They were 
from McClellan's army, then besieging the 
Confederate lines at Yorktown. The at- 
tempt to carry the intrenchments there 

I failed, with a loss of 100 men. The Con- 

| federates lost seventy-five. 

[ Washburn, Emory, jurist; born in 
Leicester, Mass., Feb. 14, 1800; graduated 
at Williams College in 1817; admitted to 
the bar in 1821; practised iri Leicester, 
Mass., in 1821-28; settled in Worcester in 
the latter year and was there prominent 
in his profession for about thirty years ; 
judge of the court of commcn pleas in 

I 1844-48; elected governor of Massachu- 
setts in 1853 and 1854; Professor of Latf 



at Harvard University in 1856-76. He 
was the author of Judicial History of 
Massachusetts ; History of Leicester; 
Treatise on the American Law of Real 
Property; Treatise on the American Law 
of Easements and Servitudes, etc. He 
died in Cambridge, Mass., March 18, 1877. 

Washburne, Cadwallader Colden, 
military officer; born in Livermore, Me., 
April 22, 1818; brother of Elihu Benjamin 
Washburne; was a land surveyor in early 
life, and afterwards a lawyer; went West 
in 1839, and finally settled at La Crosse, 
Wis., in 1859. He was in Congress from 
1856 to 1862; a delegate to the peace con- 
ference in 1801, and soon after the attack 
on Fort Sumter he raised the 2d Wisconsin 
Cavalry, of which he became colonel, and, 
in December, 1861, conducted a successful 
expedition from Helena, Ark., into the 
interior of Mississippi. He was exceeding- 
ly active and efficient in the command of 
divisions in operations around Vicksburg 
in 1863, and afterwards served with dis- 
tinction under Banks in Louisiana. He 
was made brigadier-general of volunteers 
in July, 1862, and major-general in 
November. From 1867 till 1871 he was 
a member of Congress, and in the latter 
year was chosen governor of Wisconsin. 
He died in Eureka Springs, Ark., May 14, 

Washburne, Elihtj Benjamin, diplo- 
matist; born in Livermore, Me., Sept. 23, 
1816; was first a printer and then a 
lawyer, and settled to practice in Galena, 
111. He was in Congress from 1853 to 
1869 continuously (excepting one term), 
where he was a Republican leader and 
chairman of the committee on commerce 
(1857-65). He was awarded the title of 
" Father of the House." He procured the 
appointment of Ulysses S. Grant as brig- 

adier-general, and when the latter became 
President he called Washburne to a seat 
in his cabinet as Secretary of State. He 
soon afterwards accepted the mission to 
France, which he retained throughout the 
Franco-Prussian War. He edited History 
of the English Settlement in Edwards 
County, Illinois. He died in Chicago, 111., 
Oct. 22, 1887. 

Washington, Booker Taliafebeo, edu- 
cator; born of negro parents near Hale's 
Ford, Va., about 1859; graduated at 
Hampton Institute, Va., in 1875; and was 
an instructor there till 1881, when he was 
elected principal of the Tuskegee Normal 
and Industrial Institute. His success in 
organizing and directing that institution 
has brought him into much prominence. 
He has also attained a high reputation as 
a speaker on educational and racial sub- 
jects. His publications include Sowing 
and Reaping, and Up from Slavery. In 
October, 1901, on the invitation of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, he dined at the White 
House, an incident which created a storm 
of disapproval in the Southern States. 

Washington, Bushrod, jurist; born in 
Westmoreland county, Va., June 5, 1762; 
a nephew of President Washington; grad- 
uated at the College of William and Mary 
in 1778, and studied law with James Wil- 
son, in Philadelphia, becoming a success- 
ful practitioner. At Yorktown he served 
as a private soldier, and was a member of 
the Virginia Assembly in 1787; also a 
member of the Virginia convention that 
ratified the national Constitution. In 
December, 1798, he was appointed asso- 
ciate justice of the United States Supreme 
Court, which office he held until his death, 
in Philadelphia, Nov. 26, 1829. He was 
the first president of the American Col- 
onization Society. 


Washington, city and capital of the " The City of Magnificent Distances " ; 

United States of America; originally population, 1900, 278,718; 1906 (esti- 

planned for the national capital by Presi- mated), 330,000. 

dent Washington, Andrew Ellicott, and Location, Area, etc. — The city is now 

Major Pierre Charles L'Enfant, the City coextensive with the District of Colum- 

of Versailles, France, being selected as its bia; is on the east bank of the Potomac 

model ; first known as " The Federal River between the Anacostia, or East 

City," subsequently named in honor of Branch, and Rock Creek on the west; is 

the first President; popularly known as separated by the Potomac from Virginia 



and otherwise bounded by Maryland; and 
has an area of 69*4 square miles. It is 
40 miles from Baltimore, 106 above the 
mouth of the Potomac, 136 from Phila- 
delphia, 185 from the Atlantic Ocean, and 
230 from New York. The river here is 
one mile wide and is accessible to coast- 

costia rivers. Hills rising ill places to 
from 150 to 400 feet form a picturesque 
amphitheatre and admirably set off the 
majestic Capitol which occupies a site 
ninety feet above the level of the Poto- 
mac. The streets and avenues are from 
70 to 160 feet wide. The former extend 

wise ships of ordinary draught, this being north, south, east, and west, and the latter 

its highest navigable'point. The city is 
on the line of the Baltimore & Ohio, the 
Baltimore & Potomac (Pennsylvania sys- 
tem), the Philadelphia, Wilmington, & 
Baltimore, the Chesapeake & Ohio, and 
several branch railways, and on the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. 

The main part of the city is connected 
with the suburbs by several bridges. In 
1901 Congress authorized the replacing of 
the famous Long Bridge, uniting the city 
with the Virginia shore, by a new struc- 
ture for railway purposes exclusively, and 
the construction of a new bridge for 
general highway traffic a little to the 
south. The new Long Bridge was com- 
pleted in 1904. Georgetown, or West 
Washington, is sonnected with Virginia 
by the Aqueduct Bridge, separate bridges 
connect the city with the Anacostia and 
Twining suburbs, an iron truss bridge has 
supplanted the old chain bridge at Little 
Falls, and there is an iron bridge, Ben- 
ning's, about a mile above the Navy-yard. 

Topography. — -Washington is the result 
of the first attempt in America to create 
a city for a specific purpose. Francis 
Pope, an eccentric Englishman, purchased 
the site of the city in 1663, and under- 
took to establish a modern Home, giving 
that name to the place, calling the chief 
branch of the river the Tiber, and the 
most elevated portion the Capitoline Hill. 
After, the States of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia had jointly ceded a tract of land 
for a Federal district, Congress provided 
(1791) for the laying out of the city. 
Under this authority, President Washing- 
ton availed himself of his skill as a sur- 
veyor and designated the boundaries of 
the city and where its public squares and 
buildings should be located. The actual 
work of starting the city was based on 
topographical plans drawn up by Mr. 
Ellicott and Major L'Enfant, the latter 
a French engineer. 

The main portion of the city is on a 
peninsula between the Potomac and Ana- 


are in two series, one radiating from the 
Capitol, the other from the White House, 
and these are named after the States. 
There is a liberal provision of public 
squares and " circles " at the intersec- 
tion of the leading thoroughfares, and 
streets and avenues are bountifully 
fringed with shade trees, in some places 
four rows deep. Massachusetts Avenue 
extends entirely across the city, and has 
many fine residential sections. Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue, especially between the 
Capitol and the White House, is the 
principal thoroughfare, 160 feet wide, and 
containing the leading hotels, theatres, 
and stores. With the interruptions of 
the Capitol and White House grounds, 
it also extends across the city. Of the 
cross streets, 7th, intersecting Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue between the Capitol and 
Treasury Building, and containing many 
retail stores, and 14th are the most im- 
portant. F Street, between 7th and 15th, 
is the leading shopping centre, and 9th 
Street, from Pennsylvania Avenue to F 
Street, is wholly devoted to business. 

Public Interests. — In 1905 the city, in- 
cluding the former town of Georgetown, 
now known as West Washington, had 448 
miles of streets, of which 270 miles were 
asphalted; 448 miles of sewers; a water- 
works system owned by the city that cost 
$10,000,000, had a daily capacity of 76,- 
000,000 gallons, and was provided with a 
newly completed filtration plant; a police 
force of 716 men which cost annually 
about $825,000; and a fire department of 
329 men, costing annually about $400,000. 
On April 1, 1905, the total bonded debt 
was $12,051,350, due Aug. 1, 1924, being 
the balance of an issue of $15,000,000. 
The annual cost of maintaining the local 
government was reported at $9,878,434. 
Taxable property for 1904 was assessed 
as follows: jteal estate, $213,250,228; 
persona], $24,612,243— total, $237,862,- 
471; and the tax rate was $15 per $1,000. 

One of the most needed improvements 


ever undertaken in the city is the work stretching from the Capitol on the east 
of reclaiming the great stretch of hitherto to the Potomac on the west, 
useless flats, which have always been a Government. — From the time of its 
blot on the magnificent panorama of the creation by Acts of Congress in 1790 and 
city as well as a most serious menace to 1791 till 1871 there were three separate 
health. The recovery of this land and local governments in the District of 
its conversion into an attractive pleasure- Columbia, consisting of the municipality 
ground give the river front in the immedi- of Washington, the town of Georgetown, 
ate vicinity of the Washington monu- and the Levy Court, the last having 
ment a wealth of unsurpassed beauty, jurisdiction in the District outside of the 
This new portion of the city's park sys- limits of the city and town. In 1871 
tern is connected with the grounds about Congress abolished these separate au- 
the Monument — which extend along the thorities and provided for the entire Dis- 
river for more than half a mile — and is trict the form of government in operation 
provided with noteworthy avenues, foot- in the organized territories, with a 
ways, speeding-courses, artificial islands, governor, secretary, board of public 
a series of lakes and ponds, a large basin works, a council appointed by the Presi- 
for yachts and rowboats, and stretches of dent of the" United States, and a House 
noble specimens of forest growth. of Delegates and a delegate in Congress 

In 1901 Congress voted funds to enable elected by the citizens. This form of gov- 
a commission of experts to work out a ernment lasted about three years, and it 
comprehensive scheme for beautifying the was during this period that the modern- 
city. This commission, selected through izing and beautifying of the city were 
the agency of the American Institute of undertaken, not, however, without a re- 
Architects, consists of Daniel H. Burn- markable scandal involving the local 
ham, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., Charles officials. 

F. McKim, and Augustus St.-Gaudens. In 1874 a temporary government by 
It is interesting to note here that, having three commissioners was substituted, and 
given the project careful preliminary con- in 1878 Congress established the present 
sideration, the commission deemed it wise form, itself making all general laws for 
to take the plans laid out by Washington, the District, but vesting in three com- 
Ellicott, and L'Enfant as the basis of missioners authority to make a number 
their scheme. The reclamation of the of essential regulations of a purely 
Potomac flats by United States Engineers municipal character. Two of the com- 
at a cost of nearly $2,000,000, adds a missioners are now appointed by the 
problem to the general scheme of treat- President from among citizens of the Dis- 
ment that was not considered in the trict, one Republican and one Democrat, 
original planning of the city. and the third one, who must be an engi- 

In October, 1905, plans were perfected neer officer of the army, is detailed by the 
for a new Municipal Building to cost President. All subordinate officials are 
$2,500,000, and to be erected in the appointed by the commissioners. The 
triangle designated by the Park Commis- civilian commissioners are appointed for 
sioners for public buildings. The new a term of three years; the military com- 
edifice was designed with the idea of missioner serves during the pleasure of 
working it into the scheme for beautify- the President; each receives a salary of 
ing Pennsylvania Avenue and the Mall. $5,000 per annum; and the military mem- 
South of it will be the new Agricultural ber is relieved of all other duty while 
Department Building and the new Na- serving as commissioner. At the present 
tional Museum. At the above date time the District is not directly repre- 
visitors were able to see a marked im- sented in Congress, and the citizens have 
provement in the stretch of parking no elective privileges. 

from the Capitol to the White House. Hanking and Insurance. — On Sept. 6, 
When the architects, landscape gardeners, 1904, there were reported twelve national 
and bridge-builders have finished this sec- banks in operation, having a combined 
tion of the city, it will have one of the capital of $3,777,000; surplus, $2,840,000; 
most beautiful parkways in the world, individual deposits, $21,249,505 ; outstand- 



ing circulation, $2,409,667; loans and of Government establishments and insti- 
discounts, $16,119,531; and assets and tutions. The principal Government items 
liabilities balancing at $36,414,962. were printing and publishing to the value 
Four loan and trust companies reported of $4,292,804; steel engraving and print- 
combined capital, $6,200,000; surplus, ing, $2,273,859; and ordnance and ord- 
$1,950,000; individual deposits, $16,335,- nance stores, $2,208,159. 
207; and resources and liabilities, $24,- Churches and Charities. — There are up- 
975,565. In the year ending Sept. 30, ward of 250 -church edifices and other 
1904, the exchanges at the United States places of worship, the Baptist and 
clearing-house here amounted to $208,- Methodist congregations leading denomi- 
539,093, an increase in a year of $5,310,- nationally. The most noteworthy Baptist 
053. Church is Calvary, on H and 8th streets. 

The city has thirteen home fire-insur- Among the Methodist churches the Metro- 

ance companies, more than 100 other politan, on C and 4% streets, the Foundry, 

American and foreign ones, including all on G near 14th street, and the Mount 

the principal companies in the world, and Vernon, on K and 9th streets, are the most 

eight accident-insurance companies. conspicuous. The Roman Catholic 

Commerce. — The old United States Cus- churches include St. Matthew's, on Rhode 

torn House at Georgetown, now West Island Avenue near Connecticut Avenue, 

Washington, is still maintained, and in which is usually attended by Catholic 

the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, im- members of the Diplomatic Corps; St. 

ports of merchandise to the value of Aloysius's, on North Capitol and I streets ; 

$357,339 were registered here. The ton- St. Dominic's, on F and 6th streets, and 

nage movement of the year comprised the St. Augustine's, on 15th Street. The prin- 

entrance of American sailing-vessels of cipal Protestant Episcopal churches are 

3,987 registered tonnage and of foreign St. John's, fronting Lafayette Square, a 

sailing-vessels of 322 tonnage. venerable structure that Presidents Mad- 

Manufactures. — Although Washington ison and Monroe attended ; the Epiphany, 
is not a manufacturing city in the general on G Street ; and the Ascension, on Massa- 
acceptation of the term, it is deserving chusetts Avenue and 12th Street, con- 
of note that in the period 1890-1900 there sidered by many the handsomest church 
was an increase of 20 per cent, in the edifice in the city. Presbyterianism is 
number of industrial plants; of 45.4 per represented by the First, on 4% Street 
cent, in amount of aggregate capital; of near C; the Covenant, on Connecticut 
21 per cent, in number of wage-earners; Avenue and 18th Street; and the New 
of 19 per cent, in amount of aggregate York Avenue, on that avenue near 14th 
wages; and of 21.2 per cent, in aggregate Street. Other churches deserving of men- 
value of products. According to the tion are the Garfield Memorial (Chris- 
United States census of 1900 there were tian), on Vermont Avenue near N Street; 
in the city 3,173 manufacturing and All Souls' (Unitarian), on L and 14th 
mechanical industries, which were oper- streets; Church of Our Father (Univer- 
ated on a total capital of $42,081,065; em- salist), on L and 13th streets; and the 
ployed 24,842 wage-earners; paid for First Congregational, on G and 10th 
wages $14,692,806, and for materials used streets. 

in manufacturing $19,451,085; and had a The philanthropic side of Washington 

combined product valued at $47,902,109. life reflects comprehensive preparation 

Included in the foregoing were eighty- and adequate sustentation. The hospitals 
five plants belonging to the Federal Gov- include the Government Asylum for the 
ernment, representing a capital investment Insane of the Army, Navy, and District of 
of $17,652,110; employing an average of Columbia, the Providence, Garfield, Emer- 
8,396 persons; paying $6,357,377 for gency, National Homoeopathic, Children's, 
wages and $2,731,104 for materials; and Columbia for Women, Freedmen's, and Sib- 
having a combined output valued at $9,- ley Memorial. Of homes and retreats 
887,355. Twenty per cent, of the total there are the Washington, St. Joseph's, 
value of the manufacturing and mechani- St. Ann's, and St. Vincent's orphan asy- 
cal industries of the city was the product lums; the Louise Home for Indigent 




Gentlewomen; a Home for the Aged; for colored youth), the Business, Central, 
House of the Good Shepherd; Industrial Eastern, M Street, and Western high 
Home and School; and a Soldiers' Home schools (the last for colored youth), 
for disabled soldiers of the regular army, and twenty-five private schools, of which 
the favorite summer retreat of President all excepting eight were non-sectarian. 
Lincoln. For higher instruction there were 7 

Schools and Colleges. — The last official colleges and universities, together re- 
reports gave the school population at 63,- porting 4 fellowships, 62 scholarships, 
628, of whom 48,745 were enrolled in the 1,726 students in all departments, 
public schools, and 38,038 were in average 485 professors and instructors, 192,848 
daily attendance. The private-school en- volumes in the libraries, $254,000 in li- 
rolment was estimated at 5,000. There brary property, $271,145 in scientific ap- 
were 143 buildings used for public-school paratus, furniture, etc., $4,952,607 in 
purposes, and the value of all public- grounds and buildings, and $1,418,171 in 
school property was reported at $5,721,- productive funds. The institutions were 
000. During the last school year under the Catholic University of America (R. 
. review the receipts were $812,798 from the C), opened in 1889; Columbian Univer- 
Federal treasury and $812,797 from sity (Bapt), 1821, now known as the 
municipal appropriations, a total of George Washington University; Gallaudet 

College (non-sect.), 1864; Georgetown 
University (R. C), 1789; Gonzaga Col- 
lege (R. C), 1821; Howard University 
(non-sect.), 1867; and St. John's Col- 
lege (R. C), 1870. To the foregoing 
should be added the American University 
(Meth. Epis.), the establishment of 
which was authorized by the General Con- 
ference in 1892, and whose first building, 
the College of History, was dedicated in 
1897, and the Monastery and College of 
the Holy Land (R. C), established by the 
Franciscan Friars of the Holy Land for 
aEMAras of thk pkesident's hocse after the fire, 18H. training missionaries, and dedicated in 

1899. There was one college exclusively for 
$1,625,595, and the expenditures were women, Trinity (R. C), 1900. Conspicu- 
$1,617,809, of which $954,888 was for ous among the private secondary schools is 
teaching and supervision. For secondary the Convent of the Visitation, near George- 
instruction there were two public nor- town University, founded in 1799 and the 
mal schools, the Armstrong and McKin- oldest house of the order in America, 
ley manual training schools (the former Professional school* included three of 



theology, six of law, four of medicine, Clark Mills, at intersection of Pennsyl- 

four of dentistry, two of pharmacy, one vania and New Hampshire avenues and 

of veterinary surgery, and eight for train- 23d Street; cost $50,000. 

ing nurses, connected with the hospitals. Equestrian statue of Gen. Winfleld 

The National Deaf Mute College and Scott, by H. K. Brown, at intersection of 

Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Massachusetts and Rhode Island avenues; 

Dumb is the only college for deaf mutes cost $20,000; and another by Launt 

in the world. The public, school, depart- Thompson at the Soldiers' Home; cost 

mental, and society libraries number $18,000. 

ninety and contain upward of 2,715,000 Colossal bronze statue of Lincoln, by 

volumes and nearly 1,000,000 pamphlets. Thomas Ball, in Lincoln Park; cost $17,- 

Monuments. — There is no city in Amer- 000; another by Lot Flannery in Judici- 

ica so justly entitled to the popular ary Square. 

name of " Monumental City " as Wash- Bronze equestrian statue of Gen. John 
ington. Surpassing all others in size and B. MePherson, by Louis T. Robisso, in 
historical interest is the Washington MePherson Square; cost $48,500. 
Monument on the Mall near 14th Bronze equestrian statue of Gen. Na- 
Street, the corner-stone of which was laid thanael Greene, by Lot Plannery, on Stan- 
July 4, 1848. The inception of the work ton Square; cost $50,000. 
was due to a popular association organ- Lafayette Monument with statues of 
ized to honor the first President by the Lafayette, Rochambeau, d'Estaing, de 
tallest monument in the world. The sum Grasse, and Duportail, by Antoine Fal- 
of $230,000 was raised by voluntary sub- quiere and Antonin Mercie, at southeast 
scription and after this sum had been corner of Lafayette Square, 
expended the work of construction ceased Bronze statue of Gen. John A. Rawlins, 
till Congress in 1876 directed its comple- by Bailey, on Pennsylvania Avenue near 
tion. Col. Thomas L. Casey, U. S. Engi- 9th Street. 

neers, was placed in charge of the new Statue of Daniel Webster, by Trente- 

work, and the great monument was com- noro, on Scott Circle. 

pleted in 1885. The monument rests on Statue of Admiral David G. Farragut, 

a foundation 104 feet square and 37 feet by Vinnie Ream, on Farragut Square, 

deep; is built of Maryland marble lined Equestrian statue of Gen. George H. 

with gneiss; the walls are 15 feet thick Thomas, by Ward, at' intersection of 

at the base, 12 feet at the height of 152 Massachusetts and Vermont avenues and 

feet, 8 feet at 162 feet, and ly 2 at the 14th Street. 

top; the base of the shaft is 55 feet 5% Marble statue of Benjamin Franklin on 

inches square, its top at the base of the Pennsylvania Avenue and 10th Street, 

pyramid 34 feet 5% inches; extreme Bronze statue of Martin Luther in 

height, 555 feet 5% inches; weight, in- Luther Place. 

eluding foundation, 81,117 long tons; Bronze statue of President Garfield, by 

total cost, $1,187,710. It is thus the Ward, at Maryland Avenue entrance to 

highest stone structure in the world, and Capitol Park. 

is only surpassed in height by the steel Heroic bronze statue of Admiral S. F. 

Eiffel Tower in Paris. The top is reached Dupont, by Launt Thompson, in Dupont 

by an interior stairway and elevator. Circle. 

The following is a brief mention of Equestrian statue of Gen. Winfleld S. 

other conspicuous monuments: Hancock on Pennsylvania Avenue and 

Colossal marble monument to Washing- 7th Street. 

ton, by Horatio Greenough, originally in- Naval Monument on Pennsylvania 

tended for the Rotunda of the Capitol, Avenue near entrance to Capitol Grtfunds. 

but subsequently erected in the East Statue of Chief-Justice Marshall, by 

Park; cost $40,000. Story, on the Capitol Grounds. 

Bronze equestrian statue of Andrew Bronze group, " Gallaudet Teaching 

Jackson, by Clark Mills, in Lafayette Deaf Child," by Daniel C. French, on 

Square; cost $50,000. grounds of National Deaf Mute College. 

Another monument to Washington, by Colossal marble statues of " Peace " and 



" War " on the right and left of entrance from the floor to the top of the canopy, 

to Capitol. The dome, originally of wood, now of 

Bronze statue " Liberty," by Crawford, iron, is crowned by a bronze statue of 

surmounting dome of the Capitol. " Liberty," 19 feet 6 inches high, weighing 

Statue of Frederick the Great, pre- 14,985 pounds, modelled by Crawford. The 

sented to the American people by Em- height of the dome above the base line 

peror William II. and unveiled with in- of the east front is 287 feet 5 inches; 

ternational ceremonies Nov. 19, 1904, on from the top of the balustrade of the 

esplanade of American War College. building 217 feet 11 inches; its greatest 

The old Hall of Representatives, now diameter at the base is 135 feet 5 inches, 

known as the National Statuary Hall, The different rooms of the Capitol are 

is a magnificent room, semicircular in striking both in architectural appearance 

form, 96 feet long and 57 feet high to and in artistic treatment. The total cost 

the apex of the ceiling, which is painted of the Capitol was $13,000,000. 

in panel in imitation of the ceiling of the Historically, the southeast corner-stone 

Pantheon in Home. This hall was set of the original building was laid by Presi- 

apart by Congress in 1864 for its present dent Washington on Sept. 18, 1793. The 

purpose, each State was invited to send north wing was finished in 1800 and the 

to it statues of two of its most eminent south wing in 1811. On Aug. 24, 1814, 

men, and there is now a goodly array of the interior of both wings was destroyed 

statues of the distinguished Americans of by fire, set by the British. The central 

the past. Here should be noted a statue portion of the building was begun in 1818, 

of " Liberty " by Causici, one of " His- and the original building was completed 

tory " by Franzoni, and an eagle by Vala- in 1827 at a cost of $2,433,844. The 

perti. corner-stone of the extensions was laid 

Government Buildings. — The National July 4, 1851, by President Fillmore, and 

Capitol is the most magnificent public these portions were first occupied for 

building in the world. It fronts east and legislative purposes Jan. 4, 1859. 

stands on a plateau 88 feet above the The White House, or official residence 

level of the Potomac. The entire length of the President, so named because built 

of the building from north to south is of stone painted white, was first occupied 

751 feet 4 inches, its greatest dimension by President Adams in 1800, was burned 

from east to west is 350 feet, and the area by the British in 1814, was restored in 

of ground covered by it is 153,112 square 1818, and was considerably enlarged to ac- 

feet. The material used in the walls of commodate increased business in 1902. 

the central portion is a light yellow free- It is two stories in height, with a portico 

stone painted white, that of the walls of en the north side containing the main 

the two wings or extensions is white entrance. Even in its present size and 

marble from the quarries at Lee, Mass., arrangement it is wholly inadequate to 

and that of the columns from the quar- the public requirements, and plans have 

ries at Cockeysville, Md. The Senate been prepared for extensive alterations 

Chamber is 113 feet 3 inches long by 80 and further enlargement, 

feet 3 inches wide and 36 feet high, and The Congressional Library, erected on 

has galleries that will accommodate the square facing the east side of the 

1,000 persons. The Representatives' Hall Capitol, at a cost of more than $6,000,000, 

is 139 feet long by 93 feet wide and 36 three stories high, 470 feet long by 340 

feet high. A grand bronze door, designed feet wide, constructed of white New 

by Randolph Rogers, and cast by von Hampshire granite, and having accom- 

Miiller in Munich, 17 feet high, 9 feet modations for 6,000,000 volumes, took the 

wide, weight 20,000 pounds, cost $28,000, place of the original Library of Congress, 

and representing the history of Columbus founded in 1800, burned in 1814, and 

and the discovery of America, gives en- again partially in 1851, and \ised till the 

trance to the Rotunda from the east completion of the new building in 1897. 

portico. The State, War, and Navy Department 

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in Building, one of the largest of the public 

diameter, and 180 feet 3 inches in height edifices, is a granite structure just west 



of the White House, Roman Doric in 
style, 567 feet long, 342 feet wide, and 
fflur stories high, with four fronts. The 
State Department occupies the south por- 
tion, the War Department the north wing, 
and the Navy Department the east wing. 
The building contains 566 rooms, and cost 

The Patent Office, a bureau of the De- 
partment of the Interior, gives name to a 
building in the central part of the city, 
built of granite, marble, and freestone, 
453 feet long by 351 feet wide, embellished 
with a classic pediment supported by six- 

Square, 400 feet long, 200 feet wide, and 
75 feet high, is conspicuous because of 
a band of sculpture in terra-cotta, 3 feet 
high and 1,200 feet long, on the exterior, 
and on a level with the second floor, repre- 
senting an army in campaign supported 
by a naval force of men and boats. 

The United States Treasury Building 
on 15th Street, one and a quarter miles 
west of the Capitol, is 468 feet long by 
264 feet wide, three stories high above 
basement, is built of Virginia freestone 
and Dix Island granite, contains about 
200 rooms, and cost $6,000,000. 

The Land Office, 

formerly the Post 

Office, is of white 

marble, 300 feet 

204 feet wide, and 

stories high, cost 

$1,700,000, and displays 

on the 8th Street front a 

sculptured representation 

of the telegraph and 


Other conspicuous pub- 
lic bulidings are those of 
the Bureau of Education, 
teen enormous Doric columns forming a the Department of Agriculture, the Army 
portico. The floor of the model-room is Medical Museum and Library, the *Fish 
1,350 feet long. and Fisheries Commission, the United 

The Pension Building, on Judiciary States' Naval Observatory, the United 
X. — k 145 



States Navy - yard, and the Soldiers' 

Other Attractions. — Visitors should not 
fail to visit the Smithsonian Institution, 
the Botanical Gardens, the Corcoran Art 
Gallery, the Congressional Cemetery, the 
Zoological Park, Oak Hill Cemetery, the 
Arlington House opposite West Washing- 
ton, Alexandria, seven miles below Wash- 
ington, and Mount Vernon, the home and 
burial-place of the first President and his 

History. — Much of the history of the 
District of Columbia and of the city of 
Washington has been outlined in the pre- 
ceding narrative. Chronologically, it may 
be stated that Georgetown was laid out 
under an act of the Assembly in 80 lots 
comprising 60 acres, May 15, 1751 ; that 
the Constitution of the United States 
gave Congress exclusive legislation over 
such a Federal District as it might ac- 
quire, Sept. 17, 1787; that Maryland 
ceded to Congress a tract ten miles square 
for the seat of the Federal Government, 
Dec. 23, 1788; that Virginia did the same, 
Dec. 3, 1789; and that Congress accepted 
the site for the purpose, July 16, 1790. 
In the following year President Washing- 
ton appointed Thomas Johnson, Daniel 
Carroll (Md.), and David Stuart (Va.) 
commissioners to survey the Federal Dis- 
trict, and on the completion of their work 
proclaimed the lines and boundaries of 
the district — a square comprising 64 
square miles in Maryland and 36 in Vir- 
ginia. The commissioners then agreed to 
call the Federal district the " Territory 
of Columbia " and the Federal city the 
" City of Washington," and to name the 
streets of the latter alphabetically one 
way and numerically the other. 

Congress first met in Washington Nov. 
17, 1800, and assumed jurisdiction of the 
District Feb. 27, 1801. The city was in- 
corporated by Congress, with a mayor ap- 
pointed by the President and a council 
elected by the people, May 3, 1802. After 
the battle of Bladensburg, the British 
entered the city and, Aug. 24, 1814, burn- 

ed and destroyed the public buildings. A 
new charter was granted the city, with a 
mayor elected by the people, May 15, 
1820; the corner-stone of the first lock in 
the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal was laid 
near Georgetown, May 29, 1829; the 
United States Naval Observatory was 
founded in 1842; and Congress retroceded 
to Virginia the 36 square miles of land 
received from that State, July 9, 1846. 

A peace conference was held here, Feb. 
4, 1861, and the first telegraph message 
from a military balloon was sent by Mr. 
Lowe to President Lincoln, June 18 fol- 
lowing. Immediately after the battle of 
Bull Bun energetic measures were taken 
to place defences around the city that 
should make it absolutely secure from 
attack. Gen. George B. McClellan, then 
freshly called to the chief command of 
the forces at and near Washington, 
with the assistance of Majors Barry and 
Barnard, projected a series of fortifica- 
tions at prominent elevated points, and 
the latter two officers were detailed to con- 
struct them. So vigorously was the work 
prosecuted that in the course of a few 
months not less than fifty-two of these 
protective_ works were completed. At no 
subsequent time during the war did the 
Confederates ever seriously assail these 
fortifications, and at no time was the 
national capital really in danger. 

Two Presidents of the United States 
were assassinated here — -Lincoln in 1865 
and Garfield in 1881. The remains of 
two distinguished personages who died 
abroad were brought here for final sepul- 
ture — John Howard Payne, author of 
" Home, Sweet Home," in 1883, and James 
Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian 
Institution, in 1904. The name of the 
city is indissolubly attached to one of the 
most important treaties in the world's 
history — that between the United States 
and Great Britain in 1871, and the city 
was the birthplace of the principles of 
international arbitration and commercial 
reciprocity and of the initiative of a 
second Peace Congress at The Hague. 


Washington, George, " Father of His descended from an old and titled English 
Country"; born on Pope's Creek, West- family; and was the eldest child of his 
moreland co., Va., Feb. 22, 1732; was father's second wife, Mary Ball. His 



father died when George was a small child, 
and the task of the education and guid- 
ance of the future leader through the 
dangers of youthhood devolved upon his 
mother. So judicious was her training 
that Washington, through life, remember- 
ed her affectionate care with profound 
gratitude. He received a common English 
education, and upon that foundation his 
naturally thoughtful and right-condition- 
ed mind, with the cardinal virtues of 
truth, integrity, and justice, -was built the 
structure of his greatness. He was al- 
ways beloved by his young companions, 
and was invariably chosen the leader in 
their military plays. 

He had a desire, at the age of fourteen 
years, to become a seaman, but was dis- 
suaded from embarking by his mother. 
When he was seventeen years of age he 
had become one of the most accurate land 
surveyors in Virginia. He was appoint- 
ed public surveyor at tlie age of eigh- 

In pursuit of his profession, he learned 
much of woodcraft and the topography 
of the country; also of the habits of the 

adjutant-general of the militia of a dis- 
trict, with the rank of major, but soon 
afterward resigned to accompany his in- 
valid half-brother, Lawrence, to Barba- 
does, where George had the small-pox. His 
brother soon afterwards died, and by his 
will George became heir to the fine estate 
of Mount Vernon. 

In 1753 he was sent on a delicate 
mission, by the governor of Virginia, to 
the commander of the French forces mak- 
ing encroachments on the English domain, 
and performed the duties with great credit, 
for which he was thanked by the Virginia 
legislature. So highly were his character 
and services valued, that when, in 1775, 
General Braddock came to make war on 
the French, Washington was chosen his 
principal aide-de-camp. After the defeat 
of Braddock (see Braddock, Edward), he 
directed the retreat of the vanquished 
troops with great skill. At the age of 
twenty-seven he married the young widow 
Custis (see Washington, Martha), and 
they took up their abode at Mount Vernon, 
where he pursued the business of a farmer 
until 1774, when he was chosen to a seat 


Indians in the camp and on the war-path, in the Virginia legislature. He was also 
These were useful lessons, of great value chosen a delegate to the first Continental 
to him in after-life. At the age of nine- Congress, and was a delegate the following 
teen young Washington was appointed an year, when, in June, he was appointed 



commander-in-chief of the Continental 
armies. For eight years Washington direct- 
ed the feeble armies of the revolted colo- 

ffumip lvajTu>jicdrru<rfr. 


nies in their struggle for independence. 
At the return of peace he surrendered his 
commission into the hands of Congress, 
who gave it to him, and retired to private 
life at Mount Vernon, at the close of 

During all the national perplexities 
after the return of peace, incident to 

financial embarrassments and an imperfect 
system of government, Washington was 
still regarded as the public leader; and 
when the conven- 
tion that formed 
the national Con- 
stitution assembled 
at Philadelphia, in 
1787, he was there, 
a delegate from 
Virginia, and was 
chosen to preside 
over that body. 
When, under that 
Constitution, a President of the republic 
was to be chosen, all eyes were turned 
towards him as the fittest man for the 



place, and he was elected by the unanimous 
voice of the people. He presided over the 
affairs of the new nation eight years with 
great wisdom and fidelity, and with great 
skill and sagacity assisted in laying the 
permanent foundations of the republic. 

His administration embraced the most 
critical and eventful portion of our his- 

* There were several different portraits whom was Gilbert Stuart. Stuart painted 

of Washington painted from life. The first 
ever made was painted by Charles Wilson 
Peale, and Is a three-quarter length, repre- 
senting Washington In the costume of a Vir- 
ginia colonel — a blue coat faced with red, 
bright metal buttons, having the number *f 
his regiment (22d Militia) caBt upon them, 
and dark-red waistcoat and breeches. Peale 
painted fourteen portraits of Washington at 
different times, half-lengths and full-lengths, 
the last In the fall of 1795, which Is in the 
gallery of the New York Historical Society. 
Other artists had sittings by Washington, 
and produced portraits of various degrees of 
merit, the most famous and best-known of 

three portraits from life. The first one he 
rubbed out, not being satisfied with it, and 
the last one, the head only finished, Is the 
property of the Boston Athenaeum. This is 
the head most often seen, and has been ac- 
cepted as the standard portrait of the 
patriot ; yet Stuart himself regarded his own 
portrait, as a likeness, inferior to that of the 
statue by Houdon, In the capitol at Rich- 
mond. The latter Is, undoubtedly, the best 
likeness of Washington ever made, and should 
be regarded as the standard portrait. It can- 
not be otherwise, for It Is from a plaster-cast 
from the living face, and a model of the rest 
of the bust, both made by the sculptor himself. 



tory before the Civil War. A new govern- 
ment had to be organized, without any 
model to follow, and to guide the ship of 
state through dangerous seas required a 
loftiness of character in the pilot and 
commander seldom found, but Washington 
was equal to the requirements of his posi- 
tion, and he retired from public life with- 
out the least stain of merited reproach 
upon his intentions or his judgment. In 
the enjoyment of domestic happiness at 
Mount Vernon, for about three years, he 
Was regarded more and more as the great 

and good man. Suddenly, on Dec. 14, 
1799, the nation was called upon to mourn 
his death, after an illness of about twenty- 
four hours. His last words were, " It is 
well." The mother of Washington, Mary 
Ball, was the daughter of Col. W. Ball, to 
whom his father was married in March, 
1730. George was their first-born of six 
children. With these she was left a 
widow when her eldest child was little 
more than ten years of age. In the latter 
years of her life she lived in Fredericks- 
burg, in a modest house, on the northwest 





corner of Charles and Lewis streets. There 
she died, and was buried a short distance 
from Fredericksburg, near a ledge of 
rocks, to which she often resorted for 
meditation, and which she had selected as 

Washington's Addresses to the Churches, 
— Washington's addresses to the Amer- 
ican churches, in reply to their con- 
gratulations upon his election to the 
Presidency, constitute one of the most 
interesting divisions of his writings, and 
illustrate one of the noblest and most 
salutary features of his life and influence. 
The governors and legislatures of many 
of the States, the mayors and aldermen 
of leading cities, the presidents and trus- 
tees of colleges, and the representatives 
of organizations of various character 
sent formal addresses to him, expressing 
their satisfaction in his inauguration, and 
his replies to all were full of dignity and 
wisdom; but his replies to the churches, 
which, as they met in general convention 
or otherwise during the months suc- 
ceeding his election, successively addressed 
him, are especially memorable for their 
revelations of his broad spirit of tolera- 
tion and sympathy and their inculcation 
of the duty of fraternity and mutual 
respect which should always govern the 
various religious bodies living together in 
the free republic. 

It has been well said that all lines of 
our national policy seem to lead back to 
Washington as all roads lead to Rome. 
If party spirit becomes extravagant and 
dangerous, we turn to him for the best 
words with which to rebuke it. If reck- 

* Soon after Washington's birth, the family 
moved to an estate in Stafford county. The 
her burial-place years before her death, plain farm-house in which they lived over- 
„ ,, ' * , , a • 1. j looked the Rappahannock Elver. There Wash- 

Over the grave stands an unfinished lngton . s father died, when the former was 
monument of white marble. See Wash- about ten years of age, leaving a plantation 
INGTONIANA. to each of his sons. 




less politicians would postpone the public 
peace and embroil the nation for their 
own selfish purposes, his word and great 
example are their shame and the people's 
refuge; and, whenever bigotry and intol- 
erance raise their heads, and men would 
stir up the animosity of one part of the 
people against another in the name of re- 
ligion, Washington's addresses to the 
churches will still be appealed to by good 
citizens. Such will remember how he 
wrote to the Lutheran, the Presbyterian, 
the Methodist, the Baptist, the Episcopa- 
lian, the Quaker, the Universalist, the 
Swedenborgian, the Roman Catholic, and 
the Jew, reminding all of their common 
duties as citizens, and assuring all of 
the common protection of the national 
government, which knows no differences 
of creeds, but holds all creeds alike before 
the law. 

The student is referred to the valuable 
essay on Washington's Religious Opin- 
ions, in Sparks's edition of Washington's 
Writings, vol. xii., appendix, p. 399. Two 
expressions of Washington, quoted in this 
essay, should be given here as well sup- 

plementing the addresses printed in the 
leaflet. To Lafayette Washington wrote, 
Aug. 15, 1787, alluding to the proceedings 
of the Assembly of Notables: "I am not 
less ardent in my wish that you may 
succeed in your plan of toleration in re- 

washington's seal (From a letter to Bouquet, 1758). 

ligious matters. Being no bigot myself, 
1 am disposed to indulge the professors of 
Christianity in the church with that road 
to heaven which to them shall seem the 



to Sir Edward Newenham, Oct. 20, 1792 
" Of all the animosities which have ex- 


most direct, plainest, easiest, and least from the present government, did not thi 
liable to exception." Again, in a letter same Providence, which has been visible 

in every stage of our progress to this in- 
teresting crisis, from a combination of 
circumstances, give us cause to hope for 
the accomplishment of all our reasonable 

Thus partaking with you in the pleas 
ing anticipation of the blessings of a wise 
and efficient government, I flatter myself 
that opportunities will not be wanting for 
me to show my disposition to encourage 
the domestic and public virtues of indus- 
try, economy, patriotism, philanthropy, 
and that righteousness which exalteth a 

I rejoice in having so suitable an oc- 
casion to testify the reciprocity of my 
esteem for the numerous people whom 
you represent. From the excellent char- 
acter for diligence, sobriety, and virtue, 
which the Germans in general, who are 
settled in America, have ever maintained, 
I cannot forbear felicitating myself on 
isted among mankind, those which are receiving from so respectable a number of 
caused by difference of sentiments in re- them such strong assurances of their af- 
ligion appear to be the most inveterate fection for my person, confidence in my 
and distressing, and ought most to be integrity, and zeal 
deprecated. I was in hopes that the en- to support me in 
lightened and liberal policy which has my endeavours for 
marked the present age would at least promoting the wel- 
lmve reconciled Christians of every de- fare of our com- 
nomination so far that we should never mon country, 
again see their religious disputes carried So long as my 
to such a pitch as to endanger the peace conduct shall 

of society." merit the appro- 

. . bation of the wise 

To the Ministers, Church-wardens, and j ^ n o-ood I 
Vestry-men of the German Lutheran 
Congregation, in and near the City of 

April 20th, 1789. 
While I request you to accept my 
thanjfs for your kind address, I must pro- 
fess myself highly gratified by the senti- 
ments of esteem and consideration con- 


hope to hold the 
same place in your 
affections, which 
your friendly dec- 
larations induce 
me to believe I 
possess at present; 


and, amidst all the 

vicissitudes, that may await me in this 
tained in it. The approbation my past mutable existence, I shall earnestly desire 
conduct has received from so worthy a the continuation of an interest in your 
body of citizens as that, whose joy for intercession at the throne of grace. 

my appointment you announce, is a proof 

of the indulgence with which my future To the General Assembly of the Presby- 
transactions will be judged by them. terian Church in the United States. 

I could not, however, avoid appre- May, 1789. 

hending, that the partiality of my coun- I receive with great sensibility the tes- 
trymen in favour of the measures now pur- timonial given by the general assembly of 
sued, had led them to expect too much the Presbyterian Church in the United 



States of America, of the lively and un- in the United States, my thanks for the 

feigned pleasure experienced by them on demonstrations of affection and the ex- 

rny appointment to the first office in the pressions of joy, offered in their behalf, 

nation. on my late appointment. It shall still be 

Although it will be my endeavour to my endeavour to manifest, by overt acts, 
avoid being elated by the too favourable the purity of my inclinations for promot- 
opinion, which your kindness for me may ing the happiness of mankind, as well as 
have induced you to express of the im- the sincerity of my desires to contribute 
portance of my former conduct and the whatever may be in my power towards the 
effect of my future services, yet, con- preservation of the civil and religious 
scious of the disinterestedness of my liberties of the American people. In pur- 
motives, it is not necessary for me to con- suing this line of conduct, I hope, by the 
ceal the satisfaction I have felt upon find- assistance of Divine Providence, not al- 
ing that my compliance with the call of together to disappoint the confidence 
my country, and my dependence on the as- which you have been pleased to repose in 
sistance of Heaven to support me in my me. 

arduous undertakings, have, so far as I It always affords me satisfaction, when 

can learn, met the universal approbation I find a concurrence in sentiment and 

of my countrymen. practice between all conscientious men in 

While I reiterate the professions of my acknowledgments of homage to the great 
dependence upon Heaven, as the source of Governor of the Universe, and in profes- 
all public and private blessings, I will ob- sions of support to a just civil govern- 
serve, that the general prevalence of piety, ment. After mentioning that I trust the 
philanthropy, honesty, industry, and people of every denomination, who demean 
economy seems, in the ordinary course themselves as good citizens, will have oc- 
of human affairs, particularly necessary casion to be convinced that I shall al- 
for advancing and confirming the hap- ways strive to prove a faithful and im- 
piness of' our country. While all men partial patron of genuine, vital religion, 
within our territories are^ protected in I must assure you in particular that I 
worshipping the Deity according to the take in the kindest part the promise you 
dictates of their consciences, it is rational- make of presenting your prayers at the 
ly to be expected from them in return, throne of grace for me, and that I like- 
that they will all be emulous of evincing wise implore the divine benediction on 
the sanctity of their professions by the yourselves and your religious community. 

innocence of their lives and the benefi- 

cence of their actions; for no man, who 

is profligate in his morals, or a bad mem- To the General Committee, Representing 

ber of the civil community, can possibly the United Baptist Churches in Vir- 

be a true Christian, or a credit to his own ginia. 

religious society. May, 1789. 

I desire you to accept my acknowledg- I request that you will accept my best 

ments for your laudable endeavours to acknowledgments for your congratulation 

render men sober, honest, and good citizens, on my appointment to the first office in 

and the obedient subjects of a lawful gov- the nation. The kind manner in which 

ernment, as well as for your prayers to you mention my past conduct equally 

Almighty God for his blessing on our com- claims the expression of my gratitude, 

mon country, and the humble instrument, After we had, by the smiles of Heaven 

which he has been pleased to make use of on our exertions, obtained the object for 

in the administration of its government, which we contended, I retired, at the con- 
elusion of the war, with an idea that my 

m j.t. r,- r j .17 i, ,. j- + i* • 7 country could have no further occasion for. 

To the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal J . , ... ,, . , , . , 

Church in the United States m ? 9ervlces > and Wlth the intention of 

x/ii/U/rvn bib vitrV u fill wiii oni-tccf. , . . . . . •, , t£ ■% > 

never entering again into public life; but, 

May, 1789. when the exigencies of my country seemed 
I return to you individually, and, to require me once more to engage in pub- 
through you, to your society collectivelv lie affairs, an honest conviction of duty 



superseded my former resolution, and be- 
came my apology for deviating from the 
happy plan which I had adopted. 

If I could have entertained the slightest 
apprehension that the constitution framed 
in the convention, where I had the honour 
to preside, might possibly endanger the 
religious rights of any ecclesiastical so- 
■ ciety, certainly I would never have placed 
my signature to it; and, if I could now 
conceive that the general government 
might ever be so administered as to ren- 
der the liberty of conscience insecure, [ 
beg you will be persuaded, that no one 
would be more zealous than myself to 
establish effectual barriers against the 
horrors of spiritual tyranny, and every 
species of religious persecution. For you 
doubtless remember, that I have often 
expressed my sentiments, that every man, 
conducting himself as a good citizen, and 
being accountable to God alone for his re- 
ligious opinions, ought to be protected in 
worshipping the Deity according to the 
dictates of his own conscience. 

While I recollect with satisfaction, that 
the religious society of which you are 
members have been, throughout America, 
uniformly and almost unanimously the 
firm friends to civil liberty, and the per- 
severing promoters of our glorious revo- 
lution, I cannot hesitate to believe, that 
they will be the faithful supporters of a 
free, yet efficient general government. Un- 
der this pleasing expectation I rejoice to 
assure them, that they may rely on my 
best wishes and endeavours to advance 
their prosperity. 

In the mean time be assured, gentle- 
men, that I entertain a proper sense of 
your fervent supplications to God for my 
temporal and eternal happiness. 

To the Ministers and Elders of the Ger- 
man Reformed Congregations in the 
United States. 

June, 1789: 
I am happy in concurring with you in 
the sentiments of gratitude and piety 
towards Almighty God, which are ex- 
pressed with such fervency of devotion in 
your address; and in believing that I 
shall always find in you, and the German 
Reformed Congregations in the United 
States, a conduct correspondent to such 
worthy and pious expressions, 

At the same time, I return you my 
thanks for the manifestation of your firm 
purpose to support in your persons a gov- 
ernment founded in justice and equity, 
and for the promise, that it will be your 
constant study to impress the minds of the 
people intrusted to your care with a due 
sense of the necessity of uniting reverence 
to such a government, and obedience to its 
laws, with the duties and exercises of re- 

Be assured, gentlemen, it is- by such 
conduct very much in the power of the 
virtuous members of the community to 
alleviate the burden of the important 
office which I have accepted, and to give 
me occasion to rejoice, in this world, for 
having followed therein the dictates of my 

Be pleased, also, to accept my acknowl- 
edgments for the interest you so kindly 
take in the prosperity of my person, 
family, and administration. May your 
devotions before the throne of grace be 
prevalent in calling down the blessings of 
Heaven upon yourselves and your country. 

To the Directors of the Society of the 
United Brethren for Propagating the 
Gospel Among the Heathen. 

July, 1789. 

I receive with satisfaction the congratu- 
lations of your society, and of the Breth- 
ren's congregations in the United States 
of America. For you may be persuaded, 
that the approbation and good wishes of 
such a peaceable and virtuous community 
cannot be indifferent to me. 

You will also be pleased to accept my 
thanks for the treatise* you presented, 
and be assured of my patronage in your 
laudable undertakings. 

In proportion as the general govern- 
ment of the United States shall acquire 
strength by duration, it is probable they 
may have it in their power to extend a 
salutary influence to the aborigines in the 
extremities of their territory. In the 
mean time, it will be a desirable thing, 
for the protection of the Union, to co- 
operate, as far as the circumstances may 

* " An account of the manner In which 
the Protestant Church of the Unitas Fratrum, 
or United Brethren, preach the Gospel and 
carry on their mission among the heathen." 



conveniently admit, with the disinterested 
endeavours of your society to civilize and 
christianize the savages of the wilderness. 
Under these impressions, I pray Al- 
mighty God to have you always in his 
holy keeping. 

To the Bishops, Clergy, and Laity of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
States of New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, and North Carolina, in General 
Convention Assembled. 

Aug. 19, 1789. 
I sincerely thank you for your affec- 
tionate congratulations on my election to 
the chief magistracy of the United States. 
After having received from my fellow- 
citizens in general the most liberal treat- 
ment, after having found them disposed 
to contemplate, in the most nattering 
point of view, the performance of my 
military services, and the manner of my 
retirement at the close of the war, I feel 
that I have a right to console myself in 
my present arduous undertakings with a 
hope that they will still be inclined to put 
the most favourable construction on the 
motives, which may influence me in my 
future public transactions. 

The satisfaction arising from the in- 
dulgent opinion entertained by the Ameri- 
can people of my conduct will, I trust, 
be some .security for preventing me from 
doing, any thing, . which might justly in- 
cur the forfeiture of that opinion. And 
the consideration, that human happiness 
and moral duty are inseparably connected, 
will always continue to prompt me to pro- 
mote the progress of the former by incul- 
cating the practice of the latter. 

On this occasion, it would ill become me 
to conceal the joy I have felt in perceiving 
the fraternal affection,- which appears to 
increase every day among the friends of 
genuine religion. It affords edifying pros- 
pects, indeed, to see Christians of different 
denominations dwell together in more 
charity, and conduct themselves in re- 
spect to each other with a more Christian- 
like spirit, than ever they have done in 
any former age, or in any other nation. 

I receive with the greater satisfaction 
your congratulations on the establishment 
of the new constitution of government, be- 
cause I believe its mild yet efficient opera- 

tions will tend to remove every remaining 
apprehension of those, with whose opin- 
ions it may not entirely coincide, as well 
as to confirm the hopes of its numerous 
friends; and because the moderation, 
patriotism, and wisdom of the present 
federal legislature seem to promise the 
restoration of order and- our ancient vir- 
tues, the extension of genuine religion, and 
the consequent advancement of our respect- 
ability abroad, and of our substantial 
happiness at home. 

I request, most reverend and respected 
gentlemen, that you will accept my cor- 
dial thanks for your devout supplications 
to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe in 
behalf of me. May you, and the people 
whom you represent, be the happy sub- 
jects of the divine benedictions both here 
and hereafter. 

To the Synod of the Reformed Dutch 
Church in North America. 

October, 1789. 

I receive with a grateful heart your 
pious and affectionate address, and with 
truth declare to you that no circumstance 
of my life has affected me more sensibly, 
or produced more pleasing emotions, than 
the friendly congratulations, and .strong 
assurances of support, which I have re- 
ceived from my fellow-citizens of all de- 
scriptions upon my election to the Presi- 
dency of these United States. 

1 fear, gentlemen, your goodness has 
led you to form too exalted an opinion of 
my virtues and merits. If such talents 
as I possess have been called into action 
by great events, and those events have 
terminated happily for our country, the 
glory should be ascribed to the manifest 
interposition of an overruling Providence. 
My military services have been abundant- 
ly recompensed by the nattering appro- 
bation of a grateful people; and if a faith- 
ful discharge of my civil duties can insure 
a like reward, I shall feel myself richly 
compensated for any personal sacrifice 
I may have made by engaging again in 
public life. 

The citizens of the United States of 
America have given as signal a proof of 
their wisdom and virtue, in framing and 
adopting a constitution of government 
without bloodshed or the intervention of 
force, as they, upon a former occasion, 



exhibited to the world, of their valour, for- 
titude, and perseverance; and it must be a 
pleasing circumstance to every friend of 
good order and social happiness to find 
that our new government is gaining 
strength and respectability among the cit- 
izens of this country, in proportion as its 
operations are known and its effects felt. 

You, gentlemen, act the part of pious 
Christians and good citizens by your pray- 
ers and exertions to preserve that har- 
mony and good will towards men, which 
must be the basis of every political es- 
tablishment; and I readily join with you, 
that, " while just government protects all 
in their religious rights, true religion af- 
fords to government its surest support." 

I am deeply impressed with your good 
wishes for my present and future hap- 
piness, and I beseech the Almighty to take 
you and yours under his special care. 

To the Religious Society called Quakers, 
at their Yearly Meeting for Pennsyl- 
vania, Neiv Jersey, Delaware, and the 
Western Part of Maryland and Virginia. 

October, 1789. 
I receive with pleasure your affectionate 
address, and thank you for the friendly 
sentiments and good wishes, which you 
express for the success of my administra- 
tion and for my personal happiness. 

We have reason to rejoice in the pros- 
pect that the present national government 
which, by the favour of Divine Providence, 
was formed by the common counsels and 
peaceably established with the common 
consent of the people, will prove a bless- 
ing to every denomination of them. To 
render it such, my best endeavours shall 
not be wanting. 

Government being, among other pur- 
poses, instituted to protect the persons 
and consciences of men from oppression, it 
certainly is the duty of rulers, not only 
to abstain from it themselves, but, accord- 
ing to their stations, to prevent it in 

The liberty enjoyed by the people of 
these States, of worshipping Almighty 
God agreeably to their consciences, is not 
only among the choicest of their blessings, 
but also of their rights. While men per- 
form their social duties faithfully, they 
do all that society or the state can with 


propriety demand or expect; and remain 
responsible only to their Maker for the 
religion, or modes of faith, which they 
may prefer or profess. 

Your principles and conduct are well 
known to me; and it is doing the people 
called Quakers no more than justice to 
say, that (except their declining to share 
with others the burthen of the common de- 
fence) there is no denomination among us 
who are more exemplary and useful cit- 

I assure you very explicitly that in my 
opinion the conscientious scruples of all 
men should be treated with great delicacy 
and tenderness ; and it is my wish and de- 
sire that the laws may always be as ex- 
tensively accommodated to them as a due 
regard to the protection and essential in- 
terests of the nation may justify and 

To the Roman Catholics in the United 

December, 1789. 

While I now receive with much satis- 
faction your congratulations on my being 
called by a unanimous "tfote to the first 
station in my country, I cannot but duly 
notice your politeness in offering an 
apology for the unavoidable delay. As 
that delay has given you an opportunity of 
realizing, instead of anticipating, the bene- 
fits of the general government, you will 
do me the justice to believe that your tes- ' 
timony to the increase of the public pros- 
perity enhances the pleasure which I 
should otherwise have experienced from 
your affectionate address. 

I feel that my conduct in war and in 
peace has met with more general appro- 
bation, than could reasonably have been 
expected; and I find myself disposed to 
consider that fortunate circumstance, in 
a great degree, resulting from the able 
support and extraordinary candour of my 
fellow-citizens of all denominations. 

The prospect of national prosperity 
now before us is truly animating, and 
ought to excite the exertions of all good 
men to establish and secure the happiness 
of their country, in the permanent dura- 
tion of its freedom and independence. 
America, under the smiles of Divine 
Providence, the protection of a good gov- 
prnment, the cultivation of manners. 


morals, and piety, can hardly fail of at- 
taining an uncommon degree of eminence 
in literature, commerce, agriculture, im- 
provements at home, and respectability 

As mankind become more liberal, they 
will be more apt to allow that all those, 
who conduct themselves as worthy mem- 
bers of the community, are equally en- 
titled to the protection of civil govern- 
ment. I hope ever to see America among 
the foremost nations in examples of jus- 
tice and liberality. And I presume, that 
your fellow-citizens will not forget the 
patriotic part, which you took in the ac- 
complishment of their revolution and the 
establishment of their government, or the 
important assistance, which they received 
from a nation in which the Roman Catho- 
lic religion is professed. 

I thank you, gentlemen, for your kind 
concern for me. While my life and my 
health shall continue, in whatever situation 
I may be, it shall be my constant endeavour 
to justify the favourable sentiments you 
are pleased to express of my conduct. 
And may the members of your society in 
America, animated alone by the pure spirit 
of Christianity, and still conducting them- 
selves as the faithful subjects of our free 
government, enjoy every temporal and 
spiritual felicity. 

I rejoice, that a spirit of liberalitj 
and philanthropy is much more preva- 
lent than it formerly was among the en- 
lightened nations of the earth, and that 
your brethren will benefit thereby in pro- 
portion as it shall become still more ex- 
tensive. Happily, the people of the Unit- 
ed States of America have, in many in- 
stances, exhibited examples worthy of 
imitation, the salutary influence of which 
will doubtless extend much farther, if, 
gratefully enjoying those blessings of 
peace, which, under the favour of Heaven, 
have been obtained by fortitude in war, 
they shall conduct themselves with rev- 
erence to the Deity, and charity towards 
their fellow-creatures. 

May the same wonder-working Deity, 
who long since delivered the Hebrews 
from their Egyptian oppressors, and 
planted them in the promised land, whose 
providential agency has lately been con- 
spicuous in establishing these United 
States as an independent nation, still 
continue to water them with the dews of 
Heaven, and to make the inhabitants of 
every denomination participate in the 
temporal and spiritual blessings of that 
people whose God is Jehovah. 

To the Hebrew Congregation of the City 
of Savannah. 

May, 1790. 

I thank you, with great sincerity, for 
your congratulations on my appointment 
to the office which I have the honour to 
hold by the unanimous choice of my fel- 
low-citizens; and especially for the ex- 
pressions, which you are pleased to use 
in testifying the confidence that is re- 
posed in me by your congregation. 

As the delay, which has naturally in- 
tervened between my election and your 
address, has afforded an opportunity for 
appreciating the merits of the federal 
government, and for communicating your 
- sentiments of its administration, I have 
rather to express my satisfaction, than 
regret, at a circumstance, which demon- 
strates (upon experiment) your attach- 
ment to the former, as well" as approba- 
tion of the latter. 

To the Convention of the Universal 
Church Lately Assembled in Phila- 

I thank you cordially for the con- 
gratulations, which you offer on my ap- 
pointment to the office I have the honour 
to hold in the government of the United 

It gives me the most sensible pleasure 
to find, that, in our nation, however dif- 
ferent are the sentiments of citizens on 
religious doctrines, they generally con- 
cur in one thing; for their political pro- 
fessions and practices are almost univer- 
sally friendly to the order and happiness 
of our civil institutions. I am also 
happy in finding this disposition particu- 
larly evinced by your society. It is, 
moreover, my earnest desire that all the 
members of every association or com- 
munity, throughout the United States, 
may make such use of the auspicious 
years of peace, liberty, and free inquiry, 
with which they are now favoured, as they 



Shall hereafter find occasion to rejoice You overrate my best exertions when 
for having done. you ascribe to them the blessings which 

With great satisfaction I embrace this- our country so eminently enjoys. From 
opportunity to express my acknowledg- the gallantry and fortitude of her citi- 
nients for the interest my affectionate zens, under the auspices of Heaven. 


fellow-citizens have taken in my recovery America has derived her independence, 
from a late dangerous indisposition; and To their industry, and the natural ad- 
I assure you, gentlemen, that, in men- vantages of the country, she is indebted 
tioning my obligations for the effusions for her prosperous situation. From their 
of your benevolent wishes in my behalf, virtue she may expect long to share the 
I feel animated with new zeal, that my protection of a free and equal govern- 
conduct may ever be worthy of your ment, which their wisdom has establish- 
favourable opinion, as well as such as ed, and which experience justifies, as ad- 
shall, in every respect, best comport with mirably adapted to our social wants and 
the character of an intelligent and ac- individual felicity. 

countable being. Continue, my fellow-citizens, to culti- 
vate the peace and harmony which now 

To the Congregational Church and Society subsist between you and your Indian 

at Medway, Formerly St. John's Parish, neighbours. The happy consequence is 

in the State of Georgia. immediate. The reflection, which arises on 

May, 1791. justice and benevolence, will be lastingly 

I learn, with gratitude proportioned grateful. A knowledge of your happiness 

to the occasion, your attachment to my wil1 lighten the cares of my station, and 

person, and the pleasure you express on ^ e among the most pleasing of their re- 

my election to the Presidency of the war ds. 
United States. Your sentiments on the 

happy influence of our equal government To the Members of the New Church in 
impress me with the most sensible sat- Baltimore. 
isfaction. They vindicate the great inter- 
ests of humanity; they reflect honour on January, 1793. 
the liberal minds that entertain them; It has ever been my pride to merit the 
and they promise the continuance and approbation of my fellow-citizens, by a 
improvement of that tranquillity, which faithful and honest discharge of the 
is essential to the welfare of nations and duties annexed to those stations, in 
the happiness of men. which they have been pleased to place 



me; and the dearest rewards of my ser- 
vices have been those testimonies of es- 
teem and confidence with which they 
have honoured me. But to the manifest 
interposition of an overruling Providence, 
and to the patriotic exertions of United 
America, are to be ascribed those events 
which have given us a respectable rank 
among the nations of the earth. 

We have abundant reason to rejoice 
that, in this land, the light of truth and 
reason has triumphed over the power of 
bigotry and superstition, and that every 
person may here worship God according 
to the dictates of his own heart. In this 
enlightened age, and in this land of equal 
liberty, it is our boast that a man's re- 
ligious tenets will not forfeit the pro- 
tection of the laws, nor deprive him of 
the right of attaining and holding the 
highest ofiices that are known in the 
United States. 

Your prayers for my present and fut- 
ure felicity are received with gratitude; 

Washington's Inaugurals. — The first in- 
auguration took place on April 30, 1789. 
At nine o'clock in the morning there were 
religious services in all the churches, and 
prayers put up for the blessing of Heaven 
on the new government. At twelve o'clock 
the city troops paraded before Washing- 
ton's door, and soon after the commit- 
tees of Congress and heads of departments 
came in their carriages. At half-past 
twelve the procession moved forward pre- 
ceded by the troops; next came the com- 
mittees and heads of departments in their 
carriages; then Washington in a coach 
of state, his aide-de-camp Colonel Hum- 
phreys, and his secretary Mr. Lear in his 
own carriage. The foreign ministers and 
a long train of citizens brought up the 

About 200 yards before reaching the 
hall, Washington and his suite alighted 
from their carriages, and passed through 
the troops, who were drawn up on each 
side, into the hall and Senate chamber, 


and I sincerely wish, gentlemen, that you where the Vice-President, the Senate, and 
may in your social and individual capaci- House of Representatives were assembled, 
ties taste those blessings which a gra- The Vice-President, John Adams, recently 
cious God bestows upon the righteous. inaugurated, advanced and conducted 




Washington to a chair of state at the velvet cushion. This was all the parapher- 

upper end of the room. A solemn silence nalia that had been provided for this 

prevailed when the Vice-President rose august scene. 

and informed him that all things were All eyes were fixed upon the balcony, 

prepared for him to take the oath of when, at the appointed hour, Washington 

office required by the Constitution. made his appearance, accompanied by 

The oath was to be administered by the various public functionaries, and members 

chancellor of the State of New York in a of the Senate and House of Representa- 
balcony in front of the Senate chamber, " tives. He was clad in a full suit of dark- 

and in full view of an immense multi- brown cloth, of American manufacture, 

tude occupying the street, the windows, with a steel-hilted dress-sword, white silk 

and even roofs of the adjacent houses, stockings and silver shoe-buckles. His 

The balcony formed a kind of open re- hair was dressed and powdered in the 

cess, with lofty columns supporting the fashion of the day, and worn in a bag 

roof. In the centre was a table with a and solitaire. 

covering of crimson velvet, upon which His entrance on the balcony was hail- 
lay a superbly bound Bible on a crimson ed by universal shouts. He was evidently ■ 


am a* uuuwttJ ^ATioN of Washington 

CONGRESS, APRIL 30, 1789. 

Fellow-citizens of the Senate and House 
of Representatives, — Among the vieissi- 


moved, by this demonstration of public af- good sense, but uttered with a voice deep, 
fection. Advancing to the front of the slightly tremulous, and so low as to de- 
balcony he laid his hand upon his heart, mand close attention in the listeners. He 
bowed several times, and then retreated then proceeded with the assemblage to St. 
to an arm-chair near the table. The popu- Paul's church, where prayers were read 
lace appeared to understand that the scene by Dr. Prevost, Bishop of the Protestant 
had overcome him, and were hushed at Episcopal Church in New York, who had 
once into profound silence. been appointed by the Senate one of the 

After a few moments Washington rose chaplains of Congress. So closed the cere- 
and again came forward. John Adams, monies of the inauguration. — Irving's 
the Vice-President, stood on his right; on Life of Washington. 

his left the chancellor of the State, Robert 

R. Livingston; somewhat in the rear were 
Roger Sherman, Alexander Hamilton, Gen- 
erals Knox, St. Clair, the Baron Steuben, 
and others. 

The chancellor advanced to administer 
the oath prescribed by the Constitution, 
and Mr. Otis, the secretary of the 
Senate, held up the Bible on its crimson 
cushion. The oath was read slowly and 
distinctly, Washington at the same time 
laying his hand on the open Bible. When 
it was concluded, he replied, solemnly, 
"I swear — so help me, God!" Mr. Otis 
would have raised the Bible to his lips, 
but he bowed down reverently and kiss- 
ed it. 

The chancellor now 
stepped forward, waved 
his hand, and exclaim- 
ed, " Long live George 
Washington, Pres- 
ident of the Unit- 
ed States!" At 
this moment a flag 
was displayed on 
the cupola of the 
hall ; on which 
signal there was a 
general discharge 
of artillery on the 
battery. All the 
bells in the city 
rang out a joyful 
peal, and the mul- 
titude rent the air 
with acclamations. 

again bowed to the 
people and return- 
ed into the Senate 
chamber, where he 

delivered to both Houses of Congress 
his inaugural address, characterized by 
his usual modesty, moderation, and 


tudes incident to life, no event could 
have filled me with greater anxieties, than 
that of which the notification was trans- 


well as more dear 
to me, by the ad- 
dition of habit to 
inclination, and of 
frequent interrup- 
tions in my health 
to the gradual waste 
committed on it by 
time. On the other 
hand, the magnitude 
and difficulty of the 
trust, to which the 
voice of my country 
called me, being suf- 
ficient to awaken in 
the wisest and most 
experienced of her 
citizens a distrust- 
ful scrutiny into his 
qualifications, could 
not but overwhelm . 
with despondence 
one who, inheriting 
inferior endowments 
from nature, and 
unpractised in the 
duties of civil ad- 
ministration, ought 
to be peculiarly con- 
scious of his own de- 
ficiencies. In this 
conflict of emotions, 
all I dare aver is, 
that it has been my 
faithful study to 
collect my duty 
from a just ap- 
preciation of every 
circumstance by 
which it might be 
affected. All I dare 
hope is, that, if in 
executing this task, 
I have been too , 
much swayed by a 
grateful remem- 
,mitted by your order, and received on the brance of former instances, or by an af- 
14th day of the present month. On the fectionate sensibility to this transcendent 
one hand, I was summoned by my coun- proof of the confidence of my fellow-cit- 


try, whose voice I can never hear but 
with veneration and love, from a retreat 
which I had chosen with the fondest pre- 
dilection, and, in my flattering hopes, with 

an immutable decision, as the asylum of which misled me, "and its consequences be 
my declining years; a retreat which was judged by my country with some share of 
rendered every day more necessary as the partiality in which they originated, 


izens; and have thence too little consulted 
my incapacity as well as disinclination for 
the weighty and untried cares before me; 
my error will be palliated by the motives 


Such being the impressions under which 
I have, in obedience to the public sum- 
mons, repaired to the present station, it 
would be peculiarly improper to omit, in 
this first official act, my fervent suppli- 
cations to that Almighty Being, who rules 
over the universe, who presides in the 
councils of nations, and whose providential 
aids can supply every human defect, that 
his benediction may consecrate to the 
liberties and happiness of the people of 
the United States a government instituted 
by themselves for these essential purposes, 
and may enable every instrument em- 
ployed in its administration to execute 
with success the functions allotted to his 
charge. In tendering this homage to the 
great Author of every public and private 
good, I assure myself that it expresses 
your sentiments not less than my own; 
nor those of my fellow-citizens at large, 
less than either. No people can be bound 
to acknowledge and adore the invisible 
hand, which conducts the affairs of men, 
more than the people of the United States. 
Every step, by which they have advanced 
to the character of an independent nation, 
seems to have been distinguished by some 
token of providential agency. And, in the 
important revolution just accomplished 
in the system of their united government, 
the tranquil deliberations and voluntary 
consent of so many distinct communities, 
from which the event has resulted, cannot 
be compared with the means by which most 
governments have been established, with- 
out some return of pious gratitude along 
with an humble anticipation of the future 
blessings which the past seems to presage. 
These reflections, arising out of the pres- 
ent crisis, have forced themselves too 
strongly on my mind to be suppressed. 
You will join with me, I trust, in thinking 
that there are none, under the influence of 
which the proceedings of a new and free 
government can more auspiciously com- 

By the article establishing the execu- 
tive department, it is made the duty of 
the President " to recommend to your con- 
sideration such measures as he shall judge 
necessary and expedient." The circum- 
stances, under which I now meet you, will 
acquit me from entering into that subject 
further than to refer you to the great con- 
stitutional charter under which we are as- 

sembled; and which, in defining your 
powers, designates the objects to which 
your attention is to be given. It will be 
more consistent with those circumstances, 
and far more congenial with the feelings 
which actuate me, to substitute, in place 
of a recommendation of 'particular meas- 
ures, the tribute that is due to the talents, 
the rectitude, and the patriotism, which 
adorn the characters selected to devise 
and adopt them. In these honourable quali- 
fications I behold the surest pledges, that 
as, on one side, no local prejudices or at- 
tachments, no separate views or party ani- 
mosities, will misdirect the comprehensive 
and equal eye, which ought to watch over 
this great assemblage of communities and 
interests; so, on another, that the foun- 
dations of our national policy will be laid 
in the pure and immutable principles of 
private morality, and the pre-eminence of 
a free government be exemplified by all the 
attributes, which can win the affections 
of its citizens, and command the respect of 
the world. 

I dwell on this prospect with every satis- 
faction which an ardent love for my coun- 
try can inspire; since there is no truth 
more thoroughly established than that 
there exists in the economy and course of 
nature an indissoluble union between 
virtue and happiness, between duty and 
advantage, between the genuine maxims 
of an honest and magnanimous policy, 
and the solid rewards of public prosperity 
and felicity; since we ought to be no less 
persuaded that the propitious smiles of 
Heaven can never be expected on a nation 
that disregards the eternal rules of order 
and right, which Heaven itself has or- 
dained; and since the preservation of the 
sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny 
of the republican model of government, 
are justly considered as deeply, perhaps 
as finally staked on the experiment in- 
trusted to the hands of the American 

Besides the ordinary objects submitted 
to your care, it will remain with your 
judgment to decide how far an exercise of 
the occasional power delegated by the 
fifth article of the Constitution is ren- 
dered expedient at the present junctur. by 
the nature of objections which have been 
urged against the system, or by the de- 
gree of inquietude which has given birth 



to them. Instead of undertaking particu- 
lar recommendations on this subject, in 
which I could be guided by no lights de- 
rived from official opportunities, I shall 
again give way to my entire confidence in 
your discernment and pursuit of the public 
good; for I assure myself that, whilst you 
carefully avoid every alteration which 
might endanger the benefits of a united 
and effective government, or which ought 
to await the future lessons of experience; 
a reverence for the characteristic rights 
of freemen, and a regard for the public 
harmony, will sufficiently influence your 
deliberations on the question, how far the 
former can be more impregnably fortified, 
or the latter be safely and advantageously 

To the preceding observations I have 
one to add, which will be most properly 
addressed to the House of Representatives. 
It concerns myself, and will therefore be 
as brief as possible. When I was first 
honored with a call into the service of my 
country, then on the eve of an arduous 
struggle for its liberties, the light in which 
I contemplated my duty required that I 
should renounce every pecuniary compen- 
sation. Prom this resolution I have in no 
instance departed. And being still under 
the impressions which produced it, I must 
decline as inapplicable to myself any share 
in the personal emoluments, which may be 
indispensably included in a permanent pro- 
vision for the executive department; and 
must accordingly pray that the pecuniary 
estimates for the station in which I am 
placed may, during my continuance in it, 
be limited to such actual expenditures 
as the public good may be thought to re- 

Having thus imparted to you my senti- 
ments, as they have been awakened by the 
occasion which brings us together, I shall 
take my present leave; but not without 
resorting once more to the benign Parent 
of the human race, in humble supplication, 
that, since he has been pleased to favour 
the American people with opportunities 
for deliberating in perfect tranquillity, 
and dispositions for deciding with un- 
paralleled unanimity on a form of govern- 
ment for the security of their union and 
the advancement of their happiness; so his 
divine blessing may be equally conspicu- 
ous in the enlarged views, the temperate 


consultations, and the wise measures on 
which the success of this government must 


Gentlemen, — I thank you for your ad- 
dress, in which the most affectionate senti- 
ments are expressed in the most obliging 
terms. The coincidence of circumstances, 
which led to this auspicious crisis, the 
confidence reposed in me by my fellow- 
citizens, and the assistance I may expect 
from counsels, which will be dictated by 
an enlarged and liberal policy, seem to 
presage a more prosperous issue to my ad- 
ministration than a diffidence of my abili- 
ties had taught me to anticipate. I now 
feel myself inexpressibly happy in a belief 
that Heaven, which has done so much for 
our infant nation, will not withdraw its 
providential influence before our political 
felicity shall have been completed; and in 
a conviction that the Senate will at all 
times co-operate in every measure which 
may tend to promote the welfare of this 
confederated republic. 

Thus supported by a firm trust in the 
great Arbiter of the universe, aided by the 
collected wisdom of the Union, and im- 
ploring the divine benediction on our joint 
exertions in the service of our country, I 
readily engage with you in the arduous 
but pleasing task of attempting to make a 
nation happy. 


Gentlemen, — Your very affectionate 
address produces emotions which I know 
not how to express. I feel that my past 
endeavours in the service of my country 
are far overpaid by its goodness; and I 
fear much that my future ones may not 
fulfil your kind anticipation. All that 
I can promise is, that they will be invari- 
ably directed by an honest and an ardent 
zeal. Of this resource my heart assures 
me. For all beyond, I rely on the wisdom 
and patriotism of those with whom I am 
to co-operate, and a continuance of the 
blessings of Heaven on our beloved coun- 

Washington took the oath of office for 
his second term on March 4, 1793. The 
address which is here printed as his second 


inaugural is the address delivered upon to any of the parties; and to obtain, by 
the assembling of Congress in December a declaration of the existing legal state 
following. In the time of Washington's of things, an easier admission of our right 
administration, it was customary for the to the immunities belonging to our situ- 
President, at the opening of each session ation.. Under these impressions, the Proc- 
of Congress, to meet the two Houses in lamation, which will be laid before you, 
person and- deliver a written speech. Each was issued. 

House returned an answer to this speech In this posture of affairs, both new and 
some days afterwards, by a committee, who delicate, I resolved to adopt general rules, 
waited on him for the purpose, and he which should conform to the treaties and 
at the same time made a brief reply. All assert the privileges of the United States. 
of Washington's speeches to Congress, and These were reduced into a system, which 
all his replies to the answers of the two will be communicated to you. Although 
Houses, are given in vol. xii. of Sparks's I have not thought myself at liberty to 
edition of the Writings of Washington. forbid the sale of the prizes, permitted 

by our treaty of commerce with Prance 

speech to both hotjses of congeess, to be brought into our ports, I have not 

dec 3 1793 refused to cause them to be restored, when 

they were taken within the protection of 
Pellow-citizens of the Senate and House our territory, or by vessels commissioned 
of Representatives, — Since the commence- or equipped in a warlike form within the 
ment of the term, for which I have been limits of the United States. 
again called into office, no fit occasion has It rests with the wisdom of Congress to 
arisen for expressing to my fellow-citizens correct, improve, or enforce this plan of 
at large, the deep and respectful sense, procedure; and it will probably be found 
which I feel, of the renewed testimony expedient to extend the legal code, and 
of public approbation. While, on the one the jurisdiction of the courts of the Unit- 
hand, it awakened my gratitude for all ed States, to many cases which, though 
those instances of affectionate partiality, dependent on principles already recog- 
with which I have been honoured by my nized, demand some further provisions, 
country; on the other, it could not prevent Where individuals shall within the 
an earnest wish for that retirement, from United States array themselves in hostil- 
which no private consideration should ever ity against any of the powers at war ; 
have torn me. But influenced by the be- or enter upon military expeditions or en- 
lief that my conduct would be estimated terprises within the jurisdiction of the 
according to its real motives, and that United States; or usurp and exercise ju- 
the people, and the authorities derived dicial authority within the United States; 
from them, would support exertions hav- or where the penalties on violations of the 
ing nothing personal for their object, I law of nations may have been indistinct- 
have obeyed the suffrage, which command- ly marked, or are inadequate; these of- 
ed me to resume the executive power ; and fences cannot receive too early and close 
I humbly implore that Being, on whose an attention, and require prompt and 
will the fate of nations depends, to crown decisive remedies. 

with success our mutual endeavours for Whatsoever those remedies may be, they 
the general happiness. will be well administered by the judiciary, 

As soon as the war in Europe had em- who possess a long-established course of 
braced those powers, with whom the investigation, effectual process, and offi- 
United States have the most extensive cers in the habit of executing it. In like 
relations, there was reason to apprehend, manner, as several of the courts have 
that our intercourse with them might be doubted, under particular circumstances, 
interrupted, and our disposition for peace their power to liberate the vessels of a 
drawn into question, by the suspicions too nation at peace, and even of a citizen of 
often entertained by belligerent nations, the United States, although seized under 
It seemed, therefore, to be my duty to ad- a false colour of being hostile property; 
monish our citizens of the consequences of and have denied their power to liberate 
a contraband trade, and of hostile acts certain captures within the protection of 



our territory; it would seem proper to ure, in an improvement of it, ought not 
regulate their jurisdiction in these points, to be to afford an opportunity for the 
But if the executive is to be the resort study of those branches of the military. 
in either of the two last-mentioned cases, art, which can scarcely ever be attained 
it is hoped that he will be authorized by by practice alone. 

law to have facts ascertained by the The connexion of the United States 
courts, when, for his own information, he with Europe has become extremely in- 
shall request it. teresting. The occurrences, which relate 

I cannot recommend to your notice meas- to it, and have passed under the knowl- 
ures for the fulfilment of our duties to edge of the executive, will be exhibited 
the rest of the world, without again press- to Congress in a subsequent eommunica- 
ing upon you the necessity of placing our- tion. 

selves in a condition of complete defence, When we contemplate the war on our 
and of exacting from them the fulfilment frontiers, it may be truly affirmed that 
of their duties towards us. The United every reasonable effort has been made 
States ought not to indulge a persuasion, to adjust the causes of dissension with 
that, contrary to the order of human the Indians north of the Ohio. The in- 
events, they will for ever keep at a dis- struetions given to the commissioners 
tance those painful appeals to arms, with evince a moderation and equity proceed- 
which the history of every other nation ing from a sincere love of peace, and a 
abounds. There is a rank due to the liberality having no restriction but the 
United States among nations, which will essential interests and dignity of the 
be withheld, if not absolutely lost, by the United States. The attempt, however, 
reputation of weakness. If we desire to of an amicable negotiation having been 
avoid insult, we must be able to repel frustrated, the troops have marched to act 
it; if we desire to secure peace, one of the offensively. Although the proposed treaty 
most powerful instruments of our rising did not arrest the progress of military 
prosperity, it must be known that we preparation, it is doubtful how far the 
are at all times ready for war. advance of the season, before good faith 

The documents, which will be presented justified active movements, may retard 
to you, will show the amount and kinds them, during the remainder of the year, 
of arms and military stores now in our From the papers and intelligence, which 
magazines and arsenals; and yet an addi- relate tj this important subject, you will 
tion even to these supplies cannot with determine, whether the deficiency in the 
prudence be neglected, as it would leave number of troops, granted by law, shall be 
nothing to the uncertainty of procuring compensated by succours of militia; or 
a warlike apparatus in the moment of additional encouragements shall be pro- 
public danger. Nor can such arrange- posed to recruits. An anxiety has been 
ments, with such objects, be exposed to also demonstrated by the executive for 
the censure or jealousy of the warmest peace with the Creeks and the Cherokees. 
friends of republican government. They The former have been relieved with corn 
are incapable of abuse in the hands of the and with clothing, and offensive measures 
militia, who ought io possess a pride in against them prohibited, during the recess 
being the depository of the force of the of Congress. To satisfy the complaints of 
republic, and may be trained to a degree the latter, prosecutions have been insti- 
of energy, equal to every military exigency tuted for the violences committed upon 
of the United States. But it is an in- them. But the papers, which will be 
quiry, which cannot be too solemnly pur- delivered to you, disclose the critical foot- 
sued, whether the act " more effectually ing on which we stand in regard to both 
to provide for the national defence by those tribes; and it is with Congress to 
establishing a uniform militia throughout pronounce what shall be done, 
the United States," has organized them After they shall have provided for the 
so as to produce their full effect; whether present emergency, it will merit their 
your own experience in the several States most serious labours, to render tranquil- 
has not detected some imperfections in lity with the savages permanent by 
the scheme; and whether a material feat- creating ties of interest. Next to a 


rigorous execution of justice on the vio- 
lators of peace, the establishment of com- 
merce with the Indian nations on behalf 
of the United States is most likely to 
conciliate their attachment. But it ought 
to be conducted without fraud, without 
extortion, with constant and plentiful 
supplies, with a ready market for the 
commodities of the Indians, and a stated 
price for what they give in payment, and 
receive in exchange. Individuals will not 
pursue such a traffic unless they be al- 
lured by the hope of profit; but it will be 
enough for the United States to be reim- 
bursed only. Should this recommenda- 
tion accord with the opinion of Congress, 
they will recollect that it cannot be ac- 
complished by any means yet in the hands 
of the executive. 

Gentlemen of the House o Representa- 
tives, — The commissioner's, harged with 
the settlement of accounts between the 
United and individual States, concluded 
their important functions within the time 
limited by law; and the balances, struck 
in their report, which will be laid before 
Congress, have been placed on the books 
of the treasury. 

On the first day of June last, an instal- 
ment of one million of florins became 
payable on the loans of the United States 
in Holland. This was adjusted by a pro- 
longation of the period of reimbursement, 
in the nature of a new loan, at interest 
at five per cent, for the term of ten years ;- 
and the expenses of this operation were a 
commission of three per cent. 

The first instalment of the loan of two 
millions of dollars from the bank of the 
United States has been paid, as was di- 
rected by law. For the second, it is nec- 
essary that provision should be made. 

No pecuniary consideration is more 
urgent than the regular redemption and 
discharge of the public debt; on none can 
delay be more injurious, or an economy 
ot time more valuable. 

The productiveness of the public rev- 
enues hitherto has continued to equal 
the anticipations which were formed of 
it : but it is not expected to prove commen- 
surate with all the objects which have 
been suggested. Some auxiliary provi- 
sions will, therefore, it is presumed, be 
requisite; and it is hoped that these 
may be made, consistently with a due 


regard to the convenience of our citi- 
zens, who cannot but be sensible of the 
true wisdom of encountering a small 
present addition to their contributions, to 
obviate a future accumulation of burdens. 

But here I cannot forbear to recom- 
mend a repeal of the tax on the transpor- 
tation of public prints. There is no re- 
source so firm for the government of the 
United States, as the affections of the 
people, guided by an enlightened policy; 
and to this primary good, nothing can 
conduce more than a faithful representa- 
tion of public proceedings, diffused with- 
out restraint throughout the United 

An estimate of the appropriations nec- 
essary for the current service of the 
ensuing year, and a statement of a pur- 
chase of arms and military stores made 
during the recess, will be presented to 

Gentlemen of the Senate and House of 
Representatives, — The several subjects, to 
which I have now referred, open a wide 
range to your deliberations, and involve 
some of the choicest interests of our com- 
mon country. Permit me to bring to your 
remembrance the magnitude of your task. 
Without an unprejudiced coolness, the wel- 
fare of the government may be hazarded; 
without harmony, as far as consists with 
freedom of sentiment, its dignity may be 
lost. But as the legislative proceedings of 
the United States will never, I trust, be 
reproached for the want of temper or 
candour ; so shall not the public happiness 
languish from the want of my strenuous 
and warmest co-operations. 

Washington's Legacy. — Washington's 
circular letter addressed to the governors 
of all the States on disbanding the army 
was felt by him to be so important that, 
supposing himself at the time to be 
finally retiring from public life, he 
spoke of it as his legacy. The feelings 
with which it was written, as well as 
its own contents and character, naturally 
prompt a comparison of it with the fare- 
well address of 1796. The occasion of the 
letter was a much more critical occasion 
than that of the farewell address. It was 
the time, as Washington well said, of the 
" political probation " of the American 
people. " This is the moment," he said, 


"when the eyes of the whole world are noise and trouble of the world) I meditate 
turned upon them; this is the moment to to pass the remainder of life, in a state 
establish or ruin their national character of undisturbed repose. But before I carry 
forever. . . . With this conviction of the this resolution into effect, I think it a 
importance of the present crisis, silence duty incumbent on me to make this my 
m me would be a crime." He then pro- last official communication; to congratu- 
ceeds to the discussion of those things late you on the glorious events which 
which he considered essential to the well- Heaven has been pleased to produce in 
being and to the existence of the United our favour ; to offer my sentiments respect- 
States as an independent power. The effect ing some important subjects, which appear 
of the letter upon the country, in the dis- to me to be intimately connected with 
ordered condition of the time, was im- the tranquillity of the United States; to 
portant. The legislatures that were then take my leave of your Excellency as a 
in session passed resolves in honor of the public character; and to give my final 
commander-in-chief; and the governors of blessing to that country in whose service 
the States wrote letters expressing the I have spent the prime of my life, for 
public gratitude for his great services. whose sake I have consumed so many 

For the conditions under which this ad- anxious days and watchful nights, and 

dress appeared, see Irving's Life of Wash- whose happiness, being extremely dear to 

ington, iv., 426. For an account of the me, will always constitute no inconsider- 

discontents in the army just previous, able part of my own. 

which for a time threatened such serious Impressed with the liveliest sensibility 

dangers, see Irving, iv., 406; Marshall, iv., on this pleasing occasion, I will claim the 

585; and Sparks, viii., appendix xii., on indulgence of dilating the more copiously 

The Newburg Addresses. See in this gen- on the subjects of our mutual felicita- 

eral connection Washington's letters to the tion. When we consider the magnitude of 

president of Congress, March 19, and the prize we contended for, the doubtful 

April 18,. 1783; to Benjamin Harrison, nature of the contest, and the favourable 

governor of Virginia, March 18, 1783; to manner in which it has terminated, we 

Lafayette, April 5, 1783, and his farewell shall find the greatest possible reason for 

address to the armies, Nov. 2, 1783 gratitude and rejoicing. This is a theme 

(Sparks, viii., 396, 403, 411, 421, 491). that will afford infinite delight to every 

Washington's deep sense of the obligations benevolent and liberal mind, whether the 

of the country to the officers and soldiers event in contemplation be considered as 

of the army, which finds such strong ex- the source of present enjoyment or the 

pression in this circular letter, may be parent of future happiness; and we shall 

further studied in The Life, Journal, and have equal occasion to felicitate ourselves 

Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, on the lot which Providence has assigned 

vol. i., chap, iv.; in Cone's Life of Gen. us, whether we view it in a natural, a 

Rufus Putnam; and in the St. Clair political, or moral point of light. 

Papers. The citizens of America, placed in the 

The following is the text of the ad- most enviable condition, as the sole lords 

dress: and proprietors of a vast tract of con- 

Headquarters, Newburg, tin ! nt ' ^P«hending all the various soils 

and climates of the world, and abounding 

June 8, 1783. w jt n a u ^he necessaries and conveniences 

Sir, — The great object, for which I had of life, are now, by the late satisfactory 
the honor to hold an appointment in the pacification, acknowledged to be possessed 
service of my country, being accomplished, of absolute freedom and independency. 
I am now preparing to resign it into the They are, from this period, to be con- 
hands of Congress, and to return to that sidered as the actors on a most conspicu- 
domestie retirement which, it is well ous theatre, which seems to be peculiarly 
known, I left with the greatest reluctance ; designated by Providence for the display 
a retirement for which I have never ceased of human greatness and felicity. Here 
to sigh, through a long and painful ab- they are not only surrounded with every- 
sence, and in which (remote from the thing which can contribute to the com- 



pletion of private and domestic enjoy- fated moment for relaxing the powers ol 
ment; but Heaven has crowned all its the Union, annihilating the cement of tUe 
other blessings, by giving a fairer oppor- confederation, and exposing us to become 
tunity for political happiness than any the sport of European politics, which may 
other nation has ever been favoured with, play one State against another, to pre- 
Nothing can illustrate these observations vent their growing importance, and to 
more forcibly than a recollection of the serve their own interested purposes. For, 
happy conjuncture of times and circum- according to the system of policy the 
stances, under which our republic assumed States shall adopt at this moment, they 
its rank among the nations. The founda- will stand or fall; and by their confirma- 
tion of our empire was not laid in the tion or lapse it is yet to be decided, 
gloomy age of ignorance and superstition ; whether the revolution must ultimately be 
but at an epocha when the rights of man- considered as a blessing or a curse; a 
kind were better understood and more blessing or a curse, not to the present age 
clearly defined than at any former period, alone, for with our fate will the destiny 
The researches of the human mind after of unborn millions be involved, 
social happiness have been carried to a With this conviction of the importance 
great extent; the treasures of knowledge, of the present crisis, silence in me would 
acquired by the labours of philosophers, be a crime. I will therefore speak to your 
sages, and legislators, through a long Excellency the language of freedom and of 
succession of years, are laid open for our sincerity without disguise. I am aware, 
use, and their collected wisdom may be however, that those who differ from me in 
happily applied in the establishment of political sentiment may perhaps remark 
our forms of government. The free culti- that I am stepping out of the proper line 
vation of _ letters, the unbounded exten- of my duty, and may possibly ascribe to 
sion of commerce, the progressive refine- arrogance or ostentation what I know is 
ment of manners, the growing liberality alone the result of the purest intention. 
of sentiment, and, above all, the pure and But the rectitude of my own heart, which 
benign light of Revelation, have had a disdains such unworthy motives; the part 
meliorating influence on mankind and in- 1 have hitherto acted in life; the deter- 
creased the blessings of society. At this mination I have formed, of not taking any 
auspicious period the United States came share in public business hereafter; the 
into existence as a nation; and, if their ardent desire I feel, and shall continue to 
citizens Bhould not be completely free and manifest, of quietly enjoying, in private 
happy, the fault will be entirely their life, after all the toils of war, the bene- 
own. fits of a wise and liberal government, will. 
Such is our^ituation, and such are our I flatter myself, sooner or later convince 
prospects; but, notwithstanding the cup my countrymen that I could have no 
of blessing is thus reached out to us ; not- sinister views in delivering, with so little 
withstanding happiness is ours, if we have reserve, the opinions contained in this ad- 
a disposition to seize the occasion and dress. 

make it our own; yet it appears to me There are four things which, I humbly 

there is an option still left to the United conceive, are essential to the well-being, 

States of America, that it is in their I may even venture to say, to the exist- 

choice, and depends upon their conduct, ence of the United States, as an indepen- 

whether they will be respectable and pros- dent power. 

perous, or contemptible and miserable, as First. An indissoluble union of the 

a nation. This is the time of their politi- States under one federal head. 
cal probation; this is the moment when Second. A sacred regard to public jus- 

the eyes of the whole world are turned tice. 

upon them; this is the moment to estab- Third. The adoption of a proper peace 

lish or ruin their national character for establishment; and, 

ever; this is the favourable moment to Fourth. The prevalence of that pacific 

give such a tone to our federal govern- and friendly disposition among the people 

ment, as will enable it to answer the ends of the United States which will induce 

of its institution, or this may be the ill- them to forget their local prejudices and 



policies; to make those mutual conces- 
sions, which are requisite to the general 
prosperity; and, in some instances, to 
sacrifice their individual advantages to 
the interest of the community. 

These are the pillars on whiah the 
glorious fabric of our independency and 
national .character must be supported. 
Liberty is the basis; and whoever would 
dare to sap the foundation, or overturn 
the structure, under whatever specious 
pretext he may attempt it, will merit the 
bitterest execration and the severest pun- 
ishment which can be inflicted by his in- 
jured country. 

On the three first articles I will make a 
few observations, leaving the last to the 
good sense and serious consideration of 
those immediately concerned. 

Under the first head, although it may 
not be necessary or proper for me, in this 
place, to enter into a particular disquisi- 
tion on the principles of the Union, and 
to take up the great question which has 
been frequently agitated, whether it be 
expedient and requisite for the States to 
delegate a larger proportion of power to 
Congress, or not; yet it will be a part of 
my duty, and that of every true patriot, 
to assert without reserve, and to insist 
upon, the following positions. That, un- 
less the States will suffer Congress to 
exercise those prerogatives they are un- 
doubtedly invested with by the Constitu- 
tion, every thing must very rapidly tend 
to anarchy and confusion. That it is in- 
dispensable to the happiness of the in- 
dividual States that there should be 
lodged somewhere a supreme power to reg- 
ulate and govern the general concerns of 
the confederated republic, without which 
the Union cannot be of long duration. 
That there must be a faithful and pointed 
compliance, on the part of every State, 
with the late proposals and demands of 
Congress, or the most fatal consequences 
will ensue. That whatever measures have 
a tendency to dissolve the Union, or con- 
tribute to violate or lessen the sovereign 
authority, ought to be considered as hos- 
tile to the liberty and independency of 
America, and the authors of them treated 
accordingly. And lastly, that unless we 
can be enabled, by the concurrence of the 
States, to participate of the fruits of the 
revolution, and enjoy the essential benefits 


of civil society, under a form of govern- 
ment so free and uncorrupted, so happily 
guarded against the danger of oppression, 
as has been devised and adopted by the 
Articles of Confederation, it will be a sub- 
ject of regret that so much blood and 
treasure have been lavished for no pur- 
pose, that so many sufferings have been 
encountered without a compensation, and 
that so many sacrifices have been made in 

Many other considerations might here 
be adduced to prove that, without an en- 
tire conformity to the spirit of the Union, 
we cannot exist as an independent power. 
It will be sufficient for my purpose to 
mention but one or two, which seem to me 
of the greatest importance. It is only in 
our united character, as an empire, that 
our independence is acknowledged, that 
our power can be regarded, or our credit 
supported among foreign nations. The 
treaties of the European powers with the 
United States of America will have no 
validity on a dissolution of the Union. 
We shall be left nearly in a state of 
nature; or we may find, by our own un- 
happy experience, that there is a natural 
and necessary progression from the ex- 
treme of anarchy to the extreme of 
tyranny, and that arbitrary power is most 
easily established on the ruins of liberty, 
abused to licentiousness. 

As to the second article, which respects 
the performance of public justice, Con- 
gress have, in their late address to the 
United States, almost exhausted the sub- 
ject; they have explained their ideas so 
fully, and have enforced the obligations 
the States are under, to render complete 
justice to all the public creditors, with so 
much dignity and energy that, in my 
opinion, no real friend of the honour and 
independency of America can hesitate a 
single moment, respecting the propriety of 
complying with the just and honourable 
measures proposed. If their arguments do 
not produce conviction, I know of nothing 
that will have greater influence; especial- 
ly when we recollect that the system re- 
ferred to, being the result of the collected 
wisdom of the continent, must be esteemed, 
if not perfect, certainly the _ least ob- 
jectionable of any that could be devised; 
and that, if it shall not be carried into 
immediate execution, a national bank- 


ruptcy, with all its deplorable con- all, a spirit of disunion, or a temper of 

sequences, will take place, before any dif- obstinacy and perverseness should mani- 

f erent plan can possibly be proposed and fest itself in any of the Stated ; if such 

adopted. So pressing are the present cir- an ungracious disposition should attempt 

eumstances, and such is the alternative to frustrate all the happy effects that 

now offered to the States. might be expected to flow from the Union ; 

The ability of the country to discharge if there should be a refusal to comply with 
the debts, which have been incurred in its the requisitions for funds to discharge 
defence, is not to be doubted; and in- the annual interest of the public debts; 
elination, I flatter myself, will not be and if that refusal should revive again al] 
wanting. The path of our duty is plain those jealousies .and produce all those 
before us; honesty will be found, on every evils which are now happily removed, 
experiment, to be the best and only true Congress, who have, in all their trans- 
policy. Let us then, as a nation, be just; actions, shown a great degree of magna- 
let us fulfil the public contracts, which nimity and justice, will stand justified in 
Congress had undoubtedly a right to make the sight of God and man; and that State 
for the purpose of carrying on the war, alone, which puts itself in opposition to 
with the same good faith we suppose our- the aggregate wisdom of the continent, 
selves bound to perform our private en- and follows such mistaken and pernicious 
gagements. In the mean time, let an at- counsels, will be responsible for all the 
tention to the cheerful performance of consequences. 

their proper business, as individuals and For my own part, conscious of having 
as members of society, be earnestly in- acted, while a servant of the public, in 
culcated on the citizens of America; then the manner I conceived best suited to pro- 
will they strengthen the hands of govern- mote the real interests of my country; 
ment, and be happy under its protection; having, in consequence of my fixed belief, 
every one will reap the fruit of his labours, in some measure pledged myself to the 
every one will enjoy his own acquisitions, army, that their country would finally do 
without molestation and without danger. them complete and ample justice; and 

In this state of absolute freedom and not wishing to conceal any instance of my 

perfect security, who will grudge to yield official conduct from the eyes of the world, 

a very little of his property to support the I have thought proper to transmit to your 

common interest of society, and insure Excellency the enclosed collection of pa- 

the protection of government? Who does pers, relative to the half-pay and commu- 

not remember the frequent declarations, tation granted by Congress to the officers 

at the commencement of the war, that we of the army. From these communications, 

should be completely satisfied if, at the my decided sentiments will be clearly com- 

expense of one-half, we could defend the prehended, together with the conclusive 

remainder of our possessions? Where is reasons which induced me, at an early 

the man to be found who wishes to re- period, to recommend the adoption of the 

main indebted for the defence of his own measure, in the most earnest and serious 

person and property to the exertions, the manner. As the proceedings of Congress, 

bravery, and the blood of others, without the army, and myself, are open to all, and 

making one generous effort to repay the contain, in my opinion, sufficient informa- 

debt of honour and gratitude? In what tion to remove the prejudices and errors, 

part of the continent shall we find any which may have been entertained by any, 

man, or body of men, who would not blush I think it unnecessary to say anything 

to stand up ajid propose measures, purpose- more than just to observe, that the resolu- 

ly calculated to rob the soldier of his tions of Congress, now alluded to, are un- 

stipend, and the public creditor of his doubtedly as absolutely binding upon the 

due? And were it possible that such a United States as the most solemn acts of 

flagrant instance of injustice could ever confederation or legislation, 
happen, would it not excite the general As to the idea which, I am informed, 

indignation, and tend to bring down upon has in some instances prevailed, that the 

the authors of such measures the ag- half-pay and commutation are to be re- 

gravated vengeance of Heaven? If, after garded merely in the odious light of a 



pension, it ought to be exploded forever, justice, I cannot omit to mention the 
That provision should be viewed, as it obligations this country is under to that 
really was, a reasonable compensation of- meritorious class of veteran non-commis- 
fered by Congress, at a time when they sioned officers and privates who have been 
had nothing else to give to the officers discharged for inability, in consequence 
of the army for services then to be per- of the resolution of Congress of the 23d 
formed. It was the only means to pre- of April, 1782, on an annual pension for 
vent a total dereliction of the service. It life. Their peculiar sufferings, their sin- 
was a part of their hire. I may be allow- gular merits, and claims to that provision, 
ed to say, it was the price of their blood, need only be known, to interest all the 
and of your independency; it is therefore feelings of humanity in their behalf. Noth- 
more than a common debt, it is a debt of ing but a punctual payment of their an- 
honour; it can never be considered as a nual allowance can rescue them from the 
pension or gratuity, nor be cancelled until most complicated misery; and nothing 
it is fairly discharged. could be a more melancholy and distress- 

With regard to a distinction between ing sight than to behold those, who have 
officers and soldiers, it is sufficient that shed their blood or lost their limbs in 
the uniform experience of every nation the service of their country, without a 
of the world, combined with our own, shelter, without a friend, and without 
proves the utility and propriety of the dis- the means of obtaining any of the neces- 
crimination. Rewards, in proportion to saries or comforts of life, compelled to beg 
the aids which the public derives from their daily bread from door to door. Suf- 
them, are unquestionably due to all its fer me to recommend those of this de- 
servants. In some lines, the soldiers have scription, belonging to your State, to the 
perhaps generally had as ample compensa- warmest patronage of your Excellency 
tion for their services, by the large boun- and your legislature, 
ties which have been paid to them, as It is necessary to say but a few words 
their officers will receive in the proposed on the third topic which was proposed, 
commutation; in others, if, besides the do- and which regards particularly the de- 
nation of lands, the payment of arrear- fence of the republic; as there can be lit- 
ages of clothing and wages (in which tie doubt that Congress will recommend 
articles all the component parts of the a proper peace establishment for the Unit- 
army must be put upon the same footing), ed States, in which a due attention will 
we take into the estimate the bounties be paid to the importance of placing the 
many of the soldiers have received, and militia of the Union upon a regular and 
the gratuity of one year's full pay, which respectable footing. If this should be the 
is promised to all, possibly their situation case, I would beg leave to urge the 
(every circumstance being duly consid- great advantage of it in the strongest 
ered) will not be deemed less eligible than terms. The militia of this country must 
that of the officers. Should a further re- be considered as the palladium of our se- 
ward, however, be judged equitable, I will curity, and the first effectual resort in 
venture to assert, no one will enjoy great- case of hostility. It is essential, therefore, 
er satisfaction than myself, oil seeing an that the same system should pervade the 
exemption from taxes for a limited time whole; that the formation and discipline 
(which has been petitioned for in some of the militia of the continent should 
instances), or any other adequate immu- be absolutely uniform, and that the same 
nity or compensation granted to the brave species of arms, accoutrements, and mili- 
defenders of their country's cause; but tary apparatus, should be introduced in 
neither the adoption nor rejection of this every part of the United States. No one, 
proposition will in any manner affect, who has not learned it from experience, 
much less militate against, the act of Con- can conceive the difficulty, expense, and 
gress, by which they have offered five confusion, which result from a contrary 
years' full pay, in lieu of the half-pay for system, or the vague arrangements which 
life, which had been before promised to have hitherto prevailed, 
the officers of the army. If, in treating of political points, a 

Before I conclude the subject of public greater latitude than usual has been 



taken in the course of this address, the zens, so shall I always be happy to do 
importance of the crisis, and the mag- justice to the unparalleled exertions of 
nitude of the objects in discussion, the individual States on many interest- 
must be my apology. It is, however, ing occasions. 

neither my wish nor expectation, that I have thus freely disclosed what I 
the preceding observations should claim wished to make known, before I surren- 
any regard, except so far as they shall dered up my public trust to those who 
appear to be dictated by a good inten- committed it to me. The task is now 
tion, consonant to the immutable rules accomplished. I now bid adieu to your 
of justice, calculated to produce a lib- Excellency as the chief magistrate of your 
eral system of policy, and founded on State, at the same time I bid a last fare- 
whatever experience may have been ac- well to the cares of office, and all the 
quir"ed by a long and close attention employments of public life, 
to public business. Here I might speak It remains, then, to be my final and 
with the more confidence, from my actual only request, that your Excellency will 
observations; and, if it would not swell communicate these sentiments to your 
this letter (already too prolix) ieyond legislature at their next meeting, and that 
the bounds I had prescribed to myself, they may be considered as the legacy of 
I could demonstrate, to every mind open one, who has ardently wished, on all oc- 
to conviction, that in less time, and with casions, to be useful to his country, and 
much less expense, than has been in- who, even in the shade of retirement, 
curred, the war might have been brought will not fail to implore the Divine bene- 
to the same happy conclusion, if the re- diction upon it. 

sources of the continent could have been I now make it my earnest prayer, that 
properly drawn forth; that the distresses God would have you, and the State over 
and disappointments, which have very which you preside, in his holy protec- 
often occurred, have, in too many in- tion; that he would incline the hearts of 
stances, resulted more from a want of the citizens to cultivate a spirit of sub- 
energy in the Continental government, ordination and obedience to government ; 
than a deficiency of means in the par- to entertain a brotherly affection and 
ticular States; " that the ineffieacy of love for one another, for their fellow- 
measures arising from the want of an citizens of the United States at large, 
adequate authority in the supreme and particularly for their brethren who 
power, from a partial compliance with the have served in the field; and finally, that 
requisitions of Congress in some of the he would most graciously be pleased to 
States, and from a failure of punctuali- dispose us all to do justice, to love mercy, 
ty in others, while it tended to damp the and to demean ourselves with that 
zeal of those, who were more willing to charity, humility, and pacific temper of 
exert themselves, served also to accumu- mind which were the characteristics of 
late the expenses of the war, and to frus- the Divine Author of our blessed religion, 
trate the best concerted plans; and that and without an humble imitation of 
the discouragement occasioned by the whose example in these things we can 
complicated difficulties and embarrass- never hope to be a happy nation, 
ments, in which our affairs were by this I have the honour to be, with much es- 
means involved, would have long ago pro- teem and respect, sir, your Excellency's 
duced the dissolution of any army, less most obedient and most humble servant, 
patient, less virtuous, and less persever- George Washington. 

ing, than that which I have had the honour 

to command. But, while I mention these Washington's Letters on the Oonstitu- 
things, which are notorious facts, as the tion. — The personal influence of Washing- 
defects of our federal constitution, par- ton in securing the meeting of the con- 
ticularly in the prosecution of a war, I stitutional convention, in directing its 
beg it may be understood, that, as I have deliberations, and in commending the new 
ever taken a pleasure in gratefully ac- Constitution to the people, was the great- 
knowledging the assistance and support est and the determining influence in that 
I have derived from every class of citi- critical period. The accompanying selec- 



tions from his large correspondence upon pears to me the very climax of popular 
this important subject while it was pend- absurdity and madness. Could Congress 
ing will indicate the character of that exert them for the detriment of the pub- 
influence and of Washington's sentiments lie without injuring themselves in an 
concerning the new national government, equal or greater proportion? Are not 
The student is referred to vol. xi. of their interests inseparably connected with 
Ford's edition of the writings of Wash- those of their constituents? By the rota- 
ington for the complete collection of his tion of appointment, must they not mingle 
letters during this period. He will also frequently with the mass of citizens? Is 
find in that volume Washington's it not rather to be apprehended, if they 
diary during the constitutional conven- were possessed of the powers before de- 
tion, which, although but a skeleton, will scribed, that the individual members 
give him an insight into Washington's would be induced to use them, on many 
life in Philadelphia from May to Septem- occasions, very timidly and efficaciously 
ber, 1787. In the various Lives of Wash- for fear of losing their popularity and 
ington, in the last volume of Bancroft's future election? We must take human 
History of the United States, in Fiske's nature as we find it. Perfection falls not 
Critical Period of American History, and to the share of mortals. Many are of 
in other American histories, are good ac- opinion that Congress have too frequently 
counts of the disorders following the Eev- made use of the suppliant, humble tone 
olution, and of the successful measures, of requisition in applications to the States, 
so largely directed by Washington, which when they had a right to assert their 
gradually brought order out of chaos, imperial dignity and command obedience. 
In the series of Old South Leaflets are Be that as it may, requisitions are a per- 
many which will be of use in this connec- feet nullity where thirteen sovereign, in- 
tion. Among these are Washington's Cir- dependent, disunited States are in the 
cular Letter to the governors of the habit of discussing and refusing compli- 
States in 1783 (No. 15), Washington's ance with them at their option. Requisi- 
Letter to Benjamin Harrison in 1784 tions are actually little better than a jest 
(No. 16), Selections from the Debates in and a by- word throughout the land. If 
the Constitutional Convention (No. 70), you tell the legislatures they have vio- 
Selections from the Federalist (No. 12), lated the treaty of peace, and invaded the 
and Washington's Inaugural (No. 10). prerogatives of the confederacy, they will 

laugh in your face. What then is to 

Aug. 1, 1786. be done? Things cannot go on in the 

To John Jay. same train forever. It is much to be 

Your sentiments, that our affairs are feared, as you observe, that the better 

drawing rapidly to a crisis, accord with kind of people, being disgusted with the 

my own. What the event will be, is circumstances, will have their minds pre- 

also beyond the reach of my foresight, pared for any revolution whatever. We 

We have errors to correct. We have prob- are apt to run from one extreme to an- 

ably had too good an opinion of human other. To anticipate and prevent dis- 

nature in forming our confederation. Ex- astrous contingencies would be the part 

perience has taught us that man will not of wisdom and patriotism, 
adopt and carry into execution measures What astonishing changes a few years 

the best calculated for their own good, are capable of producing. I am told that 

without the intervention of a coercive even respectable characters speak of a 

power. I do not conceive we can exist monarchical form of government without 

long as a nation without having lodged horror. From thinking proceeds speaking; 

somewhere a power which will pervade thence to acting is often but a single step, 

the whole Union in as energetic a manner But how irrevocable and tremendous! 

as the authority of the State governments What a triumph for our enemies to verify 

extends over the several States. their predictions ! What a triumph for 

To ^ be fearful of investing Congress, the advocates of despotism to find that 

constituted as that body is, with ample we are incapable of governing our- 

authorities for national purposes, ap- selves, and that systems founded on 



the basis of equal liberty are merely the United States has been protected from 

ideal and fallacious! Would to God, that the confiscation of Britain by the joint 

wise measures may be taken in time to exertions of all; and therefore ought to 

avert the consequences we have but too be the common property of all; and he 

much reason to apprehend. that attempts opposition to this creed is 

Retired as I am from the world, I an enemy to equity and justice, and ought 

frankly acknowledge I cannot feel myself to be swept from off the face of the earth." 

an unconcerned spectator. Yet, having Again: "They are determined to annihi- 

happily assisted in bringing the ship into late all debts, public and private, and have 

port, and having been fairly discharged, agrarian laws, which are easily effected 

it is not my business to embark again by the means of unfunded paper money, 

on a sea of troubles. Nor could it be ex- which shall be a tender in all cases what- 

pected that my sentiments and opinions ever." He adds : " The number of these 

would have much weight on the minds people amount in Massachusetts to about 

of my countrymen. They have been neg- one-fifth part of several populous coun- 

leeted, though given as a last legacy, in ties, and to them may be collected people 

the most solemn manner. I had then per- of similar sentiments from the States of 

haps some claims to public attention. I Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hamp- 

consider myself as having none at pres- shire, so as to constitute a body of about 

ent. twelve or fifteen thousand desperate and 

Nov. 5, 1786. unprincipled men. They are chiefly of the 

To James Madison. young and active part of the community." 

Fain would I hope that the great and How melancholy is the reflection that 
most important of all subjects, the fed- in so short a space we should have made 
eral government, may be considered with such large strides towards fulfilling the 
that calm and deliberate attention which predictions of our transatlantic foes! 
the magnitude of it so critically and loud- " Leave them to themselves, and their gov- 
ly calls for at this critical moment. Let ernment will soon dissolve." Will not the 
prejudices, unreasonable jealousies, and lo- wise and good strive hard to avert this 
cal interests yield to reason and liberality, evil? Or will their supineness suffer igno- 
Let us look to our national character, and ranee and the arts of self-interested, de- 
to things beyond the present moment. No signing, disaffected, and desperate charac- 
morn ever dawned more favourably than ters to involve this great country in 
ours did; and no day was ever more wretchedness and contempt? What strong- 
ciouded than the present. Wisdom and er evidence can be given of the want of 
good examples are necessary at this time energy in our government than these dis- 
to rescue the political machine from the orders? If there is not a power in it to 
impending storm. Virginia has now an check them, what security has a man for 
opportunity to set the latter, and has life, liberty, or property? To you I am 
enough of the former, I hope, to take the sure I need not add aught on this sub- 
lead in promoting this great and arduous ject. The consequences of a lax or inef- 
work. Without an alteration in our polit- ficient government are too obvious to be 
ical creed, the superstructure we have dwelt upon. Thirteen sovereignties pull- 
been seven years in raising, at the ex- ing against each other, and all tugging 
pense of so much treasure and blood, must at the federal head, will soon bring ruin 
fall. We are fast verging to anarchy and on the whole; whereas a liberal and en- 
confusion, ergetic constitution, well guarded and 

By a letter which I have received from closely watched to prevent encroachments. 
General Knox, who had just returned from might restore us to that degree of respect- 
Massachusetts, whither he J ad been sent ability and consequences, to which we had 
by Congress consequent of the commo- a fair claim and the brightest prospect 
titfns in that State, is replete with melan- of attaining. 

choly accounts of the temper and designs 

of a considerable part of that people. Deo - db > 17isb - 

Among other things he says: To Henry Knox. 

"Their creed is, that the property of In both your letters you intimate that 



the men of reflection, principle, and prop- a wish to be informed of my intention, 
erty in New England, feeling the inefficacy respecting the convention proposed to be 
of their present government, are contem- held in Philadelphia May next. In con- 
plating a change ; but you are not ex- fidence I inform you, that it is not, at this 
plicit with respect to its nature. It has time, my intention to attend it. When 
been supposed that the constitution of the this matter was first moved in the As- 
State of Massachusetts was amongst the sembly of this State, some of the principal 
most energetic in the Union. May not characters of it wrote to me, requesting 
these disorders then be ascribed to an in- they might be permitted to put my name 
dulgent exercise of the powers of adminis- in the delegation. To this I objected, 
tration? If your laws authorized, and They again pressed, and I again refused, 
your powers are equal to the suppression assigning among other reasons my- having 
of these tumults in the first instance, de- declined meeting the Society of the Cin- 
lay and unnecessary expedients were im- cinnati at that place about the same time, 
proper. These are rarely well applied; and that I thought it would be disrespect- 
and the same causes would produce similar ful to that body, to whom I owe much, 
effects in any form of government, if the to be there on any other occasion. Not- 
powers of it are not exercised. I ask this withstanding these intimations, my name 
question for information. I know nothing was inserted in the act; and an official 
of the facts. communication thereof made by the ex- 

That Great Britain will be an uncon- ecutive to me, to whom, at the same time 
cerned spectator of the present insurrec- that I expressed my sense for the con- 
tions, if they continue, is not to be ex- fidence re"osed in me, I declared that, as 
pected. That she is at this moment sow- I saw no prospect of my attending, it 
ing the seeds of jealousy and discontent was my wish that my name might not re- 
among the various tribes of Indians on main in the delegation to the exclusion of 
our frontiers admits of no doubt in my another. To this I have been requested 
mind; and that she will improve every in emphatical terms not to decide abso- 
opportunity to foment the spirit of tur- lutely, as no inconvenience would result 
bulence within the bowels of the United from the new appointment of another, at 
States, with a view of distracting our least for some time yet. 
governments and promoting divisions, is Thus the matter stands, which is the 
with me not less certain. Her first reason of my saying to you in confidence, 
manoeuvres in this will no doubt be covert, that at present I retain my first intention 
and may remain so till the period shall not to go. In the mean while, as I have 
arrive when a decided line of conduct may the fullest conviction of your friendship 
avail her. Charges of violating the treaty, for and attachment to me, know your 
and other pretexts, will then not be want- abilities to judge, and your means of in- 
ing to colour overt acts, tending to effect formation, I shall receive any commu- 
the great objects of which she has long nications from you on this subject with 
been in labour. A man is now at the head thankfulness. My first wish is to do for 
of their American affairs well calculated the best, and to act with propriety. You 
to conduct measures of this kind, and know me too well to believe that reserve 
more than probably was selected for the or concealment of any opinion or cir- 
purpose. We ought not therefore to sleep cumstance would be at all agreeable to me. 
nor to slumber. Vigilance in watching The legality of this convention I do not 
and vigour in acting is become in my mean to discuss, nor how problematical 
opinion indispensably necessary. If the the issue of it may be. That powers are 
powers are inadequate, amend or alter wanting none can deny. Through what 
them ; but do not let us sink into the low- medium they are to be derived will, like 
est state of humiliation and contempt, and other matters engage the attention of the 
become a by-word in all the earth. wise. That which takes the shortest course 

to obtain them, in my opinion will under 

Feb. S, 1787. present circumstances, be found best; 
To Henry Knox. otherwise, like a house on fire, whilst the 

In your letter of the 14th you express most regular mode of extinguishing the 



flames is contended for, the building is re- what I have heard, I shall be surprised 
duced to ashes. My opinions of the en- at nothing; for, if three years since any 
ergetic wants of the federal government person had told me that there would 
are well known. My public annunciations have been such a formidable rebellion as 
and private declarations have uniformly exists at this day against the laws arid 
expressed these sentiments; and, how- Constitution of our own making, I should 
ever constitutional it may be for Congress have thought him a bedlamite, a fit sub- 
to point out the defects of the federal ject for a mad-house. 

system, I am strongly inclined to believe 

that it would not be found the most effi- . March SI, 1787. 

cacious channel for the recommendations, To James Madison. 

more especially the alterations, to flow, for I am glad to find that Congress have 
reasons too obvious to enumerate.* recommended to the States to appear in 

The system on which you seem dis- the convention proposed to be holden in 
posed to build a national government is Philadelphia next May. I think the reasons 
certainly more energetic, and I dare say in favour have the preponderancy over 
in every point of view more desirable than those against it. It is idle in my opinion 
the present, which from experience we find to suppose that the sovereign can be in- 
is not only slow, debilitated, and liable sensible to the inadequacy of the powers 
to be thwarted by every breath, but is under which they act, and that, seeing it, 
defective in that secrecy which, for the they should not recommend a revision of 
accomplishment of many of the most im- the federal system; especially when it is 
portant national objects, is indispensably considered by many as the only constitu- 
necessary; and besides, having the legis- tional mode by which the defects can be 
lative, executive, and judiciary depart- remedied. Had Congress proceeded to a 
ments concentred, is exceptionable. But, delineation of the powers, it might have 
at the same time that I gave this opin- sounded an alarm; but, as the case is, I 
ion, I believe the political machine will yet do not conceive that it will have that ef- 
be much tumbled and tossed, and possi- feet.* . . . 

bly be wrecked altogether, before that or I am fully of opinion that those who 
anything like it will be adopted. The lean to a monarchical government have 
darling sovereignties of each State, the either not consulted the public mind, or 
governors elected and elect, the legisla- that they live in a region which (the level- 
tors, with a long tribe of et ceteras, whose ling principles in which they were bred 
political importance will be lessened, if being entirely eradicated) is much more 
not annihilated, would give their weight productive of monarchical ideas than are 
of opposition to such a revolution. But to be found in the Southern States, where, 
I may be speaking without book; for, from the habitual distinctions which have 
scarcely ever going off my own farms, I always existed among the people, one would 
see few people, who do not call upon have expected the first generation and 
me, and am very little acquainted with the the most rapid growth of them. I am also 
sentiments of the great public. Indeed, clear that, even admitting the utility, 
after what I have seen, or rather after nay, necessity of the form, yet that the 

, _ ,, T . . , ... period is not arrived for adopting the 

•To Mr. Jay he wrote, touching upon the *> c ""« .,,,,,. ,, S ,,. 

same subject, more than a month later : '• I change without shaking the peace oi this 

would fain try what the wisdom of the pro- country to its foundation. That a thor- 

posed convention will suggest, and what can ougn re f orm f the present system is in- 
be effected by their counsels. It may be the H 
last peaceable mode of essaying the prac- 
ticability of the present form, without a * The commissioners, who had met at An- 

greater lapse of time, that the exigency of our napolis in September, 1786, sent a letter to 

affairs will allow. In strict propriety, a con- Congress, accompanied by their address to 

ventlon so holden may not be legal. Congress, the several States, proposing a convention at 

however, may give It a colouring by recom- Philadelphia on the second Monday of May. 

mendation, which would fit It more to the These papers were taken up by Congress and 

taste, without proceeding to a definition of referred to a committee, consisting of one 

the powers. This, however constitutionally it member from each State, who reported in 

might be done, would not in my opinion be favour of recommending to the several legis-, 

expedient." — March 10th. latures to send delegates. 
X.-M 177 


dispensable, none, who have capacities 
to judge, will deny; and with hand [and 
heart] I hope the business will be es- 
sayed in a full convention. After which, 
if more powers and more decision is not 
found in the existing form, if it still wants 
energy and that secrecy and despatch 
(either from the non-attendance or the lo- 
cal views of its members) which is char- 
acteristic of good government, and if it 
shall be found (the contrary of which, 
however, I have always been more afraid 
of than of the abuse of them), that Con- 
gress will, upon all proper occasions, ex- 
ert the powers which are given, with a 
firm and steady hand, instead of fritter- 
ing them back to the States, where the 
members, in place of viewing themselves 
in their national character, are too apt 
to be looking — I say, after this essay is 
made, if the system proves inefficient, con- 
viction of the necessity of a change will 
be disseminated among all classes of the 
people. Then, and not till then, in my 
opinion, can it be attempted without in- 
volving all the evils of civil discord. 

I confess, however, that my opinion of 
public virtue is so far changed that I 
have my doubts whether any system, with- 
out the means of coercion in the sovereign, 
will enforce due obedience to the ordi- 
nances of a general government; without 
which everything else fails. Laws or or- 
dinances unobserved, or partially attend- 
ed to, had better never have been made; 
because the first is a mere nihil, and the 
second is productive of much jealousy and 
discontent. But what kind of coercion, 
you may ask. This indeed will require 
thought, though the non-compliance of 
the States with the late requisition is an 
evidence of the necessity. It is somewhat 
singular that a State (New York), which 
used to be foremost in all federal meas- 
ures, should now turn her face against 
them in almost every instance. . . . 

It gives me great pleasure to hear that 
there is a probability of a full representa- 
tion of the States in convention; but if 
the delegates come to it under fetters, the 
salutary ends proposed will, in my opin- 
ion, be greatly embarrassed and retarded, 
if not altogether defeated. I am desirous 
of knowing how this matter is, as my wish 
is that the convention may adopt no tem- 
porizing expedients, but probe the de- 


fects of the constitution to the bottom, 
and provide a radical cure, whether they 
are agreed to or not. A conduct of this 
kind will stamp wisdom and dignity on 
their proceedings and hold up a light 
which sooner or later will have its in- 

Sept. 24, 1787. 
To Patrick Henry. 

In the first moment after my return, 
I take the liberty of sending you a copy 
of the Constitution, which the federal con- 
vention has submitted to the people of 
these States. I accompany it with no ob- 
servations. Your own judgment will at 
once discover the good and the exception- 
able parts of it; and your experience of 
the difficulties, which have ever arisen 
when attempts have been made to recon- 
cile such variety of interests and local 
prejudices as pervade the several States 
will render explanation unnecessary. I 
wish the Constitution, which is offered, 
bad been made more perfect; but I sin- 
cerely believe it is the best that could be 

* " It gives me pleasure to find by your 
letter that there will be so full a representa- 
tion from this State. If the case had been 
otherwise, I would in emphatic terms have 
urged again that, rather than depend upon 
my going, another might be chosen in my 
place ; for, as a friend and in confidence, I de- 
clare to you that my assent is given contrary 
to my judgment ; because the act will, I ap- 
prehend, be considered as inconsistent with 
my public declaration, delivered in a solemn 
manner at an interesting era of my life, never 
more to intermeddle in public matters. This 
declaration not only stands on the files of 
Congress, but is, I believe, registered in al- 
most all the gazettes and magazines that are 
published ; and what adds to the embarrass- 
ment is, I had, previous to my appointment, 
informed by a circular letter the several 
State Societies of the Cincinnati of my in- 
tention to decline the presidency of that or- 
der, and excused myself from attending the 
next general meeting at Philadelphia on the 
first Monday in May ; assigning reasons for 
so doing, which apply as well in the one case 
as in the other. Add to these, I very much 
fear that all the States will not appear in 
convention, and that some of them will come 
fettered so as to impede rather than ac 
celerate the great object of their convening : 
which, under the peculiar circumstances of 
my case, would place me in a more disagree- 
able situation than any other member would 
stand In. As I have yielded, however, to 
what appeared to be the earnest wishes of 
my friends, I will hope for the best." — Wash- 
ington to Edmund Randolph, April 9, 1787. 


obtained at this time. And, as a eonstitu- It is highly probable that the refusal of 
tional door is open for amendment here- our governor and Colonel Mason to sub- 
after, the adoption of it, under the pres- scribe to the proceedings of the conven- 
ent circumstances of the Union, is in my tion will have a bad effect in this State; 
opinion desirable. for, as you well observe, they must not 
From a variety of concurring accounts only assign reasons for the justification 
it appears to me that the political con- of their own conduct, but it is highly 
cerns of this country are in a manner probable that these reasons will be 
suspended by a thread, and that the con- clothed in most terrific array for the pur- 
vention has been looked up to, by the re- pose of alarming.* Some things are al- 
flecting part of the community, with a ready addressed to the fears of the people, 
solicitude which is hardly to be conceived ; and will no doubt have their effect. As 
and, if nothing had been agreed on by far, however, as the sense of this part of 
that body, anarchy would soon have en- the country has been taken, it is strongly 
sued, the seeds being deeply sown in every in favour of the proposed Constitution. 
soil. Further I cannot speak with precision. 

If a powerful opposition is given to it, the 

Oct., 1787. weight thereof will, I apprehend, come 

To Henry Knox. from the gouth gide of Jameg Rivei . ; and 

The Constitution is now before the f rom the western counties, 
judgment-seat. It has, as was expected, its 

adversaries and supporters. Which will 

preponderate is yet to be decided. The Nov. 10, 1787. 
former more than probably will be most To Bushrod Washington. 
active, as a major part of them will, it is That the Assembly would afford the 
to be feared, be governed by sinister and people an opportunity of deciding on the 
self-important motives, to which every- proposed Constitution, I had scarcely a 
thing in their breasts must yield. The doubt. The only question with me was 
opposition from another class of them whether it would go forth under favour- 
may perhaps (if they should be men of re- able auspices, or receive the stamp of dis- 
flection, candour, and information), sub- approbation. The opponents I expected 
side in the solution of the following (for it ever has been that the adversaries 
simple questions: 1. Is the Constitution, to a measure are more active than its 
which is submitted by the convention, friends) would endeavour to stamp it with 
preferable to the government (if it can unfavourable impressions, in order to bias 
be called one) under which we now live? the judgment that is ultimately to decide 
2. Is it probable that more confidence on it. This is evidently the case with the 
would at the time be placed in another writers in opposition, whose objections 
convention, provided the experiment are better calculated to alarm the fears 
should be tried, than was placed in the than to convince the judgment of their 
last one, and is it likely that a better readers. They build their objections upon 
agreement would take place therein? principles that do not exist, which the 
What would be the consequences if these Constitution does not support them in, 
should not happen, or even from the delay and the existence of which has been, by 
which must inevitably follow such an ex- an appeal to the Constitution itself, flatly 
periment? Is there not a constitutional denied; and then, as if they were unan- 
door open for alterations or amendments? swerable, draw all the dreadful conse- 
and is it not likely that real defects will quenees that are necessary to alarm the 
be as readily discovered after as before apprehensions of the ignorant or unthink- 
trial? and will not our successors be as ing. It is not the interest of the major 
readv to apply the remedy as ourselves, 

if occasion should require it? To think •Randolph explained his position In ale t- 

,, . .,, . ^ . j . t. „„ ter to the speaker of the House of Delegates, 

otherwise will, m my judgment, be as- Qct 1Q> 17 ^ 7 It wag wideIy circll i a ted In 

cribing more of the amor patrice, more tne newspapers, and printed in pamphlet 
wisdom and more virtue to ourselves, than form. It was reprinted in Ford, Pamphlets 
I think we deserve. on the Constitution, 359. 



part of those characters to be convinced; The warmest friends and the best sup- 
nor will their local views yield to argu- porters the Constitution has, do not con- 
ments which do not accord with their tend that it is free from imperfections; 
present or future prospeets. but they found them unavoidable, and 
A candid solution of a single question, are sensible, if evil is likely to arise 
■ to which the plainest understanding is therefrom, the remedy must come here- 
competent, does, in my opinion, decide after; for in the present moment it is 
the dispute; namely, Is it best for the not to be obtained; and, as there is a 
States to unite or not to unite? If constitutional door open for it, I think 
there are men who prefer the latter, the people (for it is with them to judge) 
then unquestionably the Constitution can, as they will have the advantage of ex- 
which is offered must, in their estima- perience on their side, decide with as much 
tion, be wrong from the words, " We propriety on the alterations and amend- 
the people," to the signature, inclusively; ments which are necessary, as ourselves, 
but those who think differently, and yet I do not think we are more inspired, have 
object to parts of it, would do well to more wisdom, or possess more virtue, 
consider that it does not lie with any than those who will come after us. 
one State, or the minority of the States,, The power under the Constitution will 
to superstruct a constitution for the always be in the people. It is intrusted 
whole. The separate interests, as far for certain defined purposes, and for a 
as it is practicable, must be consolidated; certain limited period, to representatives 
and local views must be attended to, as far of their own choosing; and, whenever it 
as the nature of the case will admit, is executed contrary to their interest, or 
Hence it is that every State has some not agreeable to their wishes, their 
objection- to the present form, and these servants can and undoubtedly will be re- 
objections are directed to different points, called. It is agreed on all hands that 
That which is most pleasing to one is no government can be well administered 
obnoxious to another, and so vice versa, without powers; yet the instant these 
If then the union of the whole is a desira- are delegated,- although those who are in- 
ble object, the component parts must yield trusted with the administration are no 
a little in order to accomplish"it. With- more than the creatures of the people, 
out the latter, the form is unattainable; act as it were but for a day, and are 
for again I repeat it, that not a single amenable for every false step they take. 
State, nor the minority of the States, they are, from the. moment they receive 
can force a constitution on the majority, it, set down as tyrants; their natures, 
But, admitting the power, it will sure- they would conceive from this, immedi- 
ly be granted that it cannot be done ately changed, and that they can have no 
without involving scenes of civil commo- other disposition but to oppress. Of these 
tion of a very serious nature. things, in a government constituted and 
Let the opponents of the proposed Con- guarded as ours is, I have no idea; and 
stitution in this State be asked, and it do firmly believe that, whilst many osten- 
is a question they certainly ought to have sible reasons are assigned to prevent the 
asked themselves, what line of conduct adoption of it, the real ones are concealed 
they would advise to adopt, if nine other behind the curtains, because they are not 
States, of which I think there is little of a nature to appear in open day. I 
doubt, should accede to the Constitution, believe further, supposing them pure, that 
Would they recommend that it should as great evils result from too great 
stand single? Will they connect it with jealousy as from the want of it. We need 
Rhode Island? Or even with two others look, I think, no further for proof of 
checkerwise, and remain with them, as this, than to the constitution of some, if 
outcasts from the society, to shift for not all, of these States. No man is a 
themselves? Or will they return to their warmer advocate for proper restraints 
dependence on Great Britain? Or, lastly, and wholesome checks in every depart- 
have the mortifi cation to come in when ment of government than I am; but I 
they will be allowed no credit for doing have never yet been able to discover the 
bo? propriety of placing it absolutely ' out of 



the power of men to render essential ser- 
vices because a possiblity remains of their 
doing ill. 

Nov. 80, 1187. 
To David Stuart. 

I have seen no publication yet that 
ought, in my judgment, to shake the pro- 
posed Constitution in the mind of an im- 
partial and candid public. In fine, I have 
hardly seen one that is not addressed to 
the passions of the people, and obviously 
calculated to alarm their fears. Every 
attempt to amend the Constitution at this 
time is in my opinion idle and vain. If 
there are characters, who prefer disunion, 
or separate confederacies, to the general 
government, which is offered to them, 
their opposition may, for aught I know, 
proceed from principle; but as nothing, 
according to my conception of the matter, 
is more to be deprecated than a disunion 
of these distinct confederacies, as far as 
my voice can go it shall be offered in 
favour of the latter. That there are some 
writers, and others perhaps who may not 
have written, that wish to see this Union 
divided into several confederacies, is 
pretty evident. As an antidote to these 
opinions, and in order to investigate the 
ground of objections to the Constitution 
which is submitted, the Federalist, under 
the signature of Publitts, is written. 
The numbers which have been published, 
I send you. If there is a printer in Rich- 
mond who is really well disposed to sup- 
port the new Constitution, he would do 
well to give them a place in his paper. 
They are, I think I may venture to say, 
written by able men; and before they are 
finished will, or I am mistaken, place mat- 
ters in, a true point of light. Although 
I am acquainted with the writers, who 
have a hand in this work, I am not at 
liberty to mention names, nor would I 
have it known that they are sent by me 
to you for promulgation.* 

* " Pray, if It Is not a secret, who Is the 
author or authors of Publius?" — Washington 
to Knox, Feb. 5, 1788. 

Oct. 30, Hamilton sent to Washington the 
first number of the Federalist, without any 
Intimation as to the authorship. " For the 
remaining numbers of Publius," wrote Wash- 
ington, in reply, " I shall acknowledge myself 
obliged, as I am persuaded the subject Will 

Jan. 8, 1788. 
To Edmund Randolph. 

The diversity of sentiments upon the 
important matter, which has been sub- 
mitted to the people, was as much ex- . 
pected as it is regretted by me. The 
various passions and motives, by which 
men are influenced, are concomitants of 
fallibility, engrafted into our nature for 
the purposes of unerring wisdom; but had 
I entertained a latent hope (at the time 
you moved to have the Constitution sub- 
mitted to a second convention) that a 
more perfect form would be agreed to, 
in a word, that any constitution would be 
adopted under the impressions and in- 
structions of the members, the publica- 
tions which have taken place since would 
have eradicated every form, of it. How 
do the sentiments of the influential char- 
acters in this State, who are opposed to 
the Constitution, and have favoured the 
public with their opinions, quadrate with 
each other? Are they not at variance on 
some of the most important points^ If 
the opponents in the same State cannot 
agree in their principles, what prospect 
is there of a coalescence with the advocates 
of the measure, when the different views 
and jarring interests of so wide and ex- 
tended an empire are to be brought for- 
ward and combated? 

To my judgment it is more clear than 
ever that an attempt to amend the Con- 
stitution, which is submitted, would be 
productive of more heat and greater con- 
fusion than can well be conceived. There 
are some things in the new form, I will 
readily acknowledge, which never did, and 
I am persuaded never will, obtain my 
cordial approbation; but I then did con- 
ceive, and do now most firmly believe, that 
in the aggregate it is the best Constitu- 
tion that can be obtained at this epoch, 
and that this, or a dissolution of the 
Union, awaits our choice, and are the only 
alternatives before us. Thus believing, I 

be well handled by the author of them." 
Nov. 18, Madison sent him seven numbers, 
suggesting that they be republished in Vir- 
ginia, and saying that his own degree of con- 
nection with the publication was such as to 
" afford a restraint of delicacy from interest- 
ing myself directly in the republication else- 
where. You will recognize one of the pens 
concerned in the task. There are three in the 
whole. A fourth may possibly bear a part." 



had not nor have I now, any hesitation in tion, without touching much the pockets 
deciding on which to lean. of the people, perhaps it may be done; 

but, in my judgment, infinite circumspec- 

tion and prudence are yet necessary in 

April 25, 1188. the experiment. It is nearly impossible 
To the Marquis de Ghastellux. for anybody who has not been on the 

The Constitution which was proposed by spot (from any description) to conceive 
the federal convention has been adopted what the delicacy and danger of our sit- 
by the States of Massachusetts, Connect!- uation have been. Though the peril is 
cut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, not past entirely, thank God the prospect 
and Georgia. No State has rejected it. is somewhat brightening. 
The convention of Maryland is now sit- You will probably have heard, before 
ting, and will probably adopt it; as that the receipt of this letter, that the general 
of South Carolina is expected to do in government has been adopted by eleven 
May. The other conventions will assem- States, and that the actual Congress have 
ble"early in the summer. Hitherto there been prevented from issuing their ordi- 
has been much greater unanimity in favour nance for carrying it into execution, in 
of the proposed government than could consequence of a dispute about the place 
have reasonably been expected. Should at which the future Congress shall meet, 
it be adopted (and I think it will be), It is probable that Philadelphia or New 
America will left up her head again, and York will soon be agreed upon, 
in a few years become respectable among I will just touch on the bright side 
the nations. It is a nattering and con- of our national state before I conclude; 
solatory reflection that our rising re- and we may perhaps rejoice that the peo- 
publics have the good wishes of all .the pie have been ripened by misfortune for 
philosophers, patriots, and virtuous men the reception of a good government. They 
in all nations; and that they look upon are emerging from the gulf of dissipation 
them as a kind of asylum for mankind, and debt, into which they had precipitated 
God grant that we may not disappoint themselves at the close of the war. Econo- 
their honest expectations by our folly my and industry are evidently gaining 
or perverseness. . . . ground. Not only agriculture, but even 

manufactures are much more attended 
to than formerly. Notwithstanding the 
Aug. 31, 1788. shackles "under which our trade in gen- 
To Thomas Jefferson. era l i aDOurS; commerce to the East Indies 

The merits and defects of the proposed is prosecuted with considerable success. 
Constitution have been largely and ably Salted provisions and other produce (par- 
discussed. For myself, I was ready to ticularly from Massachusetts) have found 
have embraced any tolerable compromise an advantageous market there. The voy- 
that was competent to save us from im- ages are so much shorter, and the vessels 
pending ruin; and I can say there are are navigated at so much less expense, 
scarcely any of the amendments, which that we may hope to rival and supply (at 
have been suggested, to which I have much least through the West Indies) some part 
objection, except that which goes to the of Europe with commodities from thence, 
prevention of direct taxation. And that, This year the exports from Massachusetts 
I presume, will be more strenuously ad- have amounted to a great deal more 
vocated and insisted upon hereafter than than their imports. I wish this was the 
any other. I had indulged the expecta- case everywhere. . . . 
tion that the new government would en- 
able those entrusted with its administra- ~~ 
tion to do justice to the public creditors, f Se P*- 22 ' 1788, 
and retrieve the national character. But, " ° " enr y l jee - 

if no means are to be employed but req- Your observations on the solemnity of 
uisitions, that expectation was vain, and the crisis, and its application to myself, 
we may as well recur to the old confedera- bring before me subjects of the most mo- 
tion. If the system can be put in opera- mentous and interesting nature. In our 



endeavours to establish a new general gov- 
ernment, the contest, nationally consid- 
ered, seems not to have been so much for 
glory as existence. It was for a long time 
doubtful whether we were to survive as 
an independent republic, or decline from 
our federal dignity into insignificant and 
wretched fragments of an empire. The 
adoption of the Constitution so extensive- 
ly, and with so liberal an acquiescence on 
the part of the minorities in general, 
promised the former; until lately the cir- 
cular letter of New York carried, in my 
apprehension, an unfavourable if not an 
insidious tendency to a contrary policy. 
1 still hope for the best; but, before you 
mentioned it, I could not help fearing it 
would serve as a standard' to which the 
disaffected might resort. It is now evi- 
dently the part of all honest men, who 
are friends to the new Constitution, to 
endeavour to give it a chance to disclose 
its merits and defects, by carrying it fair- 
ly into effect in the first instance. For 
it is to be apprehended that, by an at- 
tempt to obtain amendments before the 
experiment has been candidly made, " more 
is meant than meets the ear," that an in- 
tention is concealed to accomplish slyly 
what could not have been done openly, to 
undo all that has been done. 

If the fact so exists, that a kind of com- 
bination is forming to stifle the govern- 
ment in embryo, it is a happy circumstance 
that the design has become suspected. 
Preparations should be the sure charges? 
upon forewarning. Probably prudence, quillity 
wisdom, and patriotism were never more 
essentially necessary than at the present 
moment; and so far as it can be done in 
an irreproachably direct manner, no effort 

cause, if the partiality of my fellow-cit- 
izens conceive it to be a means by which 
the sinews of the new government would 
be strengthened, it will of consequence be 
obnoxious to those who are in opposition 
to it, many of whom unquestionably will 
be placed among the electors. 

This consideration alone would super- 
sede the expediency of announcing any 
definite and irrevocable resolution. You 
are among the small number of those 
who know my invincible attachment to 
domestic life, and that my smcerest wish 
is to continue in the enjoyment of it 
solely until my final hour. But the world 
would be neither so well instructed, nor 
so candidly disposed, as to believe me un- 
influenced by sinister motives, in case 
any circumstance should render a devia- 
tion from the line of conduct I have pre- 
scribed to myself indispensable. 

Should the contingency you suggest 
take place, and (for argument's sake 
alone let me say it) should my unfeigned 
reluctance to accept the office be overcome 
by a deference for the- reasons and opin- 
ions of my friends, might I not, after the 
declarations I have made ("and Heaven 
knows they were made in the sincerity 
of my heart), in the judgment of the 
impartial world and of posterity, be 
chargeable with levity and inconsistency, 
if not with rashness and ambition? Nay, 
further, would there not even be some 
apparent foundation for the two former 
Now justice to myself and tran- 
of conscience require that I 
should act a part, if not above imputa- 
tion, at least capable of vindication. Nor 
will you conceive me to be too solicitous 
for reputation. Though I prize as I 

ought to be left unessayed to procure the ought the good opinion of my fellow-cit- 
election of the best possible characters to izens, yet, if I know myself, I would not 
the now Congress. On their harmony, de- seek or retain popularity at the expense 
liberation, and decision everything will de- of one social duty or moral virtue, 
pend. I heartily wish Mr. Madison was While doing what my conscience in- 
in our Assembly, as I think with you it is formed me was right, as it respected my 
of unspeakable "importance Virginia should God, my country, and myself, I could 
set out with her federal measures under despise all the party clamour and unjust 

censure, which must be expected from 
some whose personal enmity might be 

right auspices. 

The principal topic of your letter is 
to me a point of great delicacy indeed, in- 
somuch that I can scarcely Without some 
impropriety touch upon it. In the first 

occasioned by their hostility to the gov- 
ernment. I am conscious that I fear 
alone to give any real occasion for ob- 

place, the event to which you allude may loquy, and that I do not dread to meet 
never happen; among other reasons, be- with unmerited reproach. And certain 



I am, whensoever I shall be convinced the to hazard an imputation unfriendly to the 
good of my country requires my reputa- delicacy of my feelings. For, situated as 
tion to be put in risk, regard for my own I am, I could hardly bring the question 
fame will not come in competition with into the slightest discussion, or ask an 
an object of so much magnitude. If I opinion even in the most confidential man- 
declined the task, it would lie upon quite ner, without betraying, in my judgment, 
another principle. Notwithstanding my some impropriety of conduct, or without 
advanced season of life, my increasing feeling an apprehension, that a premature 
fondness for agricultural amusements, display of anxiety might be construed into 
and my growing love of retirement, aug- a vainglorious desire of pushing myself 
ment and confirm my decided predilection into notice as a candidate. Now, if I am 
for the character of a private citizen, yet not grossly deceived in myself, I should 
it would be no one of these motives, nor unfeignedly rejoice in case the electors, by 
the hazard to which my former reputa- giving their votes in favor of some other 
tion might be exposed, nor the terror of person, would save me from the dreaded 
encountering new fatigues and troubles, dilemma of being forced to accept or re- 
that would deter me from an acceptance; fuse. 

but a belief that some other person, who If that may not be, I am in the next 

had less pretence and less inclination to place earnestly desirous of searching out 

be excused, could execute all the duties the truth, and of knowing whether there 

fully as satisfactorily as myself. To say does not exist a probability that the gov- 

more would be indiscreet, as a disclosure ernment would be just as happily and ef- 

of a refusal beforehand might incur the fectually carried 'into execution without 

application of the fable in which the fox my aid as with it. I am truly solicitous 

is represented as undervaluing the grapes to obtain all the previous information 

he could not reach. You will perceive, which the circumstances will afford, and 

my dear sir, by what is here observed (and to determine (when the determination 

which you will be pleased to consider in can with propriety be no longer post- 

the light of a confidential communica- poned) according to the principles of right 

tion), that my inclinations will dispose reason and the dictates of a clear con- 

and decide me to remain as I am, unless science, without too great a reference to 

a clear and insurmountable conviction the unforeseen consequences which may 

should be impressed on my mind that some affect my person or reputation. Until 

very disagreeable consequences must, in that period, I may fairly hold myself open 

all human probability, result from the to conviction, though I allow your senti- 

indulgence of my wishes. ments to have weight in them ; and I shall 

not pass by your arguments without giv- 
ing them as dispassionate a considera- 
■ , oo. ^j on ag j can pgggiblv bestow upon them. 
To Alexander Hamilton* In taldng a surve y of the sllb j ec t, in 
Although I could not help observing, whatever point of light I have been able 
from several publications and letters, that to place it, I will not suppress the ac- 
my name had been sometimes spoken of, knowledginent, my dear sir, that I have 
and that it was possible the contingency always felt a kind of gloom upon my 
which is the subject of your letter might mind, as often as I have been taught to ex- 
happen, yet I thought it best to maintain pcct I might, and perhaps must, ere long, 
a guarded silence, and to lack the counsel be called to make a decision. You will, I 
of my best friends (which I certainly hold am well assured, believe the assertion 
in the highest estimation), rather than (though I have little expectation it would 

•See Hamilton's letter upon the tmpor- gai 1 "^V™ 1 " those who are less ac- 
tance of Washington serving as first Presl- quamted with me), that, if I should re- 
dent of the United States under the Con- ceive the appointment, and if I should be 
s t lt o t n '? n ' .l 1 ^ Ford ' s edition of Washington, prevailed upon to accept it, the acceptance- 
of" Sdent? irnfon^rter " the'sucfess ™ uld te att <^ed with more diffidence and 
of the new government in ltB commencement reluctance than I ever experienced before 
may materially depend." in my life. It would be, hoiiteyer, with ft 



fixed and sole determination of lending 
whatever assistance might be in my power 
to promote the public weal, in hopes that 
at a convenient and early period my ser- 
vices might be dispensed with, and that I 
might be permitted once more to retire, 
to pass an unclouded evening after the 
stormy day of life, in the bosom of do- 
mestic tranquillity. 

Washington, John Augustine, mili- 
tary officer; born in Blakely, Jefferson co., 
Va., May 3, 1821 ; great - great - grand- 
nephew of George Washington; grad- 
uated at the University of Virginia in 

1840; served as aide-de-camp, with the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel, on the staff of 

Gen. Robert E. Lee, at the beginning 
of the Civil War; and was killed in a 

skirmish near Rich Mountain, Va., Sept. 

13, 1861. 

Washington, John Marshall, mili- 
tary officer; born in Virginia in October, 

1797; graduated at the 

United States Military 

Academy in 1814; promoted 

first lieutenant of "artillery 

in 1820; participated in the 

Seminole War in Florida in 

1836-39, and was on duty 

near the frontier in the 

troubles with Canada in 

1839-40. During the war 

with Mexico he won great 

distinction in the battle of 

Buena Vista, where he held 

the key of the American 

position, and repeatedly 

checked assaults by the 

enemy. He was promoted 

major a Jew days prior to 

the action of Buena Vista, 

for his services in which he 

was brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel. He was with his 

regiment, the 3d Artillery, 

on the San Francisco when 

that vessel was lost off the 

Capes of the Delaware on 

Dec. 24, 1853, when- he, 

many officers, and 180 

soldiers were drowned. 
Washington, Lawrence, 

half-brother of George 

Washington; born in 1718. 

His mother, who was the 

first wife of Augustine 

Washington, father of George, was Jane 
Butler. Lawrence received by his father's 
will the estate of Hunting Creek, , on a 
bay and stream of that name, not far 
from Alexandria, and stretching for miles 
along the Potomac. He inherited the mili- 
tary spirit of his father, and engaged 
in an expedition against the Spaniards 
in South America, holding a captain's com- 
mission. He embarked for the West In- 
dies in 1741, under General Wentworth. 
That officer and Admiral Vernon com- 
manded a joint expedition against Car- 
thagena, which resulted in disaster, not 
less than 20,000 British soldiers and sea- 
men perishing, chiefly from a fatal sick- 
ness like yellow fever. It was in the midst 
of that terrible pestilence that the seeds 
of a fatal disease were planted in the 
system of Lawrence Washington, against 
which he struggled for years. During the 
campaign he had gained the confidence 





of both Wentworth and Vernon. Lawrence 
intended to go to England and join the 
regular army, but, falling in love with 
the beautiful Anne Fairfax, they were 
married in July, 1743. He took possession 
of his fine estate, and named it Mount 
Vernon, in honor of the gallant admiral. 
Little George was a frequent and much- 
petted visitor at Mount Vernon. In 1751, 
when George was nineteen years of age, 
his brother felt compelled to go to Bar- 
badoes in search of a renovation of his 
health. George went with him. But con- 
sumption was wasting the life of Lawrence, 
and he returned home in May, 1752, to 
die in July following. By a provision of 
his will, his half-brother George became 
the owner of the Mount Vernon estate 
and other property valued at $200,000. 

Washington, Lewis William, planter; 
born in Georgetown, D. C, about 1825; 
son of George C. Washington; received 
a good education; settled in Jefferson 
county, Va., and became a planter. He 
was conspicuously connected with John 
Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry in 1859, 
where he was captured by Brown and 
held as a hostage. During the Civil War 
his property was confiscated, but later 
was released by the government. He had 
a valuable collection of George Wash- 
ington's relics, including the sword that 
was sent to him by Frederick the Great. 
He died at Harper's Ferry, W. Va., Oct. 
1, 1871. 

Washington, Martha, wife of George 
Washington; born in New Kent county, 
Va., in May, 1732. Her maiden name was 




Dandridge, and at the age of seventeen ters of her husband; and after the wai 
years she married Daniel Parke Custis, she received with grace and dignity, as 
son of one of the King's council for Vir- the head of the household of the great 

patriot, the numerous distinguished guests 
who thronged to Mount Vernon. One of 
her two children died just as she was 
blossoming into womanhood; the other, 
a son, was aide-de-camp to Washington 
during the war. He died in October, 1781, 
leaving two children — a son and a daugh- 
ter — whom Washington adopted as his 

On Dec. 11, 1775, Mrs. Washington ar- 
rived at Cambridge, accompanied by her 
son, John Parke Custis, and his wife. 
She was very hospitably received and wel- 
comed by the most distinguished families 
in Massachusetts. The army hailed her 
presence on this, as on all other occasions, 
with enthusiasm. She was urged to make 
the visit and spend some time at head- 
quarters by two motives — one, affection 
for her husband; and another, because of 
ginia. At his death she was left with two apprehensions of danger at Mount Vernon 
children and a large fortune, and dwelt on account of the operations of Lord Dun- 
at his mansion, known as the White House, more. She remained in Cambridge un- 
in New Kent county, until her marriage 
with Colonel Washington in January, 
1759. Soon after their marriage they took 
up their abode at Mount Vernon, on the 
Potomac. She was a, very beautiful wom- 
an, a little below the medium size, ele- 
gant in person, her eyes dark and ex- 
pressive of the most kindly good-nature, 
her complexion fair, and her whole face 
beamed with intelligence. Her temper, 
though quick, was 
sweet and placable, 
and her manners 
were extremely 
winning. She 
loved the society 
of her friends, al- 
ways dressed with 
scrupulous regard 
to the require- 
ments of the best 
fashions of the 
day, and was in 
every respect a 
brilliant member 

of the social circles which, before the for Mrs. Washington, as the wife of the 
Kevolution, composed the vice-regal court first President, when she journeyed from 
at the old Virginia capital. During Mount Vernon to New York to join her 
the Kevolutionary War she usually husband there after the inauguration, 
spent the winter months at the headquar- She left Mount Vernon in her chaise on 




til Howe evacuated Boston. Washing- 
ton's headquarters there were in the fine 
mansion that was for many years the 
residence of Longfellow, the poet. 

The people showed affectionate regard 


May 19, 1789, with her two grandchil- a foreshowing of monarchical ceremonies, 
dren, George Washington Parke and She died at Mount Vernon, Va., in May, 
Eleanor Parke Custis. She was clothed 1802. 

tidily in American textile manufactures. Washington, Mart, mother of George 
She lodged at Baltimore on the first night Washington. She is believed to have been 
of her journey. When she approached that a lineal descendant of John Ball, the 
city she was met by a cavalcade of gentle- mediaeval champion of the rights of man, 
men and escorted into the town. Fire- who was executed at Coventry in the year 
works were displayed in her honor, and 1381 for participating in Wat Tyler's 
a band of music serenaded her in the even- rebellion. Col. William Ball, a native of 
ing. When she approached Philadelphia Kent, came from England with his family 
she was met, 10 miles in the suburbs, by about the year 1650, and settled in 
the governor of the State, the speaker of Lancaster county, Va., where he died' 
the Assembly, a troop of dragoons, and in 1659, leaving two sons, William and 
a large cavalcade of citizens. Some dis- Joseph, and one daughter, Hannah. Will- 
tance from the city she was welcomed iam left eight sons and one daughter, 
by a brilliant company of women in car- Mary, who was born in the year 1706. 
riages. She was escorted by these gentle- Joseph Ball ' was a well-to-do planter on 
men and ladies to Gray's Perry, on the the Rappahannock River, a vestryman 

of Christ ChuTch in Lancaster. He was 
commissioned colonel by Gov. Alex- 
ander Spottswoode, and was known as 
Colonel Ball, of Lancaster, to distin- 
guish him from another Colonel Ball, his 

When Mary Ball was about seventeen 
years of age she wrote to her brother in 
England on family matters a letter which 
is still in existence, the conclusion of 
which is as follows : " We have not had a 
one of martha Washington's tea-cops. schoo l- m aster in our neighborhood until 

now (Jan. 14, 1728) in nearly four years. 
Schuylkill, where they all partook of a We have now a young master living with 
collation; and from that point to the us, who was educated at Oxford, took 
city Mrs. Robert Morris occupied a seat orders, and came over as assistant to Rev- 
by the side of Mrs. Washington. When erend Kemp, of Gloucester. That parish 
the procession entered the city the wife is too poor to keep both, and he teaches 
of the President was greeted with a salute school for his board. He teaches sister 
of thirteen guns. She journeyed on to New Susie and me and Madam Carter's boy 
York. At Elizabethtown Point she was and two other scholars. I am now learn- 
received by her husband, Robert Morris, ing pretty fast. Mamma, Susie, and I 
and several distinguished gentlemen, in all send love to you and Mary. This letter 
the splendid barge in which Washington from your loving sister, Mary Ball." 
had been conveyed from the same place to Mary Ball married Augustine Washing- 
New York a month before. It was manned ton in 1730. Their first child was George 
by thirteen sailors. When the barge ap- Washington, who, when seventeen years 
proached Whitehall, the landing-place in of age, wrote the following memorandum 
New York, crowds of citizens were there in his mother's Bible: "George Washing- 
assembled, who greeted Mrs. Washington ton, son to Augustine and Mary, his wife, 
with cheers, and from the battery near was born the eleventh day of February, 
by the thunder of thirteen cannon gave 1731-32, about ten in the morning, and 
her a welcome. In all this there was was baptized the 3d of April following, 
nothing very extravagant, considering the Mr. Beverley Whiting and Capt. Chris- 
circumstances. Yet there were sturdy re- topher Brooks, god-fathers, and Mrs. Mil- 
publicans who viewed the pageantry with dred Gregory, god-mother." 
suspicion, believing that they saw in this Early in April, 1743, Augustine Wash- 



mart Washington (From an old print). 

ington rode several hours in a cold rain- surance that her eldest son was now set- 
storm, became chilled, and died of fever tied for life not far from his mother, 
on the 12th of the month, aged forty-nine where she might enjoy his society and 
years, leaving an ample 
estate for his widow and 
children ; and directing 
that the proceeds of all 
the property of Mrs. 
Washington's children 
should be at her disposal 
until they had attained 
their majority. Mrs. Washington man- consult with him about her affairs, was a 
aged the estate with great judgment, great comfort. 

The marriage of George Washington to At the outbreak of the French and 
Mrs. Custis made his mother very happy. Indian War, Washington persuaded his 
The social position, the fortune, and mother to leave her exposed house on the 
the lovely character of his bride were Rappahannock, and remove to Fredericks- 
extremely satisfactory to her. X'.e as- burg, where she continued to live until 





her death, Aug. 25, 1789. In 1894, 
through the instrumentality of the Na- 
tional Mary Washington Memorial Asso- 
ciation, a monument was erected in honor 
of her memory at Fredericksburg, Va. The 
shaft rises from a pedestal 11 feet square, 

the north by Canada. The first American 
settlement in the limits of the State was 
at Tumwater, in 1845, by a few families 
who had crossed the plains. Before that 
the only white dwellers were employes of 
the Hudson Bay Company. Washington 


and carries the following inscription: 
" Mary, the Mother of Washington. Erect- 
ed by her Countrywomen." 

Washington, State of, created from 
Washington Territory, which was original- 
ly a part of Oregon, and was the most 
northwestern portion of the republic until 
Alaska was purchased. It is bounded on 


Territory was set apart from Oregon by 
act of Congress. March 2, 1853. When 
Oregon became a State, Feb. 14, 1859, 
Congress added to Washington Territory 
the region between the eastern boundary 
of that State and the Rocky Mountains, 
embracing the present State of Idaho and 
parts of Montana and Wyoming. The San 


Juan Islands, formerly claimed by Great 
Britain, were decided, in 1872, by the 
arbitration of the Emperor of Germany, 


to belong to the United States. Wash- 
ington was admitted as a State in 1889. 
Olympia is the capital. The population 
in 1890 was 349,390; in 1900, 518,103. See 
United States, Washington, vol. ix. 


I. I. Stevens... assumes office.. .Nov. 28, 

" September, 

Fayette McMullen 

C. H. Mason, acting 

Richard D. Gholson 

Henry M. McGill, acting 

W. H. Wallace 

L. J. S. Turney, acting.. 

William Pickering 

Marshall F. Moore 

Alvan Flanders 

Edward S. Salomon.... 

Elisha Pyre Ferry 

William A. Newell 

Watson C. Squire 

Eugene Semple , 

Miles C. Moore 




Elisha P. Ferry assumes office. . .Nov. 18, 

John H. McG raw " ...January 

John R. Rogers " ... " 

Henry G. HcBride " 

A. E. Mead " 








No. of Congress. 


JohnB. Allen 

61st to 63d 
61st " 66th 

63d " 

64th " 66th 
55th " 57 th 
56th " 58th 

58th " 

59th " 

1890 to 1893 
1890 " 1897 

1895 " 1899 
1897 " 1903 
1899 " 1906 

* Upon the expiration of John B. Allen's term in 1893 
there was a deadlock and the office was vacant until 
Wilson's election in 1895. 


"Washington, Treaty of. Art. 1. bama claims, shall be referred to a tri- 

Whereas differences have arisen between bunal of arbitration, to be composed of 

the government of the United States and five arbitrators, to be appointed in the 

the government of her Britannic Maj- following manner, that is to say: One 

esty, and still exist, growing out of the shall be named by the President of the 

acts committed by the several vessels United States, one shall be named by her 

which have given rise to the claims gen- Britannic Majesty, his Majesty the King 

erally known as the Alabama claims; and of Italy shall be requested to name one, 

whereas her Britannic Majesty has au- the President of the Swiss Confederation 

thorized her high commissioners and shall be requested to name one, and his 

plenipotentiaries to express in a friendly Majesty the Emperor of Brazil shall be 

spirit the regret felt by her Majesty's requested to name one. In case of death, 

government for the escape, under what- absence, or incapacity to serve, of either 

ever circumstances, of the Alabama and of the said arbitrators, or in the event 

other vessels from British ports, and for of either of the said arbitrators omitting, 

the depredations committed by those ves- or declining, or ceasing to act as such, 

sels; now, in order to remove and adjust the President of the United States, or 

all complaints and claims on the part her Britannic Majesty, or his Majesty 

of the United States, and to provide for the King of Italy, or the President of the 

the speedy settlement of such claims which Swiss Confederation, or his Majesty the 

are not admitted by her Britannic Majes- Emperor of Brazil, as the case may be. 

ty's government, the high contracting par- may forthwith name another person to 

ties agree that all the said claims growing act as arbitrator in the place and stead 

out of acts committed by the aforesaid of the arbitrator originally named by 

vessels, and generally known as the Ala- such head of State; and in the event of 



refusal or omission, for two months after is to be procured. If, in the case sub- 

the receipt of the request, from either of mittcd, any report or document in the 

the high contracting parties, of his Maj- exclusive possession of any party be 

esty the King of Italy, or the President omitted, such party shall- be bound, if the 

of the Swiss Confederation, or his Majesty other party thinks proper to apply for it, 

the Emperor of Brazil, to name an arbi- to furnish that party with a copy thereof, 

trator, either to fill the original appoint- and either party may call upon the oth- 

ment or in place of one who may have er, through the arbitrators, to produce the 

died, be absent, or incapacitated, or who originals or certified copies of any papers 

may omit, decline, or from any cause adduced as evidence, giving in each in- 

cease to act as such arbitrator, his Majesty stance such reasonable notes as the arbi- 

the King of Sweden and Norway shall trators may require. 

be requested to name one or more per- Art. 5. It shall be the duty of the agent 

sons, as the case may be, to act as such of each party, within two months after 

arbitrator or arbitrators. the expiration of the time limited for 

Art. 2. The arbitrators shall meet at the delivery of the counter-case on both 

Geneva, in Switzerland, at the earliest sides, to deliver in duplicate to each of 

day convenient after they shall have the said arbitrators, and to the agent 

been named, and shall proceed impartially of the other party, a written or printed 

and carefully to examine and decide all argument, showing the points and refer- 

questions that shall be laid before them ring to the evidence upon which his gov- 

on the part of the governments of the eminent relies; and the arbitrators may, 

United States and her Britannic Majesty if they desire further elucidation with re- 

respectively. All questions considered by gard to any point, require a written or 

the tribunal, including the final award, printed statement or argument, or oral 

shall be decided by a majority of all the argument by counsel upon it. But in such 

arbitrators. Each of all of the high con- case the other party shall be entitled to 

tracting parties shall also name one per- reply, either orally or in writing, as the 

son to attend the tribunal as its agent case may be. 

to represent it generally in all matters Art. 6. In deciding the matters sub- 
connected with the arbitration. mitted to the arbitrators, they shall be 

Art. 3. The written or printed case of governed by the following three rules 

each of the two parties, accompanied by to be taken as applicable to the case, and 

the documents, the official correspondence, by such principles of international law, 

and other evidence on which each relies, not inconsistent therewith, as the arbi- 

shall be delivered in duplicate to each of trators shall determine to have been ap- 

the arbitrators, and to the agent of the plicable to the case. 

other party, as soon as may be after the Rules. — A neutral government is bound, 

organization of the tribunal, but within first, to use due diligence to prevent the fit- 

a period not exceeding six months from ting out, arming, or equipping, within its 

the date of the exchange of the ratifica- jurisdiction, of any vessel which it has 

tion of this treaty. reasonable ground to believe is intended 

Art. 4. Within four months after the to cruise or to carry on war against a 

delivery on both sides of the written or power with which it is at peace, and also 

printed case, either party may, in like to use like diligence to prevent the depart- 

rnanner, deliver in duplicate to each of ure from its jurisdiction of any vessel 

the said arbitrators, and to the agent intended to cruise or carry on war as 

of the other party, a counter-case, and above, such vessel having been specially 

additional documents, correspondence, and adapted, in whole or in part, within such 

evidence, in reply to the other party. The jurisdiction, to warlike use; second, not 

arbitrators may, however, extend the time to permit or suffer either belligerent 

for delivering such counter-case, docu- to make use of its ports or waters as the 

ments, correspondence, and evidence, when, base of naval operations against the other, 

in their judgment, it becomes necessary, or for the purpose of the renewal or 

in consequence of the distance of the place augmentation of military supplies or 

from which the evidence to be presented arms, or the recruitment of men; third, 



to exercise due diligence in its own ports, delivered to the agent of Great Britain 

for his government. 

Art. 8. Each government shall pay its 
own agent, and provide for the proper 
remuneration of the counsel employed by 
it, and of the arbitrator appointed by it, 
and for the expense of preparing and sub- 
mitting its case to the tribunal. All other 
expenses connected with the arbitration 
shall be defrayed by the two governments 
in equal moieties. 

Art. 9. The arbitrators shall keep an 
accurate record of their proceedings, and 
may appoint and employ the necessary 
officers to assist them. 

Art. 10. In case the tribunal finds that 
Great Britain has failed to fulfil any 
duty or duties, as aforesaid, and does not 
award a sum in gross, the high contract- 
ing parties agree that a board of assessors 
shall be appointed to ascertain and de- 
termine what claims are valid, and what 
amount or amounts shall be paid by Great 
Britain to the United States on account 
of the liability arising from such failure 
as to each vessel, according to the extent 
of such liability, as decided by the arbi- 
trators. The board of assessors shall be 
constituted as follows: OneTnember there- 
of shall be named by the President of the 
United States, one member thereof shall 
be named by her Britannic Majesty, one 
member thereof shall be named by the rep- 
resentative at Washington of his Majesty - 
the King of Italy; and, in ease of a va- 
cancy happening from any cause, it shall 
be filled in the same manner in which 
the original appointment was made. As 
soon as possible, after such nominations, 
the board of assessors shall be organized 
in Washington, with power to hold their- 
sittings there or in New York or in Bos- 
ton. The members thereof shall severally 
subscribe a solemn declaration that they 
will impartially and carefully examine 
and decide, to the best of their judgment, 
and according to justice and equity, all 
matters submitted to them, and shall 
forthwith proceed, under such rules and 
regulations as they may prescribe, to the 
investigation of the claims which shall be 
presented to them by the government of 
the United States, and shall examine and 

and waters, and, as to all persons within 
its jurisdiction, to prevent any violation 
of the foregoing obligations and duties. 

Hei Britannic Majesty has commanded 
her high commissioners and plenipoten- 
tiaries to declare that her Majesty's gov- 
ernment cannot assent to the foregoing 
rules, as a statement of principles of in- 
ternational law which were in force at 
the time when the claims mentioned in 
Art. 1 arose, but that her Britannic 
Majesty's government, in order to evince 
its desire of strengthening the friendly 
relations between the two countries and 
of making satisfactory provision for the 
future, agrees that, in deciding the ques- 
tions between the two countries arising 
out of those claims, the arbitrators should 
assume that her Majesty's government 
had undertaken to act upon the principles 
set forth in these rules, and the high 
contracting parties agree to observe these 
rules between themselves in future, and 
to bring them to the knowledge of other 
maritime powers, and to invite them to 
accede to them. 

Art. 7. The decision of the tribunal 
shall, if possible, be made within three 
months from the close of the argument 
on both sides. It shall be made in writ- 
ing, and dated, and shall be signed by the 
arbitrators who may assent to it. The 
said tribunal shall first determine as to 
each vessel separately, whether Great 
Britain has by any act or omission failed 
to fulfil any of the duties set forth in the 
foregoing three rules, or recognized by 
the principles of international law, not 
inconsistent with such rules, and shall 
certify such fact as to each of the said 
vessels. In case the tribunal find that 
Great Britain has failed to fulfil any 
duty or duties as aforesaid, it may, if it 
think proper, proceed to award a* sum in 
gross to be paid by Great Britain to the 
United States for all the claims referred 
to it; and in such case the gross sum so 
awarded shall be paid in coin by the gov- 
ernment of Great Britain to the govern- 
ment of the United States at Washington 
within twelve months after the date of 
the award. The award shall be in dupli- 

cate, one copy whereof shall be delivered decide upon them in suc v rder and man- 
to the agent of the United States for his ner as they may think pre ;r, but upon 
government; and the other copy shall be such evidence or information only as shall 

x. — n 18a 



be furnished by or on behalf of the gov- or may not have been presented to the 
ernments of Great Britain and of the notice of, made, preferred, or laid before 
United States respectively. They shall be the tribunal or board, shall, from and 
bound to hear on each separate claim, if after the conclusion of the proceedings of 
required, one person on behalf of each gov- the tribunal or board, be considered and 
ernment as counsel or agent. A majority treated as finally settled, barred, and 
of the assessors in each case shall be suf- thenceforth inadmissible, 
ficient for a decision. The decision of the 
assessors shall be given upon such claim 
in writing, and shall be signed by them Art. 12. The high contracting parties 
respectively, and dated. Every claim shall agree that all claims on the part of cor- 
be presented to the assessors within six porations, companies, or private individu- 
months from the day of their first meet- als — citizens of the United States — upon 
ing; but they may, for good cause shown, the government of her Britannic Majesty 
extend the time for the presentation of arising out of acts committed against the 
any claim to a further period not exceed- persons or property of citizens of the 
ing three months. The assessors shall re- United States during the period between 
port to each government, at or before the April 13, 186*1, and April 9, 1865, inclu- 
expiration of one year from the date of sive (not being claims growing out of the 
their first meeting, the amount of claims acts of the vessels referred to in Art. 
decided by them up to the date of such 1 of this treaty), and all claims, with the 
report. If further claims then remain un- like exception on the part of corporations, 
decided, they shall make a further report companies, or private individuals, sub- 
at or before the expiration of two years jects of her Britannic Majesty, upon the 
from the date of such first meeting; and government of the United States arising 
in case any claims remain undetermined out of acts committed against the per- 
at that time, they shall make a final re- sons or property of subjects of her Bri- 
port within a further period of six months, tannic Majesty during the same period, 
The report shall be made in duplicate, which may have been presented to either 
and one copy thereof shall be delivered government for its interposition with 
to the Secretary of State of the United the other, and which yet remain unset- 
States, and one copy thereof to the rep- tied, as well as any other such claims 
resentative of her Britannic Majesty at which may be presented within the time 
Washington. All sums of money which specified in Art. 14 of this treaty, shall 
may be awarded under this article shall be referred to three commissioners, to be 
be payable at Washington, in coin, within appointed in the following manner — that 
twelve months after the delivery of each is to say, one commissioner shall be 
report. The board of assessors may em- named by the President of the United 
ploy such clerks as they shall think neces- States, one by her Britannic Majesty, and 
sary. The expenses of the board of as- the third by the President of the United 
sessors shall be assumed equally by the States and her Britannic Majesty con- 
two governments, and paid from time to jointly; and in case the third commis- 
time, as may be found expedient, on the sioner shall not have been so named with- 
production of accounts certified by the in a period of three months from the date 
board. The remuneration of the assess- of the exchange of the ratification of this 
ors shall also be paid by the two govern- treaty, then the third commissioner shall 
ments in equal moieties in a similar be named by the representative at Wash- 
manner, ington of his Majesty the King of Spain. 
Art. 11. The high contracting parties In case of the death, absence, or inca- 
engaged to consider the result of the pro- pacity of any commissioner, or in the 
ceedings of the tribunal of arbitration event of any commissioner omitting or 
and of the board of assessors, should such ceasing to act, the vacancy shall be filled 
board be appointed, as a full, perfect, and in the manner hereinbefore provided for 
final settlement )f all the claims herein- making the original appointment, the 
before refe/red to, and further engage that period of three months, in case of such 
every such claim, whether the same may substitution, being calculated from the 


Washington, treaty of 

date of the happening of the vacancy, the period for presenting the claim may be? 
The commissioners so named shall meet . extended by them to any time not exceed - 
at Washington at the earliest convenient ing three months longer. The commis- 
period after they have been respectively sioners shall be bound to examine and de- 
named, and shall, before proceeding to cide upon every claim within two years 
any business, make and subscribe a from their first meeting. It shall be corn- 
solemn declaration that they will impar- petent for the commissioners to decide in 
tially and carefully examine and decide, each case, whether any claim has or has 
to the best of their judgment and accord- not been made, preferred, and laid before 
ing to justice and equity, all such claims them, either wholly or to any and what 
as shall be laid before them on the part extent, according to. the true intent and 
of the governments of the United States meaning of this treaty, 
and her Britannic Majesty, respectively, Art. 15. All sums of money which may 
and such declarations shall be entered on be awarded by the commissioners on ac- 
the~ record of their proceedings. count of any claims shall be paid by the 

Art. 13. The commissioners shall then one government to the other, as the case 
forthwith proceed to the investigation of may be, within twelve months after the 
the claims which shall be presented to date of the final award, without interest, 
them. They shall investigate and decide and without any deduction, save as speci- 
sueh claims in such order and such manner fied in Art. 16 of this treaty, 
as they may think proper, but upon such Art. 16. The commissioners shaV .Keep 
evidence or information only as shall be an accurate record and correct 'minutes, 
furnished by or on behalf of the respective or notes, of all their proceedings, with the 
governments. They shall be bound to re- dates thereof, and may appoint and em- 
ceive and consider all written documents ploy a secretary, and any other necessary 
or statements which may be presented to officer or officers, to assist them in the 
them , by or on behalf of the respective transaction of the business which may 
governments, in support of or in answer come before them. Each government shall 
to any claim, and to hear, if required, one pay its own commissioner, and agent, or 
person on each side on behalf of each counsel. All other expenses shall be de- 
government, as counsel or agent for such frayed by the two governments in equal 
government, on each and every separate moieties. The whole expenses of the corn- 
claim. A majority of the commissioners mission, including contingent expenses, 
shall be sufficient for an award in each shall be paid by a ratable deduction on the 
case. The award shall be given upon each amount of the sums awarded by the corn- 
claim in writing, and shall be signed by missioners: Provided always that such 
the commissioners assenting to it. It shall deduction shall not exceed the rate of 
be competent for each government to name 5' per cent, on the sums so awarded, 
one person to attend the commissioners Art. 17. The high contracting parties 
as its agent, to present and support claims engage to consider the result of the pro- 
on its behalf, and to answer claims made ceedings of this commission as a full, per- 
upon it, and to represent it generally in feet, and final settlement of all such 
all matters connected with the investiga- claims as are mentioned in Art. 12 o* 
tion and decision thereof. The high con- this treaty upon either government, and 
tracting parties hereby engage to con- further engage that every such claim, 
sider the decision of the commissioners whether or not the same may have been 
as absolutely final and conclusive upon presented to the notice of, made "pre- 
each claim decided upon by them, and to ferred " or laid before the said commis- 
give full effect to such decisions, without sion, shall, from and after the conclusion 
any objection, evasion, or delay whatsoever, of the proceedings of said commission, be 

Art. 14. Every claim shall be presented considered, and treated as finally settled, 

to the commissioners within six months barred, and thenceforth inadmissible, 

from the day of their first meeting, un- THE pjsjjEgjEg. 
less in any case where reasons for delay 

shall be established to the satisfaction of Art. 18. Itis agreed by the high con- 

the commissioners, and in any such case tracting parties that, in addition to the 



liberty secured to the United States fisher- part of said coasts in their occupancy for 
men by the convention between the United the same purpose. It is understood that 
States and Great Britain, signed at Lon- the above-mentioned liberty applies sole- 
don, on Oct. 20, 1818, of taking, curing, ly to the sea fishery, and that the salmon 
and drying fish on certain coasts of the and shad fisheries, and all other fisheries 
British North American colonies, therein in rivers and mouths of rivers, are hereby 
defined, and inhabitants of the United reserved exclusively for fishermen of the 
States shall have, in common with the United States. 

subjects of her Britannic Majesty, the Art. 20. It is agreed that the place? 
liberty, for the term of years mentioned in designated by the commissioners appoint- 
Art. 33 of this treaty, to take fish of ed under the first article of the treaty be- 
every kind, except shell-fish, on the sea- tween the United States and Great Brit- 
coasts and shores, and in the bays, har- ain, concluded at Washington on June 5, 
bors, and creeks of the provinces of 1854, upon the coasts of her Britannic 
Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, Majesty's dominions and of the United 
and the colony of Prince Edward's Island, States, as places reserved from the com- 
and of the several islands thereunto ad- mon right of fishing under that treaty, 
jacent, without being restricted to any shall be regarded as in like manner re- 
distance from the shore, with permission served from the common right of fishing 
to land upon the said coasts, and shores, under the preceding articles. In case any 
and islands, and also upon the Magdalen question should arise between the govern- 
Islands, for the purpose of drying their ments of the United States and of her 
nets and curing their fish: Provided that Britannic Majesty as to the common right 
in so doing they do not interfere with the of fishing in places not thus designated as 
rights of private property, or with the reserved, it is agreed that a commission 
British fishermen in the peaceable use of shall be appointed, to designate such 
any part of the said coasts in their oc- places, and shall be constituted in the 
cupancy for the same purpose. It is un- same manner, and have the same powers, 
derstood that the above-mentioned liberty duties, and authorities as the commission 
applies solely to the sea fishery, and that appointed under the said first article of 
the salmon and shad fisheries, and all the treaty of June 5, 1854. 
other fisheries in rivers and the mouth of Art. 21. It is agreed that, for the term 
rivers, are hereby reserved exclusively for of years mentioned in Art. 33 of this 
British fishermen. treaty, fish-oil and fish of all kinds, "ex- 
Art. 19. It is agreed by the high con- cept fish of the inland lakes and of the 
tracting parties that British subjects shall rivers falling into them, and except fish 
have, in common with the citizens of the preserved in oil," being the produce of 
United States, the liberty, for the term the fisheries of the United States, or of 
of years mentioned in Art. 33 of this the Dominion of Canada, or of Prince 
treaty, to take fish of every kind, except Edward's Island, shall be admitted into 
shell-fish, on the eastern sea - coast and each country, respectively, free of duty, 
shores of the United States north of the Art. 22. Inasmuch as it is asserted by 
39th parallel of north latitude, and on the the government of her Britannic Majesty 
shores of the several islands thereunto that the privileges accorded to the citizens 
adjacent, and in the bays, harbors, and of the United States, under Art. 18 of 
creeks of the said sea-coasts and shores of this treaty, are of greater value than 
the United States, and of the said islands, those accorded by Arts. 19 and 21 of this 
without being restricted to any distance treaty to the subjects of her Britannic 
from the shore, with permission to land Majesty, and this assertion is not ad- 
upon the said coasts of the United States mitted by the government of the United 
and of the islands aforesaid, for the pur- States, it is further agreed that commis- 
pose of drying their nets and curing their sioners shall be appointed to determine, 
fish: Provided that in so doing they do having regard to the privileges accorded 
not interfere with the rights of private by the United States to the subjects of 
property, or with the fishermen of the her Britannic Majesty, as stated in Arts. 
United States in the peaceable use of any 19 and 21 of this treaty, the amount of 



any compensation which, in their opinion, bound to receive such oral or written tea- 
ought to be paid by the government of timony as either government may pre- 
the United States to the government of sent. If either party shall offer oral tes- 
her Britannic Majesty, in return for the timony. the other party shall have the 
privileges accorded to the citizens of the right of cross-examination, under such 
United States under Art. 18 of this rules as the commissioners shall pre- 
treaty; that any sum of money which scribe. If in the case submitted to the 
the said commissioners may so award commissioners either party shall have 
shall be paid by the United States gov- specified or alluded to any report or 
ernment in a gross sum within twelve document in its own exclusive possession 
months after such award shall have been without annexing a copy, such party 
given. shall be bound, if the other party thinks 
Art. 23. The commissioners referred to proper to apply for it, to furnish that 
in the preceding article shall be appointed party with a copy thereof, and either 
in the following manner — that is to say: party may call upon the other through 
One commissioner shall be named by the the commissioners to produce the orig- 
President of the United States, one by inals or certified copies of any papers ad- 
her Britannic Majesty, and a third by duced as evidence, giving in each instance 
the President and her Britannic Majesty such reasonable notice as the commis- 
conjointly; and, in case the third com- sioners may require. The case on either 
missioner shall not have been so named side shall be closed within a period of six 
within a period of three months from the months from the date of the organiza- 
date when this act shall take effect, then lion of the commission; and the com- 
the third commissioner shall be named by missioners shall be requested to give their 
the representative at London of his Maj- award as soon as possible thereafter, 
esty, the Emperor of Austria and King The aforesaid period of six months may 
of Hungary. In case of the death, ab- lie extended for three months in case of a 
sence, or incapacity of any commissioner, vacancy occurring among the commission- 
er in the event of any commissioner omit- ers under the circumstances contemplated 
ting or ceasing to act, the vacancy shall in Art. 23 of this treaty. 
be filled in the manner hereinbefore pro- Art. 25. The commissioners shall keep 
vided for making the original appoint- an accurate record and correct minutes, 
ment, the period of three months in case or notes, of all their proceedings, with 
of such substitution being calculated the dates thereof, and may appoint and 
from the date of the happening of the employ a secretary, and any other neoes- 
vacancy. The commissioners named shall sary officer or officers to assist them in the 
meet in the city of Halifax, in the transaction of the business which may 
province of Nova Scotia, at the earliest come before them. Each of the high con- 
convenient period after they have been tracting parties shall pay its own com- 
respectively named, and shall, before pro- missioner and agent or counsel; all other 
ceeding to any business, make and sub- expenses shall be defrayed by the two 
scribe a solemn declaration that they governments in equal moieties, 
will impartially and carefully examine and Art. 26. The navigation of the river 
—decide the matter referred to them, to St. Lawrence, ascending and descending 
the best of their judgment, and accord- from the 45th parallel of north latitude, 
ing to justice and equity, and such dec- where it ceases to form the boundary be- 
laration shall be entered on the record tween the two countries, from, to, and 
of their proceedings. Each of the high into the sea, shall forever remain free, 
contracting powers shall ^lso name one and open for the purposes of commerce 
person to attend the commission as his to the citizens of the United States, sub- 
agent, to represent it generally in all ject to any laws and regulations of Great 
matters connected with the commission. Britain or of the Dominion of Canada, not 
Art. 24. The proceedings shall be con- inconsistent with such privilege of free 
ducted in such order as the commissioners navigation. The navigation of the rivers 
appointed under Arts. 22 and 23 of this Yucan, Porcupine, and Stikine, ascending 
treaty shall determine. They shall be and descending from, to, and into the sea, 



shall forever remain free and open for the be conveyed in transit, without the pay- 
purposes of commerce to the citizens of ment of duties, from such possessions 
both powers, subject to any laws and reg- through the territory of the United States 
ulations of either country within its own for export from the said ports of the 
territory, not inconsistent with such privi- United States. It is further agreed that, 
lege of free navigation. for the like period, goods, wares, or mer- 
Art. 27. The government of her Bri- chandiBe, arriving at any of the ports 
tannic Majesty engages to urge upon the of her Britannic Majesty's possessions in 
government of the Dominion of Canada North America, and destined for the Unit- 
lo secure to the citizens of the United ed States, may be entered at the proper 
States the use of the Welland, St. Law- custom - house and conveyed in transit, 
rence, and other canals in the Dominion, without the payment of duties, through 
on terms of equality with the inhabitants the said possessions, under such rules and 
of the Dominion, and the government of regulations and conditions for the pro- 
the United States engages that the sub- tection of the revenue as the government 
jects of her Britannic Majesty shall en- of the said possessions may from time to 
joy the use of the St. Clair Flats Canal time prescribe, and under like rules, regu- 
on terms of equality with the citizens of lations, and conditions, goods, wares, or 
the United States, and further engages merchandise may be conveyed in tran- 
to urge upon the State governments to sit without payment of duties, from the 
secure to the subjects of her Britannic United States, through said possessions 
Majesty the use of the several State to other places in the United States, or 
canals connected with the navigation of for export from ports in the said pos- 
the lakes or rivers traversed by or con- sessions. 

tiguous to the boundary-line between the Art. 30. It is agreed that for the term 
possessions of the high contracting par- of years mentioned in Art. 33 of this 
ties on terms of equality with tb3 in- treaty, subjects ot her Britannic Majesty 
habitants of the United States. may carry in British vessels, without pay- 
Art. 28. The navigation of Lake Michi- ment of duties, goods, wares, or mer- 
gan shall, also, for the term of years men- chandise, from one port or place within 
tioned in Art. 33 of this treaty, be free the territory of the United States, upon 
and open, for the purposes of commerce, the St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes, and 
to the subjects of her Britannic Majesty, the rivers connecting the same, to another 
subject to any laws and regulations of the port or place, within the territory of 
United States, or of the States bordering the United States as aforesaid: Provided 
thereon, not inconsistent with such privi- that a portion of such transportation 
lege or free navigation. is made through the Dominion of Canada 
Art. 29. It is agreed that, for the term by land-carriage and in bond, under such 
of years mentioned in Art. 33 of this rules and regulations as may be agreed 
treaty, goods, wares, or merchandise, ar- upon between the government of her 
riving at the ports of New York, Boston, Britannic Majesty and the government of 
and Portland, and any other ports of the the United States. Citizens of the United 
United States, which have been or may States may for the like period carry in 
from time to time be specially designated United States vessels, without payment 
by the President of the United States and of duty, goods, wares, or merchandise, 
destined for her Britannic Majesty's pos- from one port or place within the posses- 
sessions in North America, may be enter- sions of her Britannic Majesty in North 
ed at the proper custom-house, and con- America to another port or place with- 
veyed in transit, withoiit the payment of in the said possessions: Provided that a 
duties, through the territory of the Unit- portion of such transportation is made 
ed States, under such rules, regulations, through the territory of the United States 
and conditions for the protection of the by land-carriage, and in bond, under such 
revenues as the government of the United rules and regulations as may be agreed 
States may from time to time prescribe, upon between the government of the Unit- 
and under like rules, regulations, and con- ed States and the government of her 
ditions, goods, wares, or merchandise may Britannic Majesty. The government of 



the United States further engages not to for carrying the foregoing articles into 

impose any export duties on goods, wares, effect, then this article shall be of no ef- 

or merchandise carried under this article feet; but the omission to make provision, 

through the territory of the United States, by law, to give it effect, by either of the 

and her Britannic Majesty's government legislative bodies aforesaid, shall not in 

engages to urge the Parliament of the any way impair any other articles of this 

Dominion of Canada, and the legislatures treaty. 

of the other colonies, not to impose any Art. 33. The foregoing articles, 18 to 25, 
export duties on goods, wares, or mer- inclusive, and Art. 30 of this treaty, 
chandise carried under this article. And shall take effect as soon as the laws re- 
the government of the United States may, quired to carry them into operation shall 
in case such export duties are imposed by have been passed by the imperial Parlia- 
the Dominion of Canada suspend, during ment of Great Britain, by the Parliament 
the period that such duties are imposed, of Canada, and by the legislature of 
the right of 1 carrying granted under this Prince Edward's Island, on the one hand, 
article in favor of the subjects of her and by the Congress of the United States 
Britannic Majesty. The government of on the other. Such assent having been 
the United States may also suspend the given, the said articles shall remain in 
right of carrying granted in favor of the lorce for the period of ten years from 
subjects of her Britannic Majesty, under the date at which they may come into oper- 
this article, in case the Dominion of ation; and further, until the expiration of 
Canada should at any time deprive the two years after either of the high eon- 
citizens of the United States of the use tracting parties shall have given notice 
of the canals in said Dominion on terms to the other of its wish to terminate the 
of equality with the inhabitants of the same; each of the high contracting par- 
Dominion, as provided in Art. 27. ties being at liberty to give such notice 
Art. 31. The government of her Britan- to the other at the end of the said period 
nic Majesty further engages to urge upon of ten years, or at any time afterward, 
the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada THE N0ETHERN B0XmDAET . 
and the legislature of New Brunswick that 

no export or other duty shall be levied on Art. 34. Whereas it was stipulated by 
lumber or timber of any kind cut on that Art. 1, of the treaty concluded at Wash- 
portion of the American territory in the ington on June 15, 1846, between the Unit- 
State of Maine, watered by the river St. ed States and her Britannic Majesty, 
John and its tributaries, and floated down that the line of boundary between the ter- 
that river to the sea, when the same is ritory of the United States and those of 
shipped to the United States from the her Britannic Majesty, from the point 
province of New Brunswick; and in case of the 49th parallel of north latitude up 
any such export or other duty continues to which it had already been ascertained, 
to be levied after the expiration of one should be continued westward along the 
year from the date of the exchange of the said parallel of north latitude to the mid- 
ratifications of this treaty, it is agreed die of the channel which separates the 
that the government of the United States continent from Vancouver's Island, and 
may suspend the right of carrying here- thence southerly along the middle of the 
inbefore granted under Art. 30 of this said channel, and of Fuca Strait to the 
treaty for such period as such export or Pacific Ocean; and whereas the commis- 
other duty may be levied. sioners appointed by the two high con- 
Art. 32. It is further agreed that the tracting parties to determine that portion 
provisions and stipulations of Arts. 18 of the boundary which runs southerly 
to 25 of this treaty, inclusive, shall ex- through the middle of the channel afore- 
tend to the colony of Newfoundland, so said were unable to agree upon the same; 
far as they are applicable. But, if the and whereas the government of her Bri- 
imperial Parliament, the legislature of tannic Majesty claims that such boundary- 
Newfoundland, or the Congress of the line should, under the terms of the 
United States shall not embrace the colony treaty above recited, be run through the 
Of Newfoundland in their laws enacted Eosario Straits, and the government of 



the United States claims that it should 
be run through the Canal De Haro, it is 
agreed that the respective claims of the 
government of her Britannic Majesty and 
of the government of the United States 
shall be submitted to the arbitration and 
award of his Majesty the Emperor of Ger- 
many, who, having regard to the above- 
mentioned article of the said treaty, shall 
decide thereupon, finally and without ap- 
peal, which of those claims is most in ac- 
cordance with the true interpretation of 
the treaty of June 15, 1846. 

Art. 35. The award of his Majesty the 
Emperor of Germany shall be considered 
as absolutely final and conclusive, and full 
effect shall be given to such award, with- 
out any objection, evasion, or delay what- 
soever. Such decision shall be given in 
writing, and dated. It shall be in what- 
soever form his Majesty may choose to 
adopt. It shall be delivered to the rep- 
resentatives or other public agents of the 
United States and of Great Britain, re- 
spectively, who may be actually at Berlin, 
and shall be considered as operative from 
the day of the date of the delivery thereof. 

Art. 36. The written or printed case of 
each of the two parties, accompanied by 
the evidence offered in support of the 
same, shall be laid before his Majesty the 
Emperor of Germany within six months 
from the date of the exchange of the 
ratification of this treaty, and a copy of 
such case and evidence shall be communi- 
cated by each party to the other through 
their respective representatives at Berlin. 
The high contracting powers may include 
in the evidence to be considered by the 
arbitrator such documents, official corre- 
spondence, and other official or public 
statements bearing on the subject of the 
reference as they may consider neces- 
sary to the support of their respective 
cases. After the written or printed case 
shall have been communicated by each 
party to the other, each party shall have 
the power of drawing up and laying before 
the arbitrators a second and definite state- 
ment, if it think fit to do so, in reply to 
the case of the other party so communi- 
cated, which definitive statement shall be 
so laid before the arbitrator, and also 
be mutually communicated, in the same 
manner as aforesaid by each party to the 
other within six months from the date 


of laying the first statement of the case 
before the arbitrator. 

Art. 37. If in the case submitted to the 
arbitrator either party shall specify or 
allude to any report or document in its 
own exclusive possession, without annex- 
ing a copy, such party shall be bound, if 
the other party thinks proper to apply 
for it, to furnish that party with a copy 
thereof, and either party may call upon 
the other through the arbitrator to pro- 
duce the originals or certified copies of 
any papers adduced as evidence, giving 
in each instance such reasonable notice 
as the arbitrator may require-; and if the 
arbitrator should desire further elucida- 
tion or evidence with regard to any point 
contained in the statements laid before 
him, he shall be at liberty to require it 
from either party, and shall be at liberty 
to hear one counsel or agent for each 
party in relation to any matter, and at 
such time and in such manner as he may 
think fit. 

Art. 38. The represent '.fives or other 
public agents of the Uniied States and 
Great Britain at Berlin, respectively, shall 
be considered as the agents of their re- 
spective governments to conduct their 
cases before the arbitrator, who shall be 
requested to address all his communica- 
tions and give all his notices to such 
representatives, or other public agents who 
shall represent their respective govern- 
ments generally, in all matters connect- 
ed with arbitration. 

Art. 39. It shall be competent to the ar- 
bitrator to proceed in the said arbitra- 
tion, and all matters relating thereto, as 
and when he shall see fit, either in person 
or by a person or persons named by him 
for that purpose, either in the presence 
or absence of either or both agents, and 
either orally or by written discussion, or 

Art. 40. The arbitrator may, if he think 
fit, appoint a secretary or clerk for the 
purposes of the proposed arbitration, at 
such rate of remuneration as he shall 
think proper. This, and all other expenses 
of and connected with said arbitration, 
shall be provided for as hereinafter stipu- 

Art. 41. The arbitrator shall be request- 
ed to deliver, together with his award, an 
account of all the costs and expenses which 


he may have been put to in relation to this 28, 1752; son of Baily Washington, a 
matter, which shall forthwith te paid by kinsman of George Washington; entered 
the two governments in equal moieties. the military service early in the Revolu- 
Art. 42. The arbitrator shall be request- tionary War, becoming a captain in the 
ed to deliver his award in writing as Virginia line under Mercer. He was in 
early as con- 
venient after the 
whole case on 
each side shall be 
laid before him, 
and to deliver 
one copy thereof 
to each of the 
said agents. 

Art. 43. The 
present treaty 
shall be duly 
ratified by the 
President of the 
United States of 
America, and by 
and with the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate thereof, and the battle on Long Island, and was badly 
by her Britannic Majesty; and the ratifi- wounded at Trenton, but engaged in the 
cations shall be exchanged, either at Wash- battle at Princeton. Lieutenant-colonel 
ington or at London, within six months of Baylor's dragoons, he was with them 
from the date hereof, or earlier if possible, when surprised at Tappan. In 1779-80 
In faith whereof, we, the respective pleni- he was very active in South Carolina, in 
potentiaries, have signed this treaty, and connection with General Morgan, and for 
have hereunto affixed our seals. his valor at the Cowpens, Congress gave 

Done in duplicate at Washington the 8th him thanks and a silver medal. In 
day of May, in the year of our Lord 1871. Greene's famous retreat Colonel Washing- 
Washington, William, military offi- ton was very efficient; so, also, was he at 


cer; born in Stafford county, Va., Feb, 


the battles of Hobkirk's Hill and Eutaw 
Springs. At the latter place he was made 
prisoner and remained so until the close of 
the war, when he married and settled in 
Charleston, where he died, March 6, 1810. 
Washington and Jefferson College, 
an educational institution in Washington, 
Pa.; formerly two separate colleges, but 
united under an act of the legislature in 
1865, the preparatory and scientific de- 
partments being located at Washington, 
and the sophomore, junior, and senior 
classes at Canonsburg, the former seat of 
Jefferson College. This arrangement 
proved undesirable, and in 1869 the whole 
institution was located in Washington, 
Pa. In 1903 it reported: Professors and 
instructors, 28; students, 350; volumes in 
the library, 16,000; productive funds, 
$273,615; grounds and buildings valued 
at $450,000; income, $37,914; number of 
graduates, 4,043; president, Rev. James 
D. Moffat, D.D. 


Washington and Lee University, an 
educational institution in Lexington, Va. 
The nucleus of it was established in 1749 
under the name of Augusta Academy, by 
which it was known till the Revolutionary 
War began, when its name was changed to 
Liberty Hall Academy. In 1780 the in- 
stitution was removed to Lexington, when, 
in 1796, General Washington gave it 100 
shares of stock in the James River Canal 
Company, and the name was changed to 
Washington College, and on the death of 

Gen. Robert E. Lee, in 1870, the name was 
again changed to its present one. Instruc- 
tion was suspended during the Civil War; 
and the institution was reorganized in 
1865 under the presidency of Gen. Robert 
E. Lee. It reported in 1903: Professors 
and instructors, thirty - five ; students, 
310; volumes in the library, 45,000; 
productive funds, $634,353; grounds 
and buildings valued at $200,000; in- 
come, $50,000; president, George H. 
Denny, Ph.D. 


Washington and the Newburg Ad- relax, and that more than justice, that 

dress. — The following is the full text of gratitude, would blaze forth upon those 

the Newburg Address {q. v.), together hands which had upheld her in the dark- 

with Washington's reply to the officers of est stages of her passage from impending 

the army: servitude to acknowledged independence. 

Eut faith has its limits as well as temper. 

Gentlemen, — A fellow-soldier, whose in- and there are points beyond which neithei 

terests and affections bind him strongly can be stretched without sinking into 

to you, whose past sufferings have been cowardice or plunging into credulity, 

as great, and whose future fortunes may This, my friends, I conceive to be your 

be as dosperate as yours, would beg leave situation. Hurried to the very verge of 

to add ess you. Age has its claims, and both, another step would ruin you forever, 

rank is not without its pretensions to ad- To be tame and unprovoked when in- 

vise; but, though unsupported by both, he juries press hard upon you is more than 

flatters himself that the plain language of weakness; but to look up for kinder usage, 

sinoerity and experience will neither be without one manly effort of your own, 

unheard nor unregarded. would fix your character and show the 

Like many of you, he loved private life, world how richly you deserve those chains 

;«:(■ left it with regret. He left it, de- you broke. To guard against this evil, 

termined to retire from the field with the let us take a review of the ground upon 

necessity that called him to it, and not which we now stand, and thence carry our 

till then — not till the enemies of his coun- thoughts forward for a monment into the 

try, the slaves of power, and the hirelings unexplored field of expedient. After a 

of injustice, were compelled to abandon pursuit of seven long years the object 

their schemes, and acknowledge America for which we set out is at length brought 

as terrible in arms as she had been humble within our reach. Yes, my friends, that 

in remonstrance. With this object in suffering courage of yours was active 

view, he has long shared in your toils and once — it has conducted the United States 

mingled in your dangers. He has felt the of America through a doubtful and a 

cold hand of poverty without a murmur, bloody war ; it has placed her in the chair 

and has seen the insolence of wealth with- of independence, and peace returns again 

out a sigh. But, too much under the — to bless whom? A country willing to 

direction of his wishes, and sometimes redress your wrongs, cherish your worth, 

weak enough to mistake desire for opin- and reward your services? A country 

ion, he has till lately, very lately, be- courting your return to private life with 

lieved in the justice of his country. He tears of gratitude and smiles of admira- 

hoped that, as the clouds of adversity tion — longing to divide with you the inde- 

scattered, and as the sunshine of peace pendency which your gallantry has given, 

and better fortune broke in upon us, the and those riches which your wounds have 

coldness and severity of government would preserved? Is this the case?— or is it 




rather a country that tramples upon your no longer expect from their favor? How 

rights, disdains your cries, and insults have you been answered? Let the letter 

your distresses? Have you not more which you are called to consider to-mor- 

than once suggested your wishes, and made row reply. 

known your wants, to Congress — wants If this, then, be your treatment while 
and wishes which gratitude and policy the swords you wear are necessary for the 
should have anticipated rather than defence of America, what have you to ex- 
evaded? And have you not lately, in the pect from peace, when your voice shall 
meek language of entreating memorials, sink, and your strength dissipate, by di- 
begged from their justice what you could vision — when those very swords, the in- 



struments and companions of your glory, 
shall be taken from your sides, and no re- 
maining mark of military distinction left 
but your wants, infirmities, and scars? 
Can you then consent to be the only suffer- 
ers by this revolution; and, retiring from 
the field, grow old in poverty, wretched- 
ness, and contempt? Can you consent to 
wade through the vile mire of dependency, 
and owe the miserable remnant of that life 
to charity, which has hitherto been spent 


in honor? If you can, go, and carry with 
you the jest of Tories and the scorn of 
Whigs; the ridicule, and what is worse, 
the pity, of the world. Go, starve, and 
be forgotten. But if your spirit should 
revolt at this — if you have sense enough 
to discover and spirit enough to oppose 
tyranny, under whatever garb it may as- 
sume, whether it be the plain coat of re- 
publicanism or the splendid robe of royalty 
— if you have yet learned to discriminate 
between a people and a cause, between 
men and principles — awake, attend to 
your situation, and redress yourselves. If 
the present moment be lost, every future 
effort is in vain, and your threats then 
will be as empty as your entreaties now. 
I would advise you, therefore, to come 

to some final opinion upon what you can 
bear and what you will suffer. If your 
determination be in any proportion to 
your wrongs, carry your appeal from the 
justice to the fears of government. 
Change the milk-and-water style of your 
last memorial ; assume a bolder tone, 
decent, but lively, spirited, and deter- 
mined; and suspect the man who would 
advise to more moderation and longer for- 
bearance. Let two or three men, who can 
feel as well as write, be appointed to draw 
up your last remonstrance; for I would 
no longer giye it the suing, soft, unsuc- 
cessful epithet of memorial. Let it be 
represented, in language that will neither 
dishonor you by its rudeness nor betray 
you by its fears, what has been promised 
by Congress, and what has been per- 
formed; how long and how patiently you 
have suffered; how little you have asked, 
and how much of that little has been de- 
nied. Tell them that though you were 
the first, and would wish to be the last, 
to encounter danger, though despair it- 
self can never drive you into dishonor, it 
may drive you from the field; that the 
wound, often irritated, and never healed, 
may at length become incurable; and that 
the slightest mark of malignity from Con- 
gress now must operate like the grave, 
and part you forever. That, in any po- 
litical event, the army has its alternative; 
if peace, that nothing shall separate you 
from your arms but death; if war, that 
courting the auspices and inviting the di- 
rections of your illustrious leader, you will 
retire to some unsettled country, smile in 
your turn, and " mock when their fear 
cometh on." But let it represent also, 
that should they comply with the re- 
quest of your late memorial, it would 
make you more happy, and them more re- 
spectable; that while war should con- 
tinue, you would follow their standard 
into the field ; and when it came to an 
end, you would withdraw into the shade of 
private life, and give the world another 
subject of wonder and applause — an army 
victorious over its enemies, victorious 
over itself. 


Gentlemen, — By an anonymous sum- 
mons an attempt has been made to con- 



vene you together; how inconsistent with 
the rules of propriety, how unmilitary, 
and how subversive of all order and disci- 
pline, let the good sense of the army 
decide. In the moment of this summons, 
another anonymous production was sent 
into circulation, addressed more to the 
feelings and passions than to the judg- 
ment of the army. The author of the 
piece is entitled to much credit for the 
goodness of his pen; and I could wish he 
had as much credit for the rectitude of 
"his heart; for, as men see through differ- 
ent optics, and are induced by the re- 
flecting faculties of the mind to use dif- 
ferent means to attain the same end, the 
author of the address should have had 
more charity than to mark for suspicion 
the man who should recommend modera- 
tion and longer forbearance; or, in other 
words, who should not think as he thinks, 
and act as he advises. 

But he had another plan in view, in 
which candor and liberality of sentiment, 

regard to justice, and love of country 
have no part; and he was right to in- 
sinuate the darkest suspicion to effect the 
blackest design. That the address was 
drawn with great art, and is designed to 
answer the most insidious purposes; that 
it is calculated to impress the mind with 
an idea of premeditated injustice in the 
sovereign power of the United States, and 
rouse all the resentments which must un- 
avoidably flow from such a belief; that 
the secret mover of this scheme, whoever 
he may be, intended to take advantage of 
the passions while they were warmed by 
the recollection of past distresses, with- 
out giving time for cool, deliberate think- 
ing, and that composure of mind which 
is so necessary to give dignity and sta- 
bility to measures, is rendered too ob- 
vious, by the mode of conducting the 
business, to need other proofs than a 
reference to the proceedings. 

Thus much, gentlemen, I have thought 
it incumbent on me to observe to you, to 






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show upon what principles I opposed the arisen when the mouth of detraction has 
irregular and hasty meeting which was been opened against it: it can scarcely 
proposed to have been held on Tuesday be supposed, at this stage of the war, that 

last, and not because I wanted a dispo- 
sition to give you every opportunity, con- 
sistent with your own honor and the dig- 
nity of the army, to make known your 
grievances. If my conduct, therefore, has 
not evinced to you that I have been a 
faithful friend to the army, my declara- 
tion of it at this time would be equally 
unavailing and improper. But, as I was 
among the first who embarked in the 
cause of our common country; as I have 

I am indifferent to its interests. But how 
are they to be promoted? The way is 
plain, says the anonymous addresser. If 
war continues, remove into the unsettled 
country; there establish yourselves, and 
leave an ungrateful country to defend 
itself. But who are they to defend? Our 
wives, our children, our farms, and other 
property which we leave behind us? or, 
in this state of hostile preparation, are 
we to take the first two (the latter can- 

never left your side one moment, but not be removed), to perish in the wilder- 
when called from you on public duty; as ness, with hunger, cold, and nakedness? 
I have been the constant companion and If peace takes place, never sheathe your 
witness of your distresses, and not among sword, says he, until you have obtained 
the last to feel and acknowledge your full and ample justice. This dreadful al- 
merits; as I have ever considered my own ternative of either deserting our country 
military reputation as inseparably con- in the extremest hour of her distress, or 
nected with that of the army; as my heart turning our arms against it, which is the 
has ever expanded with joy when I have apparent object, unless Congress can be 
heard its praises, and my indignation has compelled into instant compliance, has 



Something so shocking in it that human- in me to assign my reasons for this opin- 
ity revolts at the idea. My God, what ion as it would be insulting to your 
can this writer have in view by recom- conception to suppose you stood in need 
mending such measures? Can he be a of them. A moment's reflection will con- 
friend to the army? Can he be a friend vince every dispassionate mind of the 
to this country? Rather, is he not an physical impossibility of carrying either 
insidious foe; some emissary, perhaps, proposal into execution. There might, gen- 

vtew from Washington's headquarters, newburg. 

from New York, plotting the ruin of both, tlemen, be an impropriety in my taking 
by sowing the seeds of discord and sepa- notice in this address to you, of an anony- 
ration between the civil and military mous production; but the manner in 
powers of the continent? And what a which that performance has been intro- 
compliment does he pay to our under- duced to the army, the effect it was in- 
standings when he recommends measures, tended to have, together with some other 
in either alternative, impracticable in circumstances, will amply justify my 
their nature? observations on the 

But here, gentlemen, I will drop the tendency of that 
curtain, because it would be as imprudent writing. 

With respect to 
the advice given by 
the author, to sus- 
pect the man who 
should recommend 
moderate measures, 
I spurn it, as every 
man who regards 
that liberty and re- 
veres that justice for 
which we contend 
undoubtedly must; 
for, if men are to be 

precluded from offering their sentiments 
on a matter which may involve the most 
serious and alarming consequences that 
can invite the consideration of mankind, 
reason is of no use to us. The ■ free- 
dom of speech may be taken away, 
and dumb and silent we may be led like 
sheep to the slaughter. I cannot in jus- 





tice to my own belief, and what I have with the great duty I owe to my country, 

great reason to conceive is the intention and those powers we are bound to respect, 

of Congress, conclude this address with- you may freely command my services to 

out giving it as my decided opinion that the utmost extent of my abilities, 

that honorable body entertains exalted While I give you these assurances, and 

sentiments of the services of the army, 
and, from a full conviction of its merits 

pledge myself in the most unequivocal 
manner to exert whatever abilities I am 
possessed of in your favor, let me entreat 
you, gentlemen, on your part, not to take 
any measures which, viewed in the calm 
light of reason, will lessen the dignity 
and sully the glory you have hitherto 
maintained. Let me request you to rely 
on the plighted faith of your country, and 
place a full confidence in the purity of the 
intentions of Congress, that, previous to 
your dissolution as an army, they will 

and sufferings, will do it complete justice, cause all your actions to be fairly liqui- 

That their endeavors to discover and es- dated, as directed in the resolutions which 

tablish funds for this purpose have been were published to 

unwearied, and will not cease till they you two days ago; 

have succeeded, I have not a doubt; but, and that they will 

like all other large bodies, where there is adopt the most ef- 

a variety of different interests to recon- fectual measures 


in their power to 
render ample jus- 
tice to you for 
your faithful and 
meritorious ser- 

name of our com- 
mon country, as 
you value your 
own sacred honor, 

cile, their determinations are slow. Why, 

then, should we distrust them; and, in 

consequence of that distrust, adopt meas- 
ures which may cast a shade over that 

glory which has been so justly acquired, 

and tarnish the reputation of an army vices. And let me 

which is celebrated through all Europe for conjure you, in the 

its fortitude and patriotism? And for 

what is this done? To bring the object 

we seek nearer? No; most certainly, in 

my opinion, it will cast it at a greater dis- 
tance. For myself (and I take no merit as you respect the 

for giving the assurance, being induced to rights of h u - 

it from principles of gratitude, veracity, manity, and as you 

and justice, and a grateful sense of the regard the mili- 

confidence you have ever placed in me), tary and national 

a recollection of the cheerful assistance character of 

and prompt obedience I have experienced America, to express your utmost horror 

from you under every vicissitude of fort- and detestation of the man who wishes, 
une, and the sin- under any specious pretences, to overturn 
cere affection I feel the liberties of our country; and who 
for an army I have wickedly attempts to open the floodgates 
so long had the of civil discord, and deluge our rising 
honor to command, empire in blood. 



will oblige me to 
declare in this pub- 
and solemn 


By thus determining and thus acting 
you will pursue the plain and direct 
road to the attainment of your wishes; 
manner, that in you will defeat the insidious designs of 
the attainment of our enemies, who are compelled to re- 
complete justice for all your toils and sort from open force to secret artifice; 
dangers, and in the gratification of every you will give one more distinguished proof 
wish, so far as may be done consistently of unexampled patriotism and patient vir- 



tue rising superior to the pressure of the ner, with beer and choice spirits, costing 
most complicated sufferings, and you will, only seventy-five cents. In Philadelphia, 
by the dignity of your conduct, afford the society built Washington Hall, on 

occasion for posterity to say, when speak- 


Third Street, between Walnut and Spruce. 
Similar societies were organized else- 
where. They rapidly multiplied during 
the war, but with the demise of the Fed- 
eral party, during Monroe's administra- 
tion, they disappeared. 

Washington Monument. On Feb. 22, 
1885, the Washington Monument was 
formally dedicated by Robert C. Win- 
throp, the man who laid its corner-stone 
in 1848. The first movement towards the 
erection of this ■ monument was made as 
early as 1783, when the Continental Con- 
gress passed a resolution recommending 
the erection of an equestrian statue of 
Washington, supported by four marble 
pedestals showing the principal events in 
the war which he had successfully con- 
ducted. After his death, in December, 
1709, the House and Senate passed a joint 

ing of the glorious example you have ex- 
hibited to mankind: " Had this day been 
wanting, the world had never seen the last 
stage of perfection to which human nat- 
ure is capable of attaining." 

Washington Benevolent Societies, 

political organizations, which originated resolution for the erection of a monument 

in Philadelphia soon after the declara- under which his body should be placed; 

tion of war in 1812. The first organiza- but Congress failed to provide for the exe- 

tion was fully completed on Feb. 22, 1813, cution of the work, and the matter was 

under the title of the " Washington Benev- allowed to drop. In 1816 an unsuccessful 

olent Society of Pennsylvania." Each effort was made by James Buchanan, then 

member was required to sign the Con- a young Congressman from Pennsylvania, 

stitution and the following declaration: to revive an interest in the monument 

" We, each of us, do hereby declare that which should lead to its construction, 

we are firmly attached to the Constitution Twenty-five years later an association 

of the United States and to that of Penn- known as the " Washington Monument 

sylvania; to the principles of a free re- Society" was formed, and $87,000 was 

publican government, and to those which collected in sums of $1, each person so 

regulated the public conduct of George contributing being enrolled as a member 

Washington; that we will, each of us, to of the society. The corner-stone was laid 

the best of our ability, aid, and, so far as and the erection of the monument was be- 

may be consistent with our religious prin- gun July 4, 1848. The building progressed 

ciples respectively, preserve the rights and slowly ; until 1855, when, owing to the 

liberties of our country against all foreign failure of the Senate to concur in the 

and domestic violence, fraud, and usurpa- passage of an appropriation bill giving 

tion; and that, as members of the Wash- $200,000 to the enterprise, all work upon 

ington Benevolent Society, we will in all it ceased. The Civil War broke out, and 

things comply with its regulations, sup- the Washington Monument was for the 

port its principles, and enforce its views." time forgotten. In 1876 Senator Sherman 

It was a federal association, and had at- introduced a resolution providing that 

tractive social and benevolent features, whatever was returned from the govern- 

The funds of the society were used for ment appropriation for the Centennial Ex- 

the purposes of charity among its members position in Philadelphia should be refunded 

and their families, and for other pur- and appropriated to the completion of the 

poses which might be prescribed. They Washington Monument. This resolution 

had anniversary dinners on Washington's was amended by the appropriation com- 

birthday, so simple that men of moderate mittee of the House, and $1,000,000 was 

means might participate in them, the din- appropriated, to be paid in annual instal- 
x.-^T 209 



ments of $30,000 each. A 
commission was appointed 
to examine the work al- 
ready done, and the foun- 
dation was declared insuf- 
ficient. A new foundation 
was accordingly constructed 
at a cost of nearly $100,- 
000, and the work was 
pushed actively forward un- 
til its completion, nine 
years later, under the di- 
rection of Col. T. L. Caeey, 
United States Engineers. 
The entire cost of the 
monument was about $1,- 
500,000, of which amount 
nearly $300,000 was con- 
tributed by the "Wash- 
ington Monument Asso- 
ciation." Its base is 55 
feet square — the base of the 
foundation being 106 feet 
square and 38 feet deep. 
Its height is 555 feet, being 
30 feet greater than that of 
the cathedral at Cologne, 
and 75 feet greater than 
that of the Great Pyramid. 
It is built of Maryland 
marble lined with blue 
gneiss. Various stones con- 
tributed by the States are 
built into the interior lin- 
ing. Including the founda- 
tion, the weight of the 
structure is nearly 82,000 
tons. The top of the monu- 
ment is protected by a cap 
made of aluminum, which 
is not affected by the ele- 
ments. The ascent can he 
made by an elevator or by 
an iron stairway of nearly 
900 steps. The thickness of 
the walls at the base is 15 
feet, gradually lessening un- 
til at the top to 18 inches. 


Washingtoniana. Robert Dinwiddle, Pennsylvania, made a treaty with the Ind- 
lieutenant-governor of Virginia, observ- ian bands on the Monongahela River, in 
ing with anxiety and alarm the move- September, 1753, from whom he gained 
ments of the French on the frontiers of permission to build a fort at the junc- 



tion of that river and the Alleghany, tion, cannons, and barracks, and the num- 
now Pittsburg. He also resolved to send ber of canoes in the stream — that he was 
a competent messenger to the nearest enabled to construct a plan of it, which 
French post, with a letter demanding ex- was sent to the British government. Wash- 
planations, and the release and indemnifi- ington kept a journal of his diplomatic 
cation of the English traders whom the expedition, and this, to arouse the en- 
French had robbed and imprisoned. He thusiasm of the people, was published, and 
chose for this delicate and hazardous ser- was copied into every newspaper in the 
vice George Washington, then not twenty- colonies. It was reprinted in London, 
two years of age. With three attendants, and was regarded as a document of great 
Washington left Williamsburg, Oct. 31, importance, as unfolding the -views of the 
and, after journeying more than 400 miles French, and the first announcement of 
(more than half the distance through a positive proof of their hostile acts in 
dark wilderness), encountering incredible the disputed territory. 
hardships and dangers, amid snow and icy Disputes about rank caused a reference 
floods and hostile Indians, he reached the to General Shirley, then (1756) command- 
French post of Venango, Dec. 4, where er-in-chief of the British forces in Amer- 
he was politely received, and his visit ica, and Washington was chosen by his 
was made the occasion of great convivial- fellow-officers to present the matter to the 
ity by the officers 
of the garrison. 
He had been join- 
ed at Cumberland 
(Md.) by five 
others. The free 
use of wine dis- 
armed the French 
of their prudence, 
and they revealed 
to their sober 
guest their design 
. to permanently oc- 
cupy the region 
they then had pos- 
session of. Wash- 
ington perceived 
the necessity of 
quickly despatch- 
ing his business 
and returning to 
Williamsburg; and 
after spending a 

day at Venango, he pushed forward to Le general. He set out for Boston, a distance 
Bceuf, the headquarters of St. Pierre, the of 500 miles, on horseback, Feb. 4, ac- 
chief commander, who entertained him companied by two young officers, and 
politely four days, and then gave him a stopped several days in the principal cities 
written answer to Dinwiddie's remon- through which he passed. He was every- 
strance, enveloped and sealed. Washing- where received with great respect, for the 
ton retraced his perilous journey through fame of his exploits in the field where 
the wilderness, and after an absence of Braddock fell had preceded him. In New 
eleven weeks he again stood in the pres- York he was cordially entertained by Bev- 
ence of the governor (Jan. 16, 1754), with erly Robinson, son of the speaker of the 
his message fulfilled to the satisfaction Virginia Assembly. Mrs. Robinson's sis- 
of all. Washington and his attendants ter, Mary Phillipse, was then at his house, 
had made such a minute examination of and Washington was smitten with her 
Fort Le Bceuf — its form, size, construe- charms. On his return from Boston he 




Winchester with the 
intention of quit- 
ting military life. 
He had been chosen 
a member of the 
House of Burgesses 
of Virginia, and was 
affianced to the 
charming widow of 
Daniel Parke Cus- 
tis, who was about 
his own age — twen- 
ty-six years. They 
were wedded at the 
" White House," the 
residence of the 
bride, on Jan. 17, 
1759. Then Wash- 
ington took his seat 
in the Assembly at 
Williamsbu rg. 
At about the close 
of the honeymoon of 
Washington and his 
wife the speaker of 
the Assembly (Mr. 
Robinson), rising 
from his chair, 
thanked Washington 
for his public ser- 
vices. The young 
colonel, surprised 
and agitated, rose to 
reply, but could not 
summon words. His 
face crimsoned with 
was again entertained at the mansion confusion, when the accomplished speaker 
of Mr. Robinson, and he lingered as long adroitly relieved him by saying, " Sit 
in the company of Miss Phillipse as duty down, Colonel Washington ; your modesty 
would allow. He wished to take her with is equal to your valor, and that surpasses 
him to Virginia as his bride at some the power of any language I possess." 
time in the near future, but his natural The speaker was the father of Beverly 
modesty did not allow him to ask the Robinson, of New York, at whose house 
boon of* a betrothal. He left the secret Washington had met and fell in love with 
with a friend, who kept him informed his sister-in-law, Mary Phillipse. 
of everything of importance concerning the On June 15, 1775, Washington, then a 
rich heiress of Phillipse Manor on the member of Congress from Virginia, was 
Hudson, but delayed to make the proposal nominated by Thomas Johnson, a member 
of marriage. At length he was informed from Maryland, as commander-in-chief 
that he had a rival in Col. Roger Morris, of the Continental army, and was chosen, 
his companion-in-arms under Braddock, unanimously, by ballot. On the opening 
who won the fair lady, and the tardy lover of the Senate the next day, the president 
married the pretty little Martha Custis officially communicated to him a notice of 
three years afterwards. his appointment. Washington immediate- 

After the capture of Fort Duquesne, ly arose in his place and made the follow- 
Washington took leave of the army at ing reply: "Mr. President, though I am 




truly sensible of the high honor done me 
in this appointment, yet I feel great dis- 
tress from a consciousness that my abili- 
ties and military experience may not be 
equal to the extensive and important trust. 
However, as the Congress desires it, I 
will enter upon the momentous duty, and 
exert every power I possess in their ser- 
vice and for the support of the glorious 
cause. I beg they will accept my most 
cordial thanks for this distinguished tes- 
timony of their approbation. But, lest 
some unlucky event should happen, un- 

favorable to my reputation, I beg it may 
be remembered by every gentleman in the 
room that I this day declare, with the 
utmost sincerity, I do not think myself 
equal to the command I am honored with. 
As to pay, sir, I beg leave to assure the 
Congress that, as no pecuniary considera- 
tion could have tempted me to accept the 
arduous employment, at the expense of 
domestic ease and happiness, I do not wish 
to make any profit from it. I will keep an 
exact account of my expenses. These, 1 
doubt not, they will discharge, and that 




is all I desire." The Congress, by unan- one side was a profile head of Washington, 
imous vote, resolved that they would with the Latin legend, " Georgio Washing- 
maintain and assist the commander-in- ton, Svpremo Dvei Exercitvvm Asertori 
chief, and adhere to him, with their lives Libertatis Comitia Americana " — " The 
and fortunes, in the cause of American American Congress to George Washington, 
liberty. The commander-in-chief of the the Commander-in-chief of its Armies, the 
Continental army left Philadelphia on Assertor of Freedom." On the reverse, the 
June 21, and arrived at Cambridge on device shows troops advancing towards 
July 2. He was everywhere greeted with a town; others marching towards the 
enthusiasm on the way. His arrival in water; ships in view; General Washington 

New York was on the same aay that Gov- 
ernor Tryon arrived from England, and 
the same escort received both. On the 
morning of July 3, the troops were drawn 
up in order upon the common, at Cam- 
bridge to receive the commander-in-chief. 
Accompanied by the general officers of 
the army who were present, Washington 
walked from hi? headquarters 
to a great elm-tree, at the 
north side of the common, and 
under its shadow, stepped for- 


in front, and mount- 
ed, with his staff, 
whose attention he is, 
directing to the em- 
barking enemy. The 
legend is, " Hostibus 
Frimo Fugatis" — 
" The enemy for the 
first time put to 
flight." The exergue 
under tne device. 
" Bostonium Kecuper- 
atum, xvii. martii. 
mdcclxxvi." — " Boston 
recovered, March 17, 

On Dee. 27, 1776. 
the Congress, sitting 
in Baltimore, alarmed 
at the dangerous 
aspect of affairs, " Ke- 
solved, that General 
Washington shall be. 
and he is hereby, in- 
vested with full, 
ample, and complete 
powers to raise and 
collect together, in the 
most speedy and ef- 
fectual manner, from 

, any or all of these 

ward a few paces, made some remarks, United States seventy-six battalions of in- 

drew his sword, and formally took com- fantry, in addition to those already voted 

mand of the Continental army. See by Congress; to appoint officers for the 

Army (Continental Army). said battalions of infantry; to raise, offi- 

On March 25, 1776, when news of the cer, and equip 3,000 light-horse, three regi- 

British evacuation of Boston reached Con- ments of artillery, and a corps of engineers. 

gress, that body resolved that its thanks and to establish their pay; to apply to any 

he presented to the commander-in-chief of the States for such aid of the militia as 

and the^ officers and soldiers under his com- he shall judge necessary; to form such mag- 

mand, "for their wise and spirited con- azines or provisions, and in such places, 

duct in the siege and acquisition of Bos- as he shall think proper; to displace and 

ton ; and that a medal of gold be struck appoint all officers under the rank of brig- 

m commemoration of this great event and adier-general, and to fill up all vacancies 

presented to his Excellency." This medal in every other department in the Ameri- 

was nearly 2% inches in diameter. On can armies; to take, wherever he may be, 



whatever he may want for the use of the muskets, and occasionally side-arms. Theii 
army, if the inhabitants will not sell it, motto was " Conquer or die." Care was 
allowing a reasonable price for the same; taken to have all the States which 
to arrest and confine persons who refuse supplied the Continental army with troop* 
to take the Continental cur- 
rency [not then beginning to de- 
preciate], or are otherwise dis- 
affected to the American cause; 
and return to the States of 
which they are citizens their 
names and the nature of their 
offences, together with the wit- 
nesses to prove them." The 
foregoing powers were vested in 
Washington for the term of six 
months ensuing the date of the 
resolution, unless sooner deter- 
mined by Congress. These pow- 
ers were almost equal to those of 
a Roman dictator. They were 
conferred before the Congress 
could possibly have heard of the 
brilliant victory at Trenton on 
the morning of the previous day. 
Washington's lifeguard was 
organized in 1776, soon after 
the siege of Boston, while the 
American army was encamped 
in New York, on Manhattan Isl- 
and. It consisted of a major's 
command — 180 men. Caleb 
Gibbs, of Ehode Island, was 
its first chief officer, and bore 
the title of captain comman- 
dant. He held that office un- 
til the close of 1779, when he 
was succeeded by William Col- 
fax, one of his lieutenants. 
These were Henry P. Living- 
ston, of New York; William 
Colfax, of New Jersey; and 
Benjamin Goymes, of Virginia. 
Colfax remained in command of 
the corps until the disbanding 
of the army in 1783. The mem- 
bers of the guard were chosen 
with special reference to their 
excellences — physical, moral, rnd 
mental — and it was considered 
a mark of peculiar distinction 
to belong to the commander-in- 
chief's guard. Their uniform 

consisted of a blue coat with white fac- represented in the corps. Its numbers 
ings, white waistcoat and breeches, black varied. During the last year of the 
half-gaiters, and a cocked hat with a war there were only sixty-five; when, 
blue and white feather. They carried in 1780, the army at Morristown was in 




close proximity to the enemy, it was in- 
creased from the original 180 to 250. 
The last survivor of Washington's life- 
guard was Serg. Uzel Knapp, who died 
in New Windsor, N. Y., Jan. 11, 1857, 
when he was a little past ninety-seven 
years of age. He was a native of Stam- 
ford, Conn., and served in the Continental 
army from the beginning of the war until 
its close, entering the lifeguard at Mor- 
ristown, N. J., in 1780. After his death 
Sergeant Knapp's body lay in state in 
Washington's headquarters at Newburg 
three days, and, in the presence of a 
vast assemblage of people, he was buried 

of the Tories in the city and in the lower 
valley of the Hudson to cut off all com- 
munication with the mainland, to fire the 
magazines, to murder Washington, his 
staff-officers, and other leaders of the 
American army, or to seize them and send 
them to England for trial on a charge of 
treason, and to make prisoners of the great 
body of the troops. The ramifications of 
the plot were extensive, and a large num- 
ber of persons were employed. The mayor 
of New York (Mathews) was implicated 
in it, and even the lifeguard of Washing- 
ton was tampered with. An Irishman 
named Hickey, of that guard, was em- 

at the foot of the flag-staff near that ployed to poison Washington. He tried to 

mansion. Over his grave is a handsome make the housekeeper at headquarters — 

mausoleum of brown freestone, made the faithful daughter of Fraunce, the 

from a design by H. K. Brown, the famous innkeeper — his accomplice. She 

sculptor. Schuyler Colfax, a grandson of feigned compliance. Hickey knew that 

the last commander of the guard, had in Washington was fond of green pease, and 

his possession a document containing the 
autograph signatures of the corps in 
February, 1783, fac-similes of which have 
been published. 

he made an arrangement for her to have 
poison in a mess of them served at the 
table of the commander-in-chief. The 
maiden gave warning to Washington. 

Toryism was more rampant in the city Hickey put arsenic in the pease. She con- 
st New York in the summer of 1776 than veyed them to Washington,, who declined 
anywhere else on the continent. The Pro- to take any, but caused the immediate 
Vincial Congress was timid, and Tryon, arrest of the faithless lifeguardsman, and 

he was hanged. The 
horrible plot was re- 
vealed, and traced to 
Tryon as its author. 
Under the proc- 
lamation of the 
brothers Howe, 2,- 
703 persons in New 
Jersey, 851 in Rhode 
Island, and 1,282 in 
the city of New 
York and the rural 
districts subscribed 
a declaration of 
fidelity to the Brit- 
ish King. Just be- 
fore the limited 
time for the oper- 
ation of this proc- 
lamation expired, 
Germain issued orders to 
to let " the undeserving 


the royal governor, was active in foment- 
ing disaffection from his marine retreat. 
Washington made his summer head- 
quarters in New York at Richmond Hill, 
at the intersection of Charlton and Varick 
streets, and Tryon, on board the Duchess 

Lord George 
the Howes not 
escape that punishment which is due to 
their crimes, and which it will be ex- 
pedient to inflict for the sake of ex- 
ample to futurity." At about the same 

of Gordon, formed a plot for the uprising time Washington issued a proclamation 



trom Morristown, N. J. (Jan. 25, 1777), of the New England delegates and one 
in the name of the United States, that from New Jersey showed a willingness to 
those who had accepted British protection insult him," they expressed an '"earnest 
"should withdraw within the enemy's desire that he would not only curb and 
lines, or take the oath of allegiance to confine the enemy within their present 
the United States of America." There quarters, but, by the divine blessing, to- 
immediately arose "a conflict of sover- tally subdue them before they could be 
eignties." Clark, a 
Rep r esentative 
in Congress from 
New_ Jersey, de- 
clared that an oath 
of allegiance to the 
United States was 
absurd before con- 
federation. Wash- 
ington had taken 
the broad ground, 
from the moment of 
the Declaration of 
Independence, that 
the thirteen States 
composed a common 
country under the 
title of the United 
States of America; 
but Congress and the 
people were not pre- 
pared to accept this 

broad national view. Each State assumed reinforced." To this seeming irony Wash- 
the right only to outlaw those of its in- ington calmly responded : " What hope 
habitants who refused allegiance to its can there be of my effecting so desirable 
single self, as if the Virginian owed fealty a work at this time? The whole of our 
only to Virginia, or the Marylander to number in New Jersey fit for duty is un- 
Maryland. der 3,000." The resolution was carried 

After the American victory at Trenton by a bare majority of the States present — 
the whole country rang with the praises Virginia and four New England States. 
afl Washington, and the errors of Congress The jealous men were few ; the friends 
in not heeding his advice in the con- and admirers were many. William Hoop- 
struction of the army were freely com- er, of North Carolina, wrote to Robert 
mented upon. That body was now inferior Morris: " When it shall be consistent with 
in its material to the first and second Con- policy to give the history of that man 
gresses, and was burdened with cliques [Washington] from his first introduction 
and factions; and there were protests into our service; how often America has 
among the members, who shook their been rescued from ruin by the mere 
heads in disapprobation of the popularity strength of his genius, conduct, and cour- 
and power with which Washington was age; encountering every obstacle that 
invested. To a proposition to give him want of money, men, arms, ammunition, 
power to name generals, John Adams vehe- could throw in his way; an impartial 
mently protested, saying: "In private life world will say, with you, he is the great- 
I am willing to respect and look up to est man on earth. Misfortunes are the 
him; in this House I feel myself to be elements in which he shines; they are the 
the superior of General Washington." On groundwork on which his picture appears 
Feb. 24, 1777, when mere " ideal rein- to the greatest advantage. He rises supe- 
forcements " were voted to Washington, rior to them all ; they serve as forts to 
after an earnest debate, in which " some his fortitude, and as stimulants to bring 




into view those great qualities which his powerful Gates faction in Congress sus- 
modesty keeps concealed." tained him in this disobedience, and 
In the summer of 1777 Washington be- caused legislation by that body which was 
gan to feel the malign influence of the in- calculated to dishonor the commander-in- 
trigues of Gen. Hokatio Gates (q. v.) chief and restrain his military operations, 
against him, such as Schuyler had en- They forbade him to detach more than 
dured. The same faction in Congress 2,500 men from the Northern army with- 
which favored Gates's pretensions in the out first consulting Gates and Governor 
case of Schuyler also favored his ambi- Clinton, and so making him subservient 
tious schemes for his elevation to the po- to his inferiors. Emboldened by the evi- 
sition of commander-in-chief of the Ameri- dent strength of his faction in Congress, 
can armies. After Gates had superseded Gates pursued his intrigues with more 
Schuyler (August, 1777), that faction in- vigor, and his partisans there assured 
duced the Congress to lavish all their him that he would soon be virtual corn- 
favors upon the former, the favorite of mander-in-chief, when, late in November: 
the New England delegation, and to treat 1777, he was made president of a new 
Washington with positive neglect. They board of war, which was vested with 
did not scruple to slight his advice and to large powers, and by delegated authority 
neglect his wants. With unpatriotic queru- assumed to control military affairs which 
lousness some of the friends of Gates in properly belonged to the commander-in- 
Congress wrote and spoke disparagingly chief. Gates found a fitting instrument 
of Washington as a commander while he in carrying forward the conspiracy in 
was on his march to meet Howe (Au- General Conway, who, it was rumored, 
gust, 1777 ) . John Adams, warped by his was about to be appointed a major-general 
partiality for Gates, wrote, with a singular in the Continental army, to which ap- 
indifference to facts, concerning the rela- pointment Washington made the most 
tive strength of the two armies: "I wish serious opposition, because of Conway's 
the Continental army would prove that unfitness; also because it was likely to 
anything can be done. I am weary with drive from the service some of the best 
so much insipidity. I am sick of Fabian generals. Conway heard of this opposi- 
systems. My toast is, ' A short and tion. His malice was aroused, and his 
violent war.' " After the defeat of tongue and pen were made so conspicuous- 
Wayne that followed the disaster at the ly active that he was considered the head 
Brandywine, the friends of Gates in Con- and front of the conspiracy, which is 
gress renewed their censures of Washing- known in history as " Conway's Cabal." 
ton, and John Adams exclaimed, " O He wrote anonymous letters to members 
Heaven, grant us one great soul. One of Congress and to chief magistrates of 
leading mind would extricate the best States, filled with complaints and false 
cause from that ruin which seems to await statements concerning the character of 
it." And after the repulse of the British Washington, in which the late disasters 
before forts Mercer and Mifflin (October, to the American arms were charged to the 
1777), Adams exclaimed: "Thank God, incapacity and timid policy of the com- 
the glory is not immediately due to the mander-in-chief. He also wrote forged 
commander-in-chief, or idolatry and adu- letters as if from the pen of Washington, 
lation would have been so excessive as to He did his best to sow the seeds of dis- 
cndanger our liberties." After the sur- content among the officers of the army, 
render of Burgoyne the proud Gates in- and caused some of them to write flatter- 
suited Washington by sending his report ing letters to Gates, and so fed his hopes 
immediately to Congress instead of to the of having the chief command. Members 
commander-in-chief, and was not rebuked; of Congress joined in this letter-writing 
and he imitated the treasonable conduct in disparagement of the chief. A delegate 
of Lee by disobeying the orders of Wash- from Massachusetts (Mr. Lovell) in a 
ington to send troops (not needed there) letter to Gates said, after threatening 
from the Northern Department to assist Washington with " the mighty torrent of 
in capturing Howe and his army or ex- public clamor and vengeance " : " How dif- 
pelling them from Philadelphia. The ferent your conduct and youv fortune! 



This army will be totally lost unless you So, also, was the conspiracy abandoned 
come down and collect the virtuous band soon afterwards. Some of Gates's New 
who wish to fight under your banner." England friends became tired of him. 
And Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Philadelphia, Conway, found out, was despised, and left 
in an anonymous letter to Patrick Henry, the army. He quarrelled with General 
after ' declaring that the army at Valley Cadwallader and fought a duel with him. 
Forge had no general at its head, said : " A Conway was wounded, and, expecting to 
Gates, a Lee, or a Conway would in a few die, wrote an apologetic letter to Wash- 
weeks render them an irresistible body of ington, deploring the injury he had at- 
men. Some of the contents of this letter tempted to do him. He recovered and re- 
ought to be made public, in order to turned to France. 

awaken, enlighten, and alarm our coun- When the conspiracy to deprive Wash- 
try." Henry treated the anonymous letter ington of the chief command of the army 
with contemptuous silence, and sent it to was fully ripe, a day was secretly chosen 
Washington. Rush's handwriting betrayed when a committee of Congress should be 
him. Conway had written to Gates con- appointed to arrest Washington at Valley 
cerning Washington: "Heaven has been Forge. At that time there was a majority 
determined to save your country, or a of the friends of the conspirators in Con- 
weak general and bad counsellors would gress (then sitting at York, Pa.), be- 
have ruined it." When these words cause of the absence of the New York dele- 
reached Washington, he let Conway know gation. Only Francis Lewis and Col. 
the fact. A personal^ interview ensued, William Duer were at York. The latter 
during which Conway justified his words was very ill. Lewis, having been informed 
and offered no apology. He boasted of his of the designs of the conspirators, sent a 
defiance of the commander-in-chief, and message to Duer. The latter asked his 
was commended by Gates, Mifflin, and physician whether he could be removed to 
others. The Gates faction in Congress the court-house, where Congress was in 
procured Conway's appointment as inspect- session. " Yes," said the doctor, " but at 
or-general of the army, with the rank of the risk of your life." " Do you mean 
major-general, and made him independent that I would expire before reaching the 
of the chief. The conspirators hoped these place?" asked Duer. "No," said the phy- 
indignities would cause Washington to sician, " but I will not answer for your 
resign, when his place might be filled by life twenty-four hours afterwards." " Very 
Gates. Then the conspiracy assumed an- well," responded Duer, " prepare a litter." 
other phase. Without the knowledge of It was done, and Duer was carried to the 
Washington the board of war devised a floor of Congress. The arrival of Gouver- 
winter campaign against Canada, and neur Morris, of the New York delegation, 
gave the command to Lafayette. It was a at the same time, satisfied the conspira- 
trick of Gates to detach the marquis from tors that they would be defeated, and they 
Washington. It failed. Lafayette, was gave up the undertaking, 
summoned to York to receive his commis- On Sept. 17, 1777, the Continental Con- 
sion from Congress. There he met Gates, gress, expecting to be obliged to fly from 
Mifflin, and others, members of the board Philadelphia, again invested Washington 
of war, at table. Wine circulated freely, with almost dictatorial powers, to last for 
and toasts abounded. At length the mar- sixty days. He was authorized to sus- 
quis, thinking it time to show his colors, pend misbehaving officers; to fill all va- 
said: "Gentlemen, I perceive one toast cancies; to take provisions and other neces- 
has been omitted, which I will now pro- saries for the army, wherever he could 
pose." They filled their glasses, when he find them within 70 miles of his head- 
gave, " The commander-in-chief of the quarters, paying the owners therefor, or 
American armies." The coldness with giving certificates for the redemption of 
which that toast was received confirmed which the public faith was pledged; and 
Lafayette's opinion respecting the men to remove and secure for the benefit of the 
around him, and he was disgusted. The owners all .goods which might prove ser- 
conspirators, finding they could not use viceable to the public. On Dec. 30 these 
the marquis, abandoned the expedition, powers were extended to April 10, 1778. 




Through the exertions of General Lafay- An agreement was then made, for the 
ette, who went to France in 1779, ar- French army to march to the Hudson 
rangements were made with Louis XVI. to River as speedily as possible, 
send to the aid of the struggling Ameri- The earliest celebration of Washing- 
cans a French land and naval force. The ton's birthday found on record occurred in 
French troops were to be placed under the 
command of Lieutenant-General the Count 
de Rochambeau. In order to prevent any 
clashing of military authority, General 
Washington, who was to be supreme com- 
mander of the allied armies, was created 
by the King a lieutenant-general of 
France, that he might be on an official 
equality with Rochambeau, who was com- 
manded to serve under Washington. This 
was a wise arrangement. The commis- 
sion granted to Washington by the French 
monarch was brought over by Lafayette 
on his return to America. The ships and 
troops speedily followed. In the following 
summer Washington contemplated the 
aspect of public affairs with great anxiety 
and even alarm. The French fleet and 
army were blockaded at Newport, and the Richmond, Va., Feb. 11 (O. S.), 1782. 
commander-in-chief was doubtful whether The Virginia Gazette, or the American 
his own army could be kept together for Advertiser, made the following record four 
another campaign. He was, therefore, ex- days after the event: " Tuesday last, being 
ceedingly anxious to strike a decisive the birthday of his Excellency, General 
blow. He proposed to Rochambeau an Washington, our illustrious commander-in- 
attack on New York, but that was thought chief, the same was commemorated here 
too hazardous without a superior naval with the utmost demonstrations of joy." 
force. Letters were sent to the French The event was celebrated at Talbot Court- 
admiral in the West Indies, entreating as- house, Md., the next year. Leading citi- 
sistance, and, in September, Washington zens assembled at Cambridge, where a 
proceeded to Hartford to hold an ap- public dinner was provided, at which the 
pointed personal conference there with following regular toasts were drunk: 
Rochambeau. They met on Sept. 21. "1. General Washington — long may he 
Rochambeau was accompanied by Admiral live! — the boasted hero of liberty; 2. Con- 
Ternay, commander of the French fleet at gress; 3. Governor and State of Maryland: 
Newport. The conclusion was that the 4. Louis XVI. — the protector of the rights 
season was too far advanced for the allies of mankind; 5. Continental army; 6. 
to perform anything of importance, and, Maryland line; 7. May trade and naviga- 
after making some general arrangements tion flourish; 8. The seven United Prov- 
for the next campaign, Washington re- inces [Holland], our allies; 9. The Count 
turned to West Point, on the Hudson. It de Rochambeau and French army; 10. May 
was during this absence from camp that the union between the powers in alliance 
the treason of Arnold was revealed. Wash- ever continue on the basis of justice and 
ington met Rochambeau a second time at equality; 11. May the friends of freedom 
Hartford. It was on May 21, 1781. Their prove the sons of virtue; 12. Conversion 
meeting was celebrated by discharges of to the unnatural sons of America; 13. 
cannon. After partaking of refreshments, May the Union of the American States be 
the generals and suites rode to Wethers- perpetual." The day was celebrated in 
field, a few miles below Hartford, es- New York in 1784. It was celebrated 
corted by a few private gentlemen, and, there and in other places on Feb. 11, each 
at the house of Joseph Webb, where Wash- year, until 1793, when the day was changed 
ington was lodged, a conference was held, to the 22d to adapt it to the new style. 



With returning peace, the prospects of content in the army, and also wide-spread 
the Coniroental army, about to be disband- distress throughout the country. Contem- 
ed, appeared very gloomy. For a long plating the inherent weakness of the new 
time neither officers nor private soldiers government, many were inclined to con- 
had received any pay, for the treasury sider it a normal condition of the repub- 
wate empty, and there appeared very lit- lican form, and wished for a stronger one, 
tie assurance that its condition would like that of Great Britain. This feeling 
be improved. There was wide-spread dis- became so manifest in the army that 




. - . J^€l 


Colonel Nicola, a foreigner by birth, and his ojjgcers who were near in the large 

of weighty character, commanding a Penn- public room of Fraunce's Tavern, corner 

sylvania regiment, wrote a reprehensible of Broad and Pearl sti ^ts, New York, 

letter to Washington in May, 1782, in to exchange farewells wit. them. After 
which, professing to speak for the army, 
he urged the necessity of a monarchy to 
secure an efficient government and the 
rights of the people for the Americans. 
He proposed to Washington to accept the 
headship of such a government, with the 
title of King, and assured him that the 
army would support him. Nicola received 
from the patriot a stern rebuke. " If I 
am not deceived in the knowledge of my- 
self," he wrote, " you could not have found 
a person to whom your schemes are more 
disagreeable." If there was then a bud- 
ding conspiracy to overthrow the in- 
choate republic, it was effectually crushed 
in the germ. 

On June 8, 1783, Washington addressed the officers had assembled Washington en- 
a circular letter to the governor of each tered the room, and, taking a glass of 
of the United States, which was (like wine in his hand, said, "With a heart 
his Farewell Address, issued thirteen full of love and gratitude, I now take 
years afterwards) an earnest plea for leave of you. I most devoutly wish that 
union. In this paternal and affectionate your latter days may be as prosperous 
address, the commander - in - chief of the and happy as your former ones have 
armies stated four things which he deemed been glorious and honorable." Having 
to be essential to their well-being, and tasted -the wine, he continued, "I cannot 
even to their very existence — namely, " An come to each of you to take my leave, 
indissoluble union of the States under one but shall be obliged to you if each will 
general head; a sacred regard to public come and take me by the hand." The 
justice; the adoption of a proper peace scene was touching and impressive, 
establishment, and the prevalence of that While their cheeks were suffused with 
pacific policy and friendly disposition tears Washington kissed each of his be- 
among the people of the United States loved companions-in-arm§ on the forehead, 
which would induce them to forget their Then the commander-in-chief left the 
local prejudices and politics, to make those room, and, passing through a corps of 
mutual concessions which are requisite light infantry, walked to Whitehall 
to the general ' prosperity, and, in some Ferry, followed by a vast procession of 
instances, to sacrifice their individual ad- citizens. At 2 P.M. he entered a barge and 
vantages to the interests of the commu- crossed the Hudson to Paulus's Hook 
nity." " These," he said, " are the pillars (now Jersey City), on his way to the 
on which the glorious fabric of our inde- Congress at Annapolis, 
pendence and national character must be After parting with his officers in New 
supported." The commander-in-chief re- York, Washington stopped at Philadel- 
quested each governor to whom the ad- phia, where he deposited in the office of 
dress was sent to lay it before his legislat- the comptroller an account of his ex- 
ure at its next session, that the sentiments penses during the war, amounting to 
might be considered as "the legacy of one (including that spent for secret service) 
wh^ ardently wished, on all occasions, to $04,315. Then he went on to Annapolis, 
be useful to his country, and who, even where the Congress was in session, and. 
in the shade of retirement, would not fail at noon, Dec. 23, 1783, he entered the 
to implore the divine benediction upon Senate chamber of the Maryland State- 
it." house, according to previous arrange- 
On Dec. 4, 1783, Washington assembled merits, and delivered to General Mifflin, 



president of that body, his commission, 
which he had received from it in June, 
1775. In so doing, the commander-in- 
chief delivered a brief speech, with much 
feeling. Mifflin made an eloquent reply, 
and closed by saying: "We join you in 
commending the interests of our dearest 
country to the protection of Almighty 
God, beseeching him to dispose the hearts 
and minds of its citizens to improve the 
opportunity afforded them of becoming a 
happy and respectable nation. And for 
you, we address to Him our earnest pray- 
ers that a life so beloved may be fostered 
with all His care; that your days may be 

reported the same day " That the statue 
be of bronze; the general to be represent- 
ed in a Roman dress, holding a truncheon 
in his right hand, and his head encircled 
with a laurel wreath. The statue to be 
supported by a marble pedestal, on which 
are to be represented, in basso - relievo, 
the following principal events of the war, 
in which General Washington commanded 
in person, viz.: the evacuation of Boston, 
the capture of the Hessians at Trenton, 
the battle at Princeton, the action at 
Monmouth, and the surrender at York- 
town. On the upper part of the front 
of the pedestal to be engraved as fol- 


as happy as they have been illustrious, and lows: 'The United States, in Congress 
that He will give you that reward which assembled, ordered this statue to be erect- 
tlie world cannot give." Washington and ed in the year of our Lord 1783, in honor 
his wife set out for Mount Vernon on the of George Washington, the illustrious corn- 
day before Christmas, where he was wel- mander-in-chief of the armies of the Unit- 
coined back to private life by the greet- ed States of America during the war 
ings of his family and flocks of colored which vindicated and secured their liberty, 
servants. sovereignty, and independence.'" It was 
On Aug. 7, 1783, the Continental Con- further resolved that the statue should 
gress, sitting at Princeton, resolved be made by the best artist in Europe, un- 
unanimously " That an equestrian statue der the direction of the United States 
of General Washington be erected at the minister at Versailles (Benjamin Frank- 
place where the residence of Congress lin), and that the best resemblance of Gen- 
shall be established." The matter was eral Washington that could be procured 
referred to a committee consisting of should be sent to the minister, together 
Messrs. Arthur Lee, Ellsworth, and Mif- with " the fittest description of the events 
fiin, to prepare a plan. The committee which are to be the subject of the basso- 



relievo." Happily for historic truth, that an immense obelisk to the memory Oi 
statue of Washington "in a Roman Washington, begun by private subscrip- 
dress" was never executed. Washington tions. Meanwhile Congress had caused 
died on Dec. 14, 1799, and on the 23d an equestrian statue of bronze to be erect- 
ed in a square at the na- 
tional capital. The State 
of Virginia had also erect- 
ed a monument surmount- 
ed by a bronze equestrian 
statue, at Richmond; and 
the citizens of New York 
caused an equestrian 
statue of bronze to be 
erected at Union Square, 
by Henry K. Brown, su- 
perior to any yet set up. 
In an order-book in the 
handwriting of Washing- 
ton, which came into the 
possession of Prof. Robert 
W. Weir, instructor of 
drawing in the United 
States Military Academy, 
and which he deposited in 
the archives of the War 
Department at the na- 
tional capital in the year 
1873, may be found the 
famous order against pro- 
fanity, written by the 
commander-in-chief's own 

The following is a list 
Congress adopted a joint resolution that of the localities of the principal head- 
a marble monument should be erected quarters of Washington during the Revolu- 
to the memory of Washington at the tionary War; Craigie House, Cambridge 
national capital. Early in the session of (residence of the late Henry W. Long- 
Congress (1799-1800) the question of fellow), 1775-76; No. 180 Pearl Street and 
erecting a monument in accordance with No. 1 Broadway, New York City, 1776; 
the resolves at his death was discussed, also Morton House (afterwards Rich- 
It was proposed to erect a marble mauso- mond Hill), at the junction of Variek 
leum of a pyramidal shape, with a base and Charlton streets; Roger Morris's 
100 feet square. This was objected to by house, Harlem Heights, New York, 
many members opposed to his adminis- 1776; the Miller House, near White 
tration, who thought a simple slab sum- Plains, Westchester co., N. Y., 1776; 
cient, as history, they said, would erect Schuyler House, Pompton, N. J., 1777; 
a better monument. At the next session the Ring House, at Chad's Ford, on the 
it was brought up, and reference was Brandywine, and the Elmar House, White- 
made to the resolve of Congress in 1783. marsh, 1777; the Potts House, Valley 
The bill for a mausoleum finally passed Forge, 1777-7S ; Freeman's Tavern, Mor- 
the House, with an appropriation of $200,- ristown, N. J., 1777-78; the Brinkerhofl 
000. The Senate reduced the amount to House, Fishkill, N. Y., 1778; at Freder- 
$150,000. The House proposed other icksburg (in Putnam county, N. Y.) 1779; 
amendments, and the matter was allowed Ford Mansion, Morristown, 1779-80; 
to rest indefinitely. Finally, in 1878, Con- New Windsor-on-the-Hudson, 1779, 1780, 
gress made an appropriation for finishing and 1781 ; Hopper House, Bergen county, 




K. J., 1780; Birdsall House, Peekskill, 
N. Y., 1780; De Windt House, at Tappan, 
1780; Moore's house, Yorktown, Va., 
1781; Hasbrouch House, Newburg, 1782, 
1783; Farm-house at Rocky Hill, N. J., 
near Princeton, 1783; and Fraunce's 
Tavern, corner of Broad and Pearl streets, 
New York City, where he parted with his 
officers, 1783. 

During his whole military career 
Washington never received the slightest 
personal injury. In the desperate battle 
on the Monongahela, where Braddock was 
mortally wounded, Washington was the 
only officer unhurt. To his mother he 
wrote: "I luckily escaped without a 
wound, though I had four bullets through 
my coat and two horses shot under me." 
To his brother John he wrote: "By the 
all-powerful dispensation of Providence I 
have been protected beyond all human 

probability or expectation. Death was 
levelling my companions on every side." 
In that battle an Indian chief singled 
Washington out for death by his rifle, 
but could not hit him. Fifteen years 
afterwards, when Washington was in the 
Ohio country, this chief travelled many 
miles to see the man who he and his fol- 
lowers, who tried to shoot him, were sat- 
isfied was under the protection of the 
Great Spirit. He said he had a dozen 
fair shots at him, but could not hit him. 
John Parke Custis, an only son of Mrs. 
Washington, by a former husband, was aide 
to the commander-in-chief at Yorktown, 
at the beginning of the siege. Seized 
with camp-fever, he retired to Eltham, 
the seat of Colonel Bassett, a kinsman, 
where he died. At the conclusion of the 
ceremonies at the surrender of Corn- 
wallis, Washington hastened to the bed- 

fir£cLa-Jb> ^tJ^J^iAt^ -^"i?^ Ja-A/w ^-^^ 


X. — P 



Washington in 1769 (From Savage's portrait). 

side of his dying step-son. He was met 
at the door by Dr. Craik, who told him 
that all was over. The chief bowed his 
head, and, giving vent to his sorrow by a 
Hood of tears, he turned to the weeping 
widow — mother of four children — and 
said: "I adopt the two younger children 
as my own." These were Eleanor Parke 
Custis and George Washington Parke 
Custis, the former three years of age and 
the latter six months. 

Washington as President. — Presidential 
electors were chosen by the people in the 
autumn of 1788, who met in electoral col- 
lege on the first Wednesday in February, 
1789, and chose the President and Vice- 
President. His election was announced to 
him by Charles Thomson, who had been 
sent to Mount Vernon for the purpose, 
with a letter from John Langdon, pro 

tempore president of the Senate. Thom- 
son arrived on April 14, 1879. Washington 
accepted the office, and towards evening 
the same day rode rapidly to Fredericks- 
burg to bid farewell to his aged mother. 
On the morning of the 16th, accompanied 
by Thomson, Colonel Humphreys, and his 
favorite body - servant, he began his 
journey towards New York, everywhere 
on the way greeted with demonstra- 
tions of reverence and affection. He was 
received at New York with great honors, 
and on April 30 he took the oath of office 
as President of the United States, adminis- 
tered by Robert P. Livingston, chancellor 
of the State of New York. The ceremony 
took place in the open outside gallery of 
the old City Hall, on the corner of Wall 
and Nassau streets, in the presence of 
both Houses of Congress and a vast multi- 




tude of citizens. He was dressed in a that bitter animosity grew up between 
plain suit of dark-brown cloth and white them, which gave Washington great un- 
silk stockings, all of American manufact- easiness, and they became the acknowl- 
ure. He never wore a wig. His ample edged leaders of two violently opposing 

parties — Federalists and Re- 
publicans. When Washing- 
ton thought of retiring from 
the Presidency, at the close 
of his first term, Jefferson, 
who knew and valued his 
sterling patriotism, urged 
him to accept the office a 
second time. In a letter to 
him, he boldly avowed his be- 
lief that there was a con- 
spiracy on foot to establish 
a monarchy in this country 
on the ruins of the republic, 
and pointed to the measures 
advocated by Hamilton as 
indicative of a scheme to 
hair was powdered and dressed in the corrupt legislators and people. Washing- 
fashion of the day, clubbed and ribboned, ton plainly told Jefferson that his sus- 
After taking the oath and kissing the picions about a monarchical conspiracy 
sacred volume on which he had laid his were unfounded, and that the people, espe- 
hands, he reverently closed his eyes, and in cially of the great cities, were thoroughly 
an attitude of devotion said, " So help me, attached to republican principles. But 
God!" The chancellor said, "It is done!" Jefferson was firm in his belief in a con- 
And then, turning to the people, he shout- spiracy, and, finally, criminations and re- 
ed, "Long live George Washington, the criminations having taken place in the 
first President of the United States." The public prints between the two secre- 
shout was echoed and re-echoed by the taries, Hamilton charged Freneau's Go- 
populace, when Washington and the mem- zette, which continually attacked the ad- 
bers of Congress retired to the Senate ministration, with being the organ of 
chamber, where the President delivered his Jefferson, edited by a clerk in his office, 
inaugural address. Then he and 
the members went in procession to 
St. Paul's Chapel, and there invoked 
the blessings of Almighty God upon 
the new government. 

Mr. Jefferson returned from 
France in the autumn of 1789, to 
take a seat in Washington's cabinet. 
He was filled with the French en- 
thusiasm for republican ideas and 
hatred of monarchy, and he was 
chilled by the coldness of Wash- 
ington, Adams, Hamilton, and 
others towards the cause of the 
French revolutionists. He became 
morbidly sensitive and suspicious, 
especially of Hamilton, regarding 

him as still a champion of a limited The whole article was courteous m words, 
monarchy, for which he had expressed his but extremely bitter in allusions. It pro- 
preference in the convention that framed duced an open rupture between the two 
the Constitution. The consequence was, secretaries, which Washington tri»4 in 





vain to heal in a letter to Jefferson. Jef- and became a candidate for re-election, 
ferson, not long afterwards, left the The lines between the two political parties 
cabinet, which Washington regretted. in the nation were now (1792) distinctly 
Soon after the adjournment of Congress, drawn. Opposition to the funding system 
March, 1791, Washington started on a was substituted for opposition to the Con- 
three months' tour through the Southern stitution. Both parties were in favor of 
States to make himself better acquainted the re-election of Washington, but divided 
with the people and their wants, and on the question of who should be Vice- 

to observe the workings of the new sys- 
tem of government. He found that the 

President. The opposition (Republicans) 
concentrated their votes on George Clin- 

opposition to the national Constitution ton ; the Federalists supported John 
so strongly shown in that region had as- Adams. Washington received the unan- 
sumed the character of opposition to the imous vote of the electoral college, the 
administration, and his reception was not members of that body then numbering 
so warm as it had been during his tour 130. Adams received seventy-seven votes 
in New England. He stopped a few days and Clinton fifty. The Kentucky electors 
on the Potomac, and selected the site for voted for Jefferson for Vice-President, and 

one of the South Carolina votes 
was given to Aaron Burr. 

As soon as the news of the ex- 
ecution of Louis XVT., in Paris 
(January, 1793), reached England 
and the Continental powers, they 
coalesced against France, and war 
between them and the Revolution- 
ists was announced. When the 
news of this event and the conduct 
of Genet reached Washington, at 
Mount Vernon, his mind was filled 
with anxiety. By the treaty of 
commerce, French privateers were 
entitled to a shelter in American 
ports — a shelter not to be extend- 
ed to the enemies of France. By 
the treaty of alliance, the United 
States was bound, in express terms, 
to guarantee the French possessions 
in America. War between England 
Ihe national capital. His course lay and the United States was threatened in 
through Virginia by way of Richmond into the aspect of events. Washington hasten- 
North Carolina, and by a curved route ed to Philadelphia to consult with his 
to Charleston, S. C. He extended it to cabinet. The questions were put: Whether 
Savannah, Ga., whence he ascended the a proclamation to prevent citizens of the 
right bank of the river to Augusta ; and, United States interfering in the impending 
turning his face homeward, passed through war should be issued? Should it contain 
Columbia and the interior of North Caro- a declaration of neutrality, or what? 
lina and Virginia. The journey of 1,887 Should a minister from the French Re- 
miles was made with the same pair of public be received? If so, should the 
horses. reception be absolute or qualified? Was 

Washington strongly desired, to retire to the United States bound to consider the 
private life at the close of his first term treaties with France as applying to the 
as President. The public more strongly present state of the parties, or might 
desired his continuance in office. It was they be renounced or suspended? Sup- 
a critical time in the life of the republic, pose the treaties binding, what was the 
and he patriotically yielded to what seem- effect of the guarantee? Did it apply in 
ed to be the demands of public interests, the case of an offensive war? Was the 




present war offensive or defensive on the 
part of France? Did the treaty with 
France require the exclusion of English 
ships-of-war, other than privateers, from 
the ports of the United States? Was it 
advisable to call an extra session of Con- 
gress? After careful discussion, it was 
unanimously concluded that a proclama- 
tion of neutrality should be issued, that 
a new French minister should be received, 
and that a special session of Congress 
was not expedient. There were some dif- 
ferences of opinion upon other points 
under discussion. A proclamation of neu- 
trality was put forth April 22, 1793. It 
announced the disposition of the United 
States to pursue a friendly and impartial 
policy towards all of the belligerent 
powers; it exhorted and warned citizens 
of the United States to avoid all acts con- 
trary to this disposition; declared the? 
resolution of the government not only 
not to interfere on behalf of those who 
might expose themselves to punishment or 
forfeiture under the law of nations by 
aiding or abetting either of the belliger- 

ents, but to cause all such acts, done with- 
in the jurisdiction of the United States, 
to be prosecuted in the proper courts. 

It was the wish of a majority of the 
American people that Washington should 
hold the office of chief magistrate for a 
third time. He yearned for the happiness 
of private life, and he would not con- 
sent; and in the fall of 1796 John Adams 
was elected President of the United States. 
Before the election took place, Washington 
issued (Sept. 17) a farewell address to 
the people. It was an earnest appeal to 
them to preserve the Union of the States 
as the only sure hope for the continu- 
ance of their liberties, and of the na- 
tional life and prosperity. When the 
President had written out his address, 
he submitted it to Hamilton, Jay, and 
Madison for their criticism and sugges- 
This was done. Several sugges- 
U&iisV%vere made and a few verbal alter- 
ations. Unwilling to mar the draught 
which Washington had submitted to them, 
Hamilton made a copy, introducing a few 
grafts and making fewer prunings, and 




returned it to the President. The latter your thoughts must be employed in des- 
adopted most of the suggestions, and, ignating the person who is to be clothed 

with that important trust, 
it appears to me proper, 
especially as it may con- 
duce to a more distinct 
expression of the public 
voice, that I should now 
apprise you of the resolu- 
tion I have formed, to de- 
cline being considered " 
among the number of 
those out of whom a 
choice is to be made. 

I beg you, at the same 
time, to do me the justice 
to be assured that this 
resolution has not been 
taken without a strict 
regard to all the consid- 
erations appertaining to 
the relation which binds a 
dutiful citizen to his coun- 
try; and that, in with- 
drawing the tender of ser- 
vice, which silence in my 
situation might imply, I 
am influenced by no dimi- 
nution of zeal for your 
future interest; no defi- 
ciency of grateful respect 
for your past kindness; 
but am supported by a 
making a fair copy in his own handwrit- full conviction that the step is com- 
ing, sent it to C. Claypoole, of Phila- patible with both. 

delphia, who published a daily paper, and The acceptance of, and continuance 
in that it was first printed. The original hitherto in, the office to which your suf- 
manuscript of this address was in the pos- frages have twice called me, have been a 
session of the late Robert Lennox, of New uniform sacrifice of inclination to the 
York. It was also published on a hand- opinion of duty, and to a deference for 
somely printed broadside, with a portrait what appeared to be your desire. I con- 
of Washington at the head, drawn by stantly hoped that it would have been 
Joseph Wright, and engraved by David much earlier in my power, consistently 
Edwin. with motives which I was not at liberty 

Washington's Farewell Address to the to disregard, to return to that retirement 
People of the United States. — Six months from which I had been reluctantly drawn, 
before the close of Washington's second The strength of my inclination to do this, 
term he refused to be a candidate for re- previous to the last election, had even 
election. He issued the following farewell led to the preparation of an address to 
address, Sept. 17, 1796. declare it to you; but mature reflection 

on the then perplexed and critical posture 

Friends and Fellow - citizens, — The of our affairs with foreign nations, and the 
period for a new election of a citizen unanimous advice of persons entitled to 
to administer the executive government my confidence, impelled me to abandon 
of the United States being not far dis- the idea. 

tant, and the time actually arrived when I rejoice that the state of your concerns, 




external as well as internal, no longer foundry penetrated .with this idea, I shall 

renders the pursuit of inclination incom- carry it with me to my grave, as a strong 

patible with the sentiment of duty or incitement to unceasing vows that Heaven 

propriety; and am persuaded, whatever may continue to you the choicest tokens 

partiality may be retained for my services, of its beneficence; that your union and 

that, in the present circumstances of our brotherly affection may be perpetual; that 

country, you will not disapprove my de- the free Constitution, which is the work 

termination to retire. of your hands, may be sacredly main- 

The impressions with which I first un- tained; that its administration in every 

dertook the arduous trust were explained department may be stamped with wisdom 

on the proper occasion. In the discharge and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of 

of this trust I will only say that I have the people of these States, under the 

with good intentions contributed towards auspices of liberty, may be made complete, 

the organization and administration of the by so careful a preservation and so pru- 

government the best exertions of which a dent a use of this blessing, as will acquire 

very fallible judgment was capable. Not to them the glory of recommending it to 

unconscious in the outset of the inferior- the applause, the- affection, and adoption 

ity of my qualifications, experience in my of every nation which is yet a stranger 

own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes to it. 

of others, has strengthened the motives to 
diffidence of myself; and every day the in- 
creasing weight of years admonishes me 
more and more that the shade of retire- 
ment is as necessary to me as it will be 
welcome. Satisfied that, if any circum- 
stances have given peculiar value to my 
services, they were temporary, I have the 
consolation to believe that, while choice 
and prudence invite me to quit the polit- 
ical scene, patriotism does not forbid it. 

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But 
a solicitude for your welfare, which can- 
not end but with my life, and the ap- 
prehension of danger natural to that 
solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the 
present, to offer to your solemn contem- 
plation, and to recommend to your fre- 
quent review, some sentiments, which are 
the result of much reflection, of no incon- 
siderable observation, and which appear 
to me all-important to the permanency Of 

In looking forward to the moment which your felicity as a people. These will be 
is intended to terminate the career of my offered to you with the more freedom, as 
public life, my feelings do not permit me you can only see in them the disinterested 
to suspend the deep acknowledgment of warnings of a parting friend, who can pos- 
that debt of gratitude which I owe to my sibly have no personal motive to. bias his 
beloved country for the many honors it counsel. Nor can I forget, as an en- 
has conferred upon me; still more for couragement to it, your indulgent re- 
the steadfast confidence with which it has ception of my sentiments on a former and 
supported me; and for the opportunities not dissimilar occasion. 

I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my 
inviolable attachment by services faithful 
and persevering, though in usefulness un- 
equal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted 
to our country from these services^ let it 
always be remembered to your praise, and 
as an instructive example in our annals, 
that under circumstances in which the 
passions* agitated in every direction, were 
liable to mislead, amid appearances 
sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune 
often discouraging, in situations in which 
not unfrequently want of success has coun- 
tenanced the spirit of criticism, the con- 
stancy of your support was the essential 

Interwoven as is the love of liberty with 
every ligament of your hearts, no recom- 
mendation of mine is necessary to fortify 
or confirm the attachment. 

The unity of government, which con- 
stitutes you one people, is also now dear 
to you. It is justly so; for it is a main 
pillar in the edifice of your real indepen-i 
dence, the support of your tranquillity 
at home, your peace abroad; of your safe- 
ty; of your prosperity; of that very 
liberty which you so highly prize. But as 
it is easy to foresee that from different 
causes and from different quarters much 
pains will be taken, many artifices employ-" 

prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the ed, to weaken in your minds the convic- 
plans by which they were effected. Pro- tion of this truth; as this is the point 



in your political fortress against which of the North, it finds its particular navi- 
the batteries of internal and external gation invigorated; and, while it con- 
enemies will be most constantly and ac- tributes in different ways to nourish and 
tively (though often covertly and in- increase the general mass of the national 
sidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment navigation, it looks forward to the protec- 
that you should properly estimate the tion of a maritime strength, to which it- 
immense value of your national union to self is unequally adapted. The East, in 
your collective and individual happiness; a like intercourse with the West, already 
that you should cherish a cordial, habit- finds, and in the progressive improvement 
ual, and immovable attachment to it; ac- of interior communications by land and 
customing yourselves to think and speak water will more and more find, a valuable 
of it as of the palladium of your political vent for the commodities which it brings 
safety and prosperity; watching for its from abroad, or manufactures at home, 
preservation with jealous anxiety; dis- The West derives from the East supplies 
countenancing whatever may suggest even requisite to its growth and comfort, and, 
a suspicion that it can in any event be what is perhaps of still greater con- 
abandoned; and indignantly frowning sequence, it must of necessity owe the 
upon the first dawning of every attempt secure enjoyment of indispensable out- 
to alienate any portion of our country lets for its own productions to the weight, 
from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties influence, and the future maritime 
which now link together the various parts, strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, 

For this you have every inducement of directed by an indissoluble community of 

sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or interest as one nation. Any other tenure 

choice, of a common country, that country by which the West can hold this essential 

has a right to concentrate your affections, advantage, whether derived from its own 

The name of America, which belongs to separate strength or from an apostate and 

you in your national capacity, must al- unnatural connection with any foreign 

ways exalt the just pride of patriotism, power, must be intrinsically precarious, 
more than any appellation derived from While, then, every part of our country 

local discriminations. With slight shades thus feels an immediate and particular 

of difference, you have the same religion, interest in union, all the parts combined 

manners, habits, and political principles, cannot fail to find in the united mass of 

You have in a common cause fought and means and efforts greater strength, greater 

triumphed together; the independence and resource, proportionably greater security 

liberty ytou possess are the work of joint from external danger, a less frequent in- 

counsels and joint efforts, of common dan- terruption of their peace by foreign 

gers, sufferings, and successes. nations, and, what is of inestimable value, 

But these considerations, however pow- they must derive from union an exemption 
erfully they address themselves to your from those broils and wars between theni- 
sensibility, are greatly outweighed by selves, which so frequently afflict neighbor- 
those which apply more immediately to ing countries not tied together by the 
your interest. Here every portion of our same governments, which their own rival- 
country finds the most commanding ships alone would be sufficient to produce, 
motives for carefully guarding and pre- bui; which opposite foreign alliances, at- 
serving the union of the whole. tachments, and intrigues would stimulate 

The North, in an unrestrained inter- and embitter. Hence, likewise, they will 

course with the South, protected by the avoid the necessity of those overgrown 

equal laws of a common government, finds military establishments which, under any 

in the productions of the latter great ad- form of government, are inauspicious to 

ditional resources of maritime and com- liberty, and which are to be regarded as 

mercial enterprise and precious materials particularly hostile to republican liberty, 

of manufacturing industry. The South in In this sense it is that your Union ought 

the same intercourse, benefiting by the to be considered as a main prop of your 

agency of the North, sees its agriculture liberty, and that the love of the one ought 

grow and its commerce expand. Turning to endear to you the preservation of the 

partly into Its own channels the seamen other. 



These considerations speak a persuasive towards confirming their prosperity. Will 
language to every reflecting and virtuous it not be their wisdom to rely for the 
mind, and exhibit the continuance of the preservation of these advantages on the 
Union as a primary object of patriotic Union by which they were procured? 
desire. Is there a doubt whether a com- Will they not henceforth be deaf to those 
mon government can embrace so large a advisers, if such there are, who would 
sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen sever them from their brethren and con- 
to mere speculation in such a case were nect them with aliens? 
criminal. We are authorized to hope that To the efficacy and permanency of your 
a proper organization of the whole, with Union, a government for the whole is in- 
the auxiliary agency of governments for dispensable. No alliances, however strict, 
the respective subdivisions, will afford a between the parts can be an adequate sub- 
happy issue to the experiment. It is well stitute; they must inevitably experience 
worth a fair and full experiment. With the infractions and interruptions which 
such powerful and obvious motives to all alliances in all times have experienced. 
union, affecting all parts of our country, Sensible of this momentous truth, you 
while experience shall not have demon- have improved upon your first essay, by 
strated its impracticability, there will al- the adoption of a constitution . of govern- 
ways be reason to distrust the patriotism ment better calculated than your former 
of those who in any quarter may endeavor for an intimate union, and for the effi- 
to weaken its bands. cacious management of your common con- 

In contemplating the causes which may cerns. This government, the offspring of 
disturb our Union, it occurs as a matter of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, 
serious concern, that any ground should adopted upon full investigation and ma- 
have been furnished for characterizing ture deliberation, completely free in its 
parties by geographical .iiscriminations principles, in the distribution of its pow> 
Northerr- and Southern, Atlantic and ers, uniting security with energy, and con- 
Western; whence designing men may en- taining within itself a provision for its 
deavor to excite a belief that there is a own amendment, has a just claim to your 
real difference of local interests and views, confidence and your support. Respect for 
One of the expedients of party to acquire its authority, compliance with its laws, 
influence within particular districts, is to acquiescence in its measures, are duties 
misrepresent the opinions and aims of enjoined by the fundamental maxims of 
other districts. You cannot shield your- true Liberty. The basis of our political 
selves too much against the jealousies and systems is the right of the people to make 
heart-burnings which spring from these and to alter their constitutions of gov- 
misrepresentations ; they tend to render ernment. But the constitution which at 
alien to each other those who ought to be any time exists, till changed by an explicit 
bound together by fraternal affection, and authentic act of the whole people, is 
The inhabitants of our Western country sacredly obligatory upon all. The very 
have lately had a useful lesson on this idea of the power and the right of the 
head; they have seen, in the negotiation people to establish government presupposes 
by the executive, and in the unanimous the duty of every individual to obey the 
ratification by the Senate, of the treaty established government, 
with Spain, and in the universal satis- All obstructions to the execution of the 
faction at that event throughout the laws, all combinations and associations, 
United States, a decisive proof how un- under whatever plausible character, with 
founded were the suspicions propagated the real design to direct, control, counter- 
among them of a policy in the general act, or awe the regular deliberation and 
government and in the Atlantic States action of the constituted authorities, are 
unfriendly to their interests in regard to destructive of this fundamental principle, 
the Mississippi; they have been witnesses and of fatal tendency. They serve to 
to the formation of two treaties, that with organize faction, to give it an artificial 
Great Britain and that with Spain, which and extraordinary force; to put in the 
secure to them everything they could de- place of the delegated will of the nation, 
sire in respect to our foreign relations, the will of a party, often a small but art- 



ful and enterprising minority of the com- 
munity; and, according to the alternate 
triumphs of different parties, to make the 
public administration the mirror of the 
ill-concerted and incongruous projects of 
fashion, rather than the organs of consist- 
ent and wholesome plans digested by com- 
mon councils and modified by mutual in- 

However combinations or associations 
of the above description may now and then 
answer popular ends, they are likely, in 
the course of time and things, to be- 
come potent engines, by which cunning, 
ambitious, and unprincipled men will be 
enabled to subvert the power of the peo- 
ple, and to usurp for themselves the reins 
of government; destroying afterwards the 
very engines which have lifted them to un- 
just dominion. 

Towards the preservation of your gov- 
ernment, and the permanency of your pres- 
ent happy state, it is requisite, not only 
that you steadily discountenance irregular 
oppositions to its acknowledged authority, 
but also that you resist with care the 
spirit of innovation upon its principles, 
however specious the pretexts. One 
method of assault may be to effect, in the 
forms of .the Constitution, alterations, 
which will impair the energy of the sys- 
tem, and thus to undermine what cannot 
be directly overthrown. In all the changes 
to which you may be invited, remember 
that time and habit are at least as neces- 
sary to fix the true character of govern- 
ments as of other human institutions; 
that experience is the surest standard by 
which to test the real tendency of the 
existing constitution of a country; that 
facility in changes, upon the credit of 
mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to 
perpetual change, from the endless variety 
of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, 
especially, that, for the efficient manage- 
ment of your common interests, in a coun- 
try so extensive as ours, a government 
of as much vigor as is consistent with the 
perfect security of liberty is indispensable. 
Liberty itself will find in such a govern- 
ment, with powers properly distributed 
and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, 
indeed, little else than a name, where the 
government is too feeble to withstand the 
enterprises of faction, to confine each 
member of the society within the limits 

prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all 
in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of 
the rights of person and property. 

1 have already intimated to you the 
danger of parties in the State, with par- 
ticular reference to the founding of them 
on geographical discrimination. Let me 
now take a more comprehensive view, and 
warn you in the most solemn manner 
against the baneful effects of the spirit 
of party generally. 

This spirit, unfortunately, is insepa- 
rablejrom our nature, having its root in 
the strongest passions of the human mind. 
It exists under different shapes in all 
governments, more or less stifled, con- 
trolled, or repressed; but in those of the 
popular form it is seen in its greatest 
rankness, and is truly their worst 

The alternate domination of one faction 
over another, sharpened by the spirit of 
revenge, natural to party dissension, 
which in different ages and countries has 
perpetrated the most horrid enormities, 
is itself a frightful despotism. But this 
leads at length to a more formal and 
permanent despotism. The disorders and 
miseries which result, gradually incline 
the minds of men to seek security and re- 
pose in the absolute power of an in- 
dividual; and sooner or later the chief of 
some prevailing faction, more able or more 
fortunate than his competitors, turns this 
disposition to the purposes of his own 
elevation, on the ruins of public liberty. 

Without looking forward to an ex- 
tremity of this kind (which nevertheless 
ought not to be entirely out of sight), the 
common and continued mischiefs of the 
spirit of party are sufficient to make it the 
interest and duty of a wise people to dis- 
courage and restrain it. 

It serves always to distract the public 
councils, and enfeeble the public adminis- 
tration. It agitates the community with 
ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; 
kindles the animosity of one part against 
another, foments occasionally riot and in- 
surrection. It opens the doors to foreign in- 
fluence and corruption, which find a facil- 
itated access to the government itself 
through the channels of party passions. 
Thus the policy and the will of one coun- 
try are subjected to the policy and will 
of another. 



There is an opinion that parties in free transient benefit which the use can at 
countries are useful checks upon the ad- any time yield. 

ministration of the government, and serve Of all the dispositions and habits which 
to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This lead to political prosperity, religion and 
within certain limits is probably true, and morality are indispensable supports. In 
in governments of a monarchical cast, vain would that man claim the tribute of 
patriotism may look with indulgence, if patriotism who should labor to subvert 
not with favor, upon the spirit of party, these great pillars of human happiness, 
But in those of the popular character, in these firmest props of the duties of men 
governments purely elective, it is a spirit and citizens. The mere politician, equally 
not to be encouraged. Prom their natural with the pious man, ought to respect and 
tendency, it is certain there will always to cherish them. A volume could not trace 
be enough of that spirit for every salu- all their connections with private and 
tary purpose. And there being constant public felicity. Let it simply be asked, 
danger of excess, the effort ought to be, Where is the security for property, for 
by force of public opinion, to mitigate and reputation, for life, if the sense of re- 
assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it ligious obligation desert the oaths, which 
demands a uniform vigilance to prevent are the instruments of investigation in 
its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of courts of justice ? And let us with caution 
warming, it should consume. indulge the supposition that morality can 

It is important, likewise, that the habits be maintained without religion. What- 
of thinking in a free country should in- ever may be conceded to the influence 
spire caution in those intrusted with its of refined education on minds of peculiar 
administration, to confine themselves structure, reason and experience both for- 
within their respective constitutional bid us to expect that national morality can 
spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the prevail in exclusion of religious principle, 
powers of one department to encroach It is substantially true that virtue or 
upon another. The spirit of encroachment morality is a necessary spring of popular 
lends to consolidate the powers of all the government. The rule, indeed, extends 
departments in one, and thus to create, with more or less force to every species 
whatever the form of government, a real of free government. Who that is a sincere 
despotism. A just estimate of that love of friend to it can look with indifference 
power, and proneness to abuse it, which upon attempts to shake the foundation of 
predominates in the human heart, is suf- the fabric? 

ficient to satisfy us of the truth of this Promote, then, as an object of primary 
position. The necessity of reciprocal importance, institutions for the general 
checks in the exercise of political power, diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as 
by dividing and distributing it into dif- the structure of a government gives force 
ferent depositories, and constituting each to public opinion, it is essential that pub- 
the guardian of the public weal against lie opinion should be enlightened, 
invasions by the others, has been evinced As a very important source of strength 
by experiments ancient and modern, some and security, cherish public credit. One 
of them in our country and under our own method of preserving it is to use it as 
eyes. To preserve them must be as neces- sparingly as possible; avoiding occasions 
sary as to institute them. If, in the of expense by cultivating peace, but re- 
opinion of the people, the distribution or membering also that timely disbursements 
modification of the constitutional powers to prepare for danger frequently prevent 
be in any particular wrong, let it be cor- much greater disbursements to repel it; 
rected by an amendment in the way which avoiding likewise the accumulation of 
the Constitution designates. But let there debt, not only by shunning occasions of 
be no change by usurpation; for, though expense, but by vigorous exertion in time 
this, in one instance, may be the instru- of peace to discharge the debts which un- 
ment of good, it is the customary weapon avoidable wars may have occasioned, not 
by which free governments are destroyed, ungenerously throwing upon posterity the 
The precedent must always greatly over- burden which we ourselves ought to bear, 
balance in permanent evil any partial or The execution of these maxims belongs to 



your represeutatives, but it is necessary accidental or trifling occasions of dispute 
'that public opinion should co-operate. To occur. Hence, frequent collisions, ob- 
facilitate to them the performance of their stinate, envenomed, and bloody contests, 
duty, it is essential that you should prac- The nation, prompted by ill-will and re- 
tically bear in mind that towards the pay- sentment, sometimes impels to war the 
ment of debts there must be revenue; that government, contrary to the best cal- 
to have revenue there must be taxes ; culations of policy. The government some- 
that no taxes can be devised which are not times participates in the national propen- 
more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; sity, and adopts through passion what 
Lhat the intrinsic embarrassment, insep- reason would reject; at other times, it 
arable from the selection of the proper makes the animosity of the nation sub- 
objects (which is always a choice of dim- servient to projects of hostility instigat- 
culties) , ought to be a decisive motive for ed by pride, ambition, and other sinister 
a candid construction of the conduct of and pernicious motives. The peace often, 
the government in making it, and for a sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations 
spirit of acquiescence in the measures for has been the victim. 

obtaining revenue which the public exi- So likewise, a passionate attachment of 

gencies may at any time dictate. one nation for another produces a variety 

Observe good faith and justice towards of evils. Sympathy for the favorite 

all nations; cultivate peace and harmony nation, facilitating the illusion of an 

with all. Religion and morality enjoin imaginary common interest in cases where 

this conduct; and can it be that good no real common interest exists, and infus- 

policy does not equally enjoin it? It will ing into one the enmities of the other, 

be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no betrays the former into a participation in 

distant period a great nation, to give to the quarrels and wars of the latter, with- 

mankind the magnanimous and too novel out adequate inducement or justification, 

example of a people always guided by an It leads also to concessions to the favorite 

exalted justice and benevolence. Who can nation of privileges denied to others, which 

doubt that in the course of time and is apt doubly to injure the nation making 

things the fruits of such a plan would the concessions, by unnecessarily parting 

richly repay any temporary advantages with what ought to have been retained, 

which might be lost by a steady adherence and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a 

to it? Can it be that Providence has not disposition to retaliate, in the parties from 

connected the permanent felicity of a whom equal privileges are withheld. And 

nation with its virtue? The experiment, it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or de- 

at least, is recommended by every senti- luded citizens (who devote themselves to 

ment which ennobles human nature, the favorite nation) facility to betray 

Alas! is it rendered impossible by its or sacrifice the interests of their own 

vices? country without odium, sometimes even 

In the execution of such a plan, nothing with popularity; gilding with the appear- 
is more essential than that permanent, in- ances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a 
veterate antipathies against particular commendable deference for public opinion, 
nations, and passionate attachments for or a laudable zeal for public good, the 
others, should be excluded; and that, in base or foolish compliances of ambition, 
place of them, just and amicable feelings corruption, or infatuation, 
towards all should be cultivated. The As avenues to foreign influence in iii- 
nation which indulges towards another an numerable ways such attachments are par- 
habitual hatred, or an habitual fondness, ticularly alarming to the truly enlightened 
is in some degree a slave. It is a slave and independent patriot. How many op- 
to its animosity or to its affection, either portunitiea do they afford to tamper with 
of which is sufficient to lead it astray domestic factions, to practise the arts of 
from its duty and its interest. Antipathy seduction, to mislead public opinion, to 
in one nation against another disposes each influence or awe the public councils! Such 
more readily to offer insult and injury, an attachment of a small or weak towards 
to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, a great and powerful nation dooms the 
and to be haughty and intractable when former to be the satellite of the latter. 



Against the insidious wiles of foreign part of Europe, entangle our peace and 

influence ^1 conjure you to believe me, fel- prosperity in the toils of European 

low-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ambition, rivalship, interest, humor, or 

ought to be constantly awake, since his- caprice? 

tory and experience prove that foreign in- It is our true policy to steer clear of 
fluence is one of the most baneful foes of permanent alliances with any portion of 
republican government. But that jealousy, the foreign world ; so far, I mean, as we 
to be useful, must be impartial; else it are now at liberty to do it; for let me not 
becomes the instrument of the very in- be understood as capable of patronizing 
fluence to be avoided, instead of a defence infidelity to existing engagements. I hold 
against it. Excessive partiality for one the maxim no less applicable to public 
foreign nation, and excessive dislike of an- than to private affairs, that honesty is 
other, cause those whom they actuate to always the best policy. I repeat it there- 
see danger only on one side, and serve to fore, let those engagements be observed in 
veil and even second the arts of influence their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it 
on the other. Real patriots who may resist is unnecessary and would be unwise to cx- 
the intrigues of the favorite are liable to tend them. 

become suspected and odious; while its Taking care always to keep ourselves, 

tools and dupes usurp the applause and by suitable establishments, on a respecta- 

confidence of the purpose," to surrender ble defensive posture, we may safely trust 

their interests. to temporary alliances for extraordinary 

The great rule of conduct for us, in emergencies, 
regard to foreign nations, is, in extending Harmony, liberal intercourse with all 
our commercial relations, to have with nations, are recommended by policy, hu- 
them as little political connection as pos- manity, and interest. But even our com- 
sible. So far as we have already formed mercial policy should hold an equal and 
engagements, let them be fulfilled with per- impartial hand ; neither seeking nor grant- 
feet good faith. Here let us stop. ing exclusive favors or preferences; con- 
Europe has a set of primary interests suiting the natural course of things; dif- 
which to us have none, or a very remote fusing and diversifying by gentle means 
relation. Hence she must be engaged in the streams of commerce, but forcing 
frequent controversies, the causes of which nothing ; establishing with powers so dis- 
are essentially foreign to our concerns, posed, in order to give trade a stable 
Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us course, to "define the rights of our mer- 
to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, chants, and to enable the government to 
in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, Support them, conventional rules of inter- 
or the ordinary combinations and colli- course, the best that present circumstances 
sions of her friendships or enmities. and mutual opinion will permit, but tem- 
Our detached and distant situation in- porary, and liable to be from time to time 
vites and enables us to pursue a different abandoned or varied, as experience and 
course. If we remain one people, under an circumstances shall dictate; constantly 
efficient government, the period is not far keeping in view that it is folly in one 
off when we may defy material injury from nation to look for disinterested favors from 
external annoyance; when we may take another; that it must pay with a portion 
such an attitude as will cause the neutral- of its independence for whatever it may 
ity, we may at any time resolve upon, to accept under that character; that, by such 
6e scrupulously respected; when belliger- acceptance, it may place itself in the con- 
ent nations, under the impossibility of dition of having given equivalents for 
making acquisitions upon us, will not nominal favors, and yet of being reproach- 
lightly hazard the giving us provocation; ed with ingratitude for not giving more, 
when we may choose peace or war, as our There can ' no greater error than to ex- 
interest, guided by justice, shall counsel. pect or calculate upon real favors from 
Why forego the advantages of so nation to nation. It is an illusion which 
peculiar a situation? Why quit our own experience must cure, which a just pride 
to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by ought to discard. 

interweaving our destiny with that of any In offering to you, my countrymen, these 



counsels of an old and affectionate friend, violate the relations of peace and amity 

1 dare not hope they will make the strong towards other nations. » 

and lasting impression I could wish; that The inducements of interest for observ- 

they will control the usual current of the ing that conduct will best be referred to 

passions, or prevent our nation from run- your own reflections and experience. With 

njng the course which has hitherto mark- me a predominant motive has been to en- 

ed the destiny of nations. But, if I may deavor to gain time to our country to 

even flatter myself that they may be pro- settle and mature its yet recent institu- 

ductive of some partial benefit, some occa- tions, and to progress without interruption 

sional good; that they may now and then to that degree of strength and consistency 

recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, which is necessary to give it, humanly 

to warn against the mischiefs of foreign speaking, the command of its own fortunes, 

intrigue, to guard against the impostures Though, in reviewing the incidents of my 

of pretended patriotism; this hope will be administration, I am unconscious of inten- 

a full recompense for the solicitude for tional error, I am nevertheless too sen- 

your welfare by which they have been die- sible of my defects not to think it prob- 

tated. able that I may have committed many er- 

How far, in the discharge of my official rors. Whatever they may be, I fervently be- 

duties, I have been guided by the principles seech the Almighty to avert or mitigate 

which have been delineated, the public the evils to which they may tend. I shall 

records and other evidences of my conduct also carry with me the hope that my coum- 

must witness to you and to the world. To try will never cease to view them with in- 

myself, the assurance of my own con- dulgence; and that, after forty-five years 

science is, that I have at least believed of my life dedicated to its service with an 

myself to be guided by them. upright zeal, the faults of incompetent 

In relation to the still subsisting war in abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as 

Europe, my proclamation of April 22, myself must soon be to the mansions of 

1793, is the index of my plan. Sanctioned rest. 

by your approving voice, and by that of Relying on its kindness in this as in 
your Representatives in both Houses of other things, and actuated by that fervent 
Congress, the spirit of that measure has love towards it which is so natural to a~ 
continually governed me, uninfluenced by man who views in it the native soil of him- 
any attempts to deter or divert me from self and his progenitors for several gen- 
it. erations, I anticipate with pleasing expec- 

After deliberate examination, with the tation that retreat in which I promise 

aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet 

well satisfied that our country, under all enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my 

the circumstances of the case, had a right fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good 

to take, and was bound in duty and in- laws under a free government, the ever- 

terest to take, a neutral position. Having favorite object of my heart, and the happy 

taken it, I determined, as far as should reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, 

depend upon me, to maintain it with labors, and dangers, 

moderation, perseverance, and firmness. 

The considerations which respect the The leaders of the Anti-Federal or Re- 
right to hold this conduct it is not neces- publican party became more and more 
sary on this occasion to detail. I will only violent in their censure of their opponents, 
observe that, according to my understand- and finally they indulged in personal abuse 
ing of the matter, that right, so far from of Washington, charging him with venal- 
being denied by any of the belligerent ity and even with immorality. The chief 
powers, has been virtually admitted by vehicle of this abuse was a newspaper 
all. called the Aurora, published by Benjamin 

The duty of holding a neutral conduct Franklin Bache, a grandson of Dr. Frank- 
may be inferred, without anything more, lin. When Washington was about to re- 
from the obligation which justice and hu- tire from the Presidency 'in 1797 a writer 
manity impose on every nation in cases in in that journal said : " If ever a nation 
which it is free to act, to maintain in- has been debauched by a man, the Ameri- 



Can nation has been debauched by Wash- 
ington. If ever a nation has been de- 
ceived by a man, the American .nation 
has been deceived by Washington. Let 
his conduct, then, be an example to fut- 
ure ages. Let it serve to be a warning 
that no man may be an idol. Let the his- 
tory of the federal government instruct 
mankind that the mask of patriotism may 
be worn to conceal the foulest designs 
against the liberties of a people." On 
the day when he resigned the chair of 
state to John Adams (March 4, 1797), 
a writer in the Aurora, after declaring 
that he was no longer possessed of the 
'" power to multiply evils upon the United 
Stages," said, " When a retrospect is taken 
of the Washingtonian administration for 
eight years, it is the subject of the great- 
est astonishment that a single individual 
should have cankered the principles of 
republicanism in an enlightened people, 
just emerged from the gulf of despotism, 
and should have carried his designs against 
the public liberty so far as to put in jeop- 
ardy its very existence. Such, however, are 
the facts, and with them staring us in the 
face this day ought to be a jubilee in 
the United States." They also republish- 
ed spurious letters of Washington. These 
examples will suffice to show the malig- 
nity of party spirit in the early days of 

measures of the administration, and he 
was appointed (July 7) lieutenant-general 
and commander-in-chief of all the armies 
of the United States — raised and to be 
raised. The venerated patriot, then sixty- 
six years of age, responded with alacrity. 
" You may command me without reserve," 
he wrote to President Adams, qualifying 
the remark by the expressed desire that 
he should not be called into active service 
until the public need should demand it, 
and requesting the appointment of his 
friend, Alexander Hamilton, then forty- 
one years of age, acting commander-in- 
chief. Hamilton was appointed the first 
major-general, and, in November, Washing- 
ton met his general officers in Philadelphia, 
and made arrangements for the complete 
organization of the regular forces on a 
war-footing. Washington believed from 
the beginning that the war-clouds would 
disperse, and not gather in a tempest, and 
events justified his faith. War was averted. 
A pamphlet was published in London, 
in 1777, containing letters purporting to 
have been written by Washington, in the 
summer of 1776, to members of his family. 
These letters contained sentiments so 
totally at variance with his character and 
conduct that, whatever effect they may 
have had in England, they had none in 
this country, where he was known. In 

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*&4&&Se. jOZj W&cJ&L J&JL&s d%&^£- 


the republic, when even Washington was them Washington was made to deprecate 
not spared from the lash of public abuse, the misguided zeal and rashness of Con- 
It fell with even more severity on others, gress in. declaring independence, and push- 
Both parties were guilty of the offence, ing the opposition to Great Britain to so 
In 1798 Washington approved the war perilous an extremity. In the preface it 



was stated that, when Fort Lee was served quite generally throughout the 
evacuated, General Washington's servant country, but nowhere in so imposing a 
was left behind sick; that in his posses- manner as in the city in which that inau- 
sion was a small portmanteau belonging guration had taken place. The celebra- 
te the general, in which, among other tion was opened with a naval parade in 
things of trifling value, were the drafts the harbor on the morning of April 29. 
of letters to Mrs. Washington, her- son President Harrison, following as nearly 
(John Parke Custis), and his manager at as possible the same route of travel as 
Mount Vernon, Lund Washington, and President Washington, was conveyed by 
that these had been transmitted to Eng- water from Elizabethport to New York, 
land by an officer into whose hands they being escorted by a committee of govern- 
had fallen. This fiction was contrived to ors, commissioners of State, and other dis- 
deceive the public into a belief of their tinguished personages. Upon his arrival in 
genuineness. It is well known that Wash- the East River he was transferred to a 
ington was not at Fort Lee at the time of barge manned by a. crew of ship-masters 
the surprise and evacuation, and that no from the Marine Society of the Port of 
servant of his nor a particle of his bag- New York, and by them rowed to the 
gage fell into the hands of the enemy shore. The crew of the barge that rowed 
during the war. The pamphlet was repub- President Washington from Elizabethport 
lished by Rivington, in New York, and ex- to the foot of Wall Street were members 
, tensively circulated by the Tories, to injure of the same society. A reception was 
the commander-in-chief. The author of afterwards held by the President and the 
these spurious epistles was never publicly governors of the States in the Equitable 
known. The chief paid no attention to the Building, and in the evening the Centen- 
publication, regarding it as beneath his nial Ball was given in the Metropolitan 
notice. During his second Presidential Opera-house. On April 30 a special ser- 
term, party malignity was carried so far vice of thanksgiving was held in St. Paul's 
as to reprint the letters as genuine. Even Chapel, being conducted in the same man- 
then he did not notice them; but when he ner as that held in the same place on the 
was about to retire from public life he day of Washington's inauguration 100 
wrote to the then Secretary of State years before. Literary exercises then took 
(Timothy Pickering), under date of place at the corner of Wall and Nassau 
March 3, 1797, referring to the letters and streets, the scene of the first inauguration 
the motives of their production, saying, ceremonies. These exercises consisted of 
" Another crisis in the affairs of America an invocation by the Rev. Dr. Richard S. 
having occurred, the same weapon has Storrs, a poem by John Greenleaf Whit- 
been resorted to to wound my character tier, an oration by Chauncey M. Depew, 
and deceive the people." He then gave the and an address by President Harrison. 
dates and addresses of the letters, seven The remainder of the day was given to a 
in number, and added, " As I cannot know grand military parade, ending with a free 
how soon a more serious event may sue- open-air concert of vocal and instrumental 
ceed to that which will this day take music and a general illumination of the 
place (his retirement from office), I have city. On May 1 a great industrial and 
thought it a duty which I owe to myself, civic parade, under command of Maj.-Gen. 
to my country, and to truth, now to detail Daniel Butterfield as chief marshal, took 
the circumstances above recited, and to place, and was witnessed by 500,000 spec- 
add my solemn declaration that the letters tators. The celebration was conducted with 
herein described are a base forgery, and complete success throughout, and not only 
that I never saw or heard of them until reflected great credit upon its managers, 
they appeared in print." but accomplished great good in strengthen- 
Washington's Inauguration, Centen- ing the patriotic sentiment of the people of 
nial or. On April 29 and 30, 1889, the New York and of the entire country, 
city of New York celebrated the centennial Wasp, The, an American sloop-of-war 
of the inauguration of George Washing- of eighteen guns, built in Washington, 
ton as the first President of the Unit- D. C, in 1806. On Oct. 13, 1818, under 
ed States. The occasion was also ob- command of Capt. Jacob Jones, thorough- 



ly manned and equipped, carrying sixteen of the Frolic in killed and wounded was 
32-pounder carronades and two long 12- ninety men. The Wasp had only five men 
pounders, with two small brass cannon in killed and five wounded, 
her tops, she left the Delaware on a cruise. Jones placed Lieutenant Biddle in com- 
She was considered one of the fastest mand of the Frolic, with orders to take 
sailers in the service, and was furnished her into Charleston, S. C, and when they 
with 135 men and boys. She ran off tow- were about to part company the British 
ards the West Indies, and, on the night of ship-of-war Poictiers, seventy-four guns, 
Oct. 18, Jones saw several vessels, and Capt. J. P. Beresford, bore down upon 
ran parallel with them until the dawn, them. The Wasp and her prize were not 
when he discovered that it was a fleet of in a condition to flee or fight, and within 
armed merchant-vessels convoyed by the two hours after he had gained his victory 
British sloop-of-war Frolic, Capt. T. Whin- Jones was compelled to surrender both 
yates, mounting sixteen 32-pounder car- vessels. They were taken to Bermuda, 
ronades, two long 6-pounders, and two 12- where the American prisoners were ex- 
pounder carronades on her forecastle. She changed. The victory of the Wasp over 
was manned by a crew of 108 persons, the Frolic caused much exultation in the 
The Frolic took a position for battle so United States. Jones was lauded in 
as to allow the merchantmen to .escape speeches and songs. The authorities of 
during the fight. A severe engagement New York voted him a sword and the 
began at 10.30 a.m. Within five minutes freedom of the city. Congress voted 
the maintop-gallant mast of the Wasp him thanks and a gold medal, and ap- 
was shot away and fell among the "rig- propriated $25,000 to Jones and his com- 
ging, rendering a portion of it unmanage- pan y as compensation for their loss of 
able during the remainder of the action, prize-money. A silver medal was given 
Three minutes afterwards her gaff and to each of his officers. The captain was 
maintop-mast were shot away, and at promoted to the command of the frigate 
twenty minutes from the opening of the Macedonian, captured from the British by 
engagement every brace and most of the Decatur. The legislature of Pennsylvania 
rigging were disabled. Her condition was voted Lieutenant Biddle thanks and a 
forlorn. sword, and the leading men of Phila- 
But while the Wasp was thus suffering, delphia gave him a silver urn. He was 
she had inflicted more serious injury to 
the hull of the Frolic. The two vessels 
gradually approached each other, fell foul, 
the bowsprit of the Frolic passing in over 
the quarter-deck of the Wasp, and forcing 
her bows up in the wind. This enabled 
the latter to give the Frolic a raking 
broadside with terrible effect. With wild 
shouts the crew of the Wasp now leaped 
into the entangling rigging, and made 
their way to the deck of the Frolic. But 
there was no one to oppose them. The 
last broadside had carried death and dis- 
may into the Frolic, and almost cleared 
the deck of effective men. All who were 
able had escaped below to avoid the raking 
fire of the Wasp. The English officers on 
deck, nearly all of them bleeding from 
wounds, cast their swords in submission 

before Lieutenant Biddle, who led the shortly afterwards appointed to the com- 

boarding-party. He sprang into the rig- mand of the sloop-of-war Hornet. This 

ging, and with his own hand struck the victory was celebrated by songs, and 

colors of the Frolic. The contest lasted also by caricatures. One of the songs 

forty-five minutes, and the aggregate loss became very popular, and was sung at 


X.— Q 


all public gatherings 
following lines: 


In it occurred the of the ravages of the Argus were revived. 
On the morning of June 28, while some 
distance at sea, the Wasp was chased 
The foe bravely fought, but his arms were by two vesse i s . xhey were soon joined by 

And'he'fledfrom his death-wound aghast * t hird . which displayed English colors. 

In the afternoon, after much manoeuvring, 
this vessel and the Wasp came to an en- 
gagement, which soon became very severe. 
The men of the stranger several times at- 

and affrighted 
But the Wasp darted forward her death 
doing sting, 
And full on his bosom, like lightning 

She pierced through his entrails, she mad- tempted to board the Wasp, but were re- 

dened his brain, 
And he writhed and he groaned as if torn 

with the colic ; 
And long shall John Bull rue the terriblt 

lie inet the American Wasp on a Frolic." 

I Jimccs butUttte UimifAtsuen dmnnutv*) 

pulsed. Finally, the crew of the Wasp 
boardec 1 her antagonist, and in less than 
thirty minutes the latter was a prize 
to the American vessel. She proved to 
be the sloop-of-war Reindeer, Capt. Will- 
iam Manners, and was terribly shattered. 
Her captain and twenty-four others were 
killed and forty-two wounded. The Wasp 
was hulled six times, and her loss was 
five men killed and twenty-two wounded. 
Blakeley put his prisoners on board a 
neutral vessel and burned the Reindeer. 
For this capture Congress voted him a 
gold medal. 

He arrived at L'Orient July 8, and on 
Aug. 27 departed for another cruise in the 
Wasp. On Sept. 1 she had a sharp engage- 
ment with the Avon, eighteen guns, Cap- 
tain Arbuthnot, in intense darkness. At 
the end of thirty minutes the antagonist 
of the Wasp ceased firing. " Have you sur- 
rendered?" inquired Blakeley. He was 
answered by a few shots, when he gave 
the Avon another broadside, followed by 
the same question, which was answered 
in the affirmative, and an officer was about 
to leave the Wasp to take possession of 
the prize. Just then another vessel was 
seen astern, rapidly approaching; then 
Among the caricatures was one by Charles, another and another, and Blakeley was 
of Philadelphia, under which were the fompelled to abandon the prize so nearly 
following words: m his possession. The vessel that first 

came to the assistance of the Avon was 
the Castilian, eighteen guns. The Avon 
was so much shattered in the conflict 
that she sank almost immediately. Her 
people were rescued by their friends on 
So, 'his belly to fill, put a sting In his side." the other vessels. The Wasp continued 

her course, capturing several prizes. Near 
On May 1, 1814, the Wasp, then un- the Azores she captured (Sept. 21) the 
der command of Capt. Johnston Blakeley, Atlanta, a valuable prize that he sent 
left the harbor of Portsmouth, N. H., and home in command of Midshipman (after- 
soon appeared in the chops of the British wards Commodore) D. Geisinger. On Oct. 
Channel, where she spread terror among 9 the Wasp was spoken by a Swedish bark 
the British merchant-ships and the people making her way towards the Spanish 
of the seaport towns. Painful recollections main. She was never heard of after 



" A Wasp took a Frolic and met Johnny Bull, 
Who always fights best when his belly Is 

The Wasp thought him hungry by his mouth 

open wide. 



wards, nor those who were then on board 
of her. She and all her people perished 
in some unknown solitude of the sea. 

Watauga Commonwealth, The, a 
name applied to the first independent 
civil government established in North 
America. In 1768 the Six Nations, by' 
the treaty of Fort Stanwix, agreed to sur- 
render all the lands between the Ohio 
and Tennessee rivers to the English, and 
many backwoodsmen began settling beyond 
the mountains before it was known that 
the Iroquois Indians had ceded lands to 
which they had no legal right. What is 
now eastern Tennessee was then western 
North Carolina, and this region consisted 
of a most tempting valley, with the Cum- 
berland River on one side and the Great 
Smoky Mountains on the other. The first 
settlers in this region were largely from 
Virginia. In 1769 the first settlement was 
made on the banks of the Watauga Eiver, 
the people believing they were still within 
the domain of Virginia. Two years later, 
however, a surveyor discovered that the 
settlement was really within the limits 
of North Carolina. This fact led to the 
organization of a civil government for the 
growing settlement, an act that was con- 
summated at about the time the troubles 
between the royal governor of North Caro- 
lina and the regulators reached their cli- 
max. These troubles caused many people 
in North Carolina to seek repose and se- 
curity beyond the mountains, and they 
located among the pioneers on the Watauga 

and Upper Holston rivers. The majority 
of these settlers were men of sterling 
worth, and were influential in forming in 
1772 that government which subsequently 
grew to be the State of Tennessee. John 
Sevier and James Robertson were among 
their number, and both of these men were 
conspicuous in the novel movement. Under 
the title of " Articles of the Watauga As- 
sociation " a written constitution was 
drafted, the first ever adopted by a com- 
munity of American-born freemen. The 
settlers elected a representative assembly 
of thirteen ,men, which in turn elected a 
committee of five vested with judicial 
and executive authority. This was the 
first free and independent community es- 
tablished on the American continent. See 
North Carolina; Sevier, John; Tennes- 

Watertrary, David, military officer; 
born in Stamford, Conn., Feb. 12, 1722. 
He took part in the French and Indian 
War, being present at the battle of Lake 
George in 1755 and the attack on Ticon- 
deroga in 1758; was with Gen. Richard 
Montgomery in his campaign against 
Quebec, in 1775; at the siege of St. John 
and the surrender of Montreal. On June 
3, 1776, he was appointed a brigadier- 
general for the Northern Department by 
the General Assembly of Connecticut, and 
assigned to the command of the post at 
Skeensboro, N. Y., where he remained 
during the summer of 1776. In the battle 
of Valcour Bay, Oct. 11, 1776, he was 



captured with his vessel, the Washington, This arsenal was kept busy during th« 
but was soon exchanged; and during the Mexican and Civil wars in preparing the 
remainder of the war commanded a bri- heaviest kinds of war material, and in re- 
gade under Washington. He was a repre- cent years has been noted for its produc- 
sentative in the General Assembly in tion of the improved ordnance provided 
1783, 1794, and 1705. He died in Stam- for the army and the various defensive 
ford, Conn., June 29, 1801. works on the coasts. Population of the 

"Waterman, Thomas Whitney, lawyer; city in 1900, 14,321. 
born in Binghamton, N. Y., June 28, Watie, Stand, military officer; born of 
1821; studied at Yale University; ad- Cherokee Indian parents in Cherokee (now 
mitted to the bar in 1848; practised in the city of Rome), Ga., in 1815; held a 
New York City in 1848-70; removed to seat in the legislative council of the 
Binghamton in the latter year. He was Cherokees; was speaker of the lower 
the editor of New System of Criminal branch in 1862-65; joined the Confeder- 
Procedure; Murray Hoffman's Chancery ate army in 1861; made colonel of the 
Reports, etc., and author of Treatise 1st Cherokee Confederate Infantry in Oe- 
on the Civil and Criminal Jurisdiction of tober of that year- and was promoted 
Justices of the Peace for the States of brigadier-general, May 10, 1864. He died 
Wisconsin and Iowa: Containing Practi- in August, 1877. 

cal Forms; Digest of the Reported. De- Watkins, John Elfbeth, naturalist; 
cisions of the Superior Court and of the born in Ben Lomond, Va., May 17, 1852; 
Supreme Court of Errors of the State of graduated at Lafayette College in 1871; 
Connecticut, from the Organization of said curator of the United States National 
Courts to the Present Time, etc. He died Museum in 1887-92; became superintend- 
in Binghamton, N. Y., Dec. 7, 1898. ent and curator of the technological col- 
Waters, Henry Fitz-Gilbert, gene- lections in the Museum in 1895. He wrote 
alogist; born in Salem, Mass., March 29, History of the Pennsylvania, Railroad in 
1833; graduated at Harvard College in 1846-96; The Evolution of the Railway 
1855; taught school; member of the Passenger Car; etc. He died in 1903. 
school committee of Salem in 1881-82, Watling Island, one of the Bahamas 
and its secretary in 1882-83; has spent group, southeast of Cat Island. In recent 
several years pursuing genealogical in- years the belief has become quite estab- 
quiries; and traced the family of John lished that Watling, and not Cat, Island 
Harvard when other genealogists failed, was the Guanahani Island described by 
for which he received the honorary de- Christopher Columbus in his Journal as 
gree of A.M. from Harvard in 1885. the first American island seen by him, to 
Watervliet, a city in Albany county, which he gave the name of San Salvador. 
N. Y., formerly the village of West Troy; One of the strongest components of this 
on the Hudson River opposite the city belief is the fact that Watling Island is 
of Troy. The city has large commercial the only one in the gToup containing a 
interests by reason of its location at the lagoon, a feature particularly pointed out 
head of navigation on the river and at an by Columbus in the narrative of his San 
entrance of the Erie and Champlain ca- Salvador landfall. Walter Wellman, the 
nals into the river, and its direct com- explorer, led an expedition for the Chi- 
munication by river and canals with cago Herald in 1891 to locate the exact 
lakes Champlain, Erie, and Ontario. It island, and after following the course de- 
is best known, however, as the seat of scribed by Columbus himself was satisfied 
an extensive arsenal, established by the that the land first seen was Watling Isl- 
United States government in 1807, and and, and erected a memorial tablet there 
comprising one of the largest plants in ex- bearing an inscription of the fact, 
istence for the manufacture of heavy ord- Watson, Sir Brook, military officer; 
nance, and shot, shell, and mounts therefor, born in Plymouth, England, Feb. 7, 1735 ; 
The arsenal and the large stone magazines entered the naval service early in life, 
for powder and ammunition are within a but while bathing in the sea at Havana in 
reservation of about 110 acres of ground, 1749 a shark bit off his right leg below 
which is bisected by the Erie Canal, the knee, and he abandoned the sea and 



entered upon mercantile business. He ed autobiography, completed by his son, 
was with Colonel Monckton in Nova Sco- Winslow Cossoul Watson, was publish- 
tia in 1755, and was at the siege of Louis- ed in 1855 under the title of Men and 
burg in 1758, having in charge Wolfe's Times of the Revolution. Among his pub- 
division, as commissary. In 1759 he set- lished writings were a History of the 
tied as a merchant in London, and after- Western Canals of New York; a History 
wards in Montreal. Just before the Rev- of the Modern Agricultural Societies; 
olutionary War he visited several of the Agricultural Societies on the Modem 
colonies, with false professions of politi- Berkshire System, etc. 
cal friendship for them, as- a Whig. A Watson, Fokt, Captube of. Upon an 
friend of Sir Guy Carleton, he was made ancient tumulus, almost 50 feet high, on 
his commissary - general in America in the borders of Scott's Lake (an expansion 
1782, and from 1784 to 1793 he was mem- of the Santee River), a few miles below 
ber of Parliament for London. He was the junction of the Congaree and Wateree, 
sheriff of London and Middlesex, and in the British built Fort Watson, named in 
1796 was lord mayor. For his services compliment to Colonel Watson, who pro- 
in America, Parliament voted his wife jected it. In April, 1781, it was gar- 
an annuity of $2,000 for life. From 1798 risoned by eighty regulars and forty 
to 1806 he was commissary-general of Eng- loyalists, . under the command of Lieu- 
land. He died Oct. 2, 1807. tenant McKay, when Marion and Lee ap- 

Watson, David Kempek, lawyer; born peared before it and demanded its sur- 
in Madison county, O., June 18, 1849; render. Colonel Watson was on his way 
graduated at Dickinson College in 1871; from Georgetown with a large force to 
appointed assistant United States attor- assist McKay, and the latter promptly 
ney for the southern district of Ohio ; at- defied Marion and Lee. The latter had no 
torney-general of Ohio in 1887-89; mem- cannon, and the stockade was too high to 
ber of Congress in 1895-97; appointed by be seriously affected by small-arms. Lieu- 
President McKinley on the commission to tenant Maham, of Marion's brigade, 
revise and codify "the civil penal laws of planned and built a tower of logs suf- 
the United States. He is the author of ficiently high to overlook the stockade, 
History of American Coinage; Early Judi- with a parapet at the top for the defence 
ciary; Early Laws and Bar of Ohio, etc. of sharp - shooters placed therein. This 

Watson, Ebenezeb, editor; born in work was accomplished during a dark 

Bethlehem, Conn., in 1744. He was for night, and at dawn the garrison was 

several years editor and publisher of The awakened by a shower of bullets from a 

Courant; and after his death in Hartford, company of riflemen on the top of the 

Conn., Sept. 16, 1777, his second wife, tower. Another party ascended the mound 

Hannah Bunce, conducted the paper, and attacked the abatis with vigor. Re- 

probably the first woman who edited a sistance was vain. The fort, untenable, 

newspaper in this country. was surrendered (April 23), and, with the 

Watson, Elkanah, agriculturist; born garrison as prisoners, Marion pushed 

in Plymouth, Mass., Jan. 22, 1758; was northward to the High Hills of Santee. 

apprenticed in 1773 to John Brown, a mer- Watson, Henry Clay, author; born in 

chant in Providence, R. I., who in 1775 Baltimore, Md., in 1831; removed to 

sent him with a large quantity of powder Philadelphia, Pa., and engaged in jour- 

to Washington for use in the siege of nalism; was connected with the North 

Boston. At the age of twenty-one (1779) American, and the Evening Journal; later 

he was made bearer of despatches by Con- removed to Sacramento, where he edited 

gress to Dr. Franklin, in Paris. He visit- the Times. He wrote Camp-fires of the 

ed Michigan and explored the lake region, Revolution; Nights in a Block-house; Old 

and also a route to Montreal, with a view Bell of Independence; The Yankee Teapot; 

to opening some improved way for its Lives of the Presidents of the United 

commercial connection with New York and States; Heroic Women of History, etc. He 

Boston. In 1828 he settled at Port Kent, died in Sacramento, Cal., July 10, 1869. 

on the^ west side of Lake Champlain, Watson, John Crittenden, naval 

where he died, Dec. 5, 1842. His unftnish- officer; born in Frankfort, Ky., Aug. 24, 



1842; graduated at the United States Tales of the Olden Times m New York 

Military Academy in 1860; served in the (1832), and Historic Tales of the Olden 

Civil War, being present at the passage Times in Philadelphia (1833). He also 

of Fcrts Jackson and St. Philip and the left manuscript annals in the Philadelphia 

Vicksburg batteries; took part in the bat- Library. He died in Germantown, Pa., 

tie of Mobile Bay, etc.; promoted lieuten- Dec. 23, 1860. 

ant-commander, July 25, 1866; captain, Watson, John Tadwell, military offi- 

March 6, 1887; and commodore, Nov. 7, cer; born in London, England, in 1748; en- 

1897. On June 27, 1898, he was appointed tered the 3d Foot Guards in 1767; became 

chief of the Eastern Squadron, which was lieutenant and captain in 1778. He un- 

originally organized for the purpose of dertook the destruction of Gen. Francis 

intercepting the Spanish fleet under Ad- Marion's brigade in 1781, and after sev- 

miral Camara, which it was supposed had eral skirmishes fled to Georgetown. He 

sailed for the United States under orders became colonel in 1783, and general in 

to devastate the coast cities and to co- 1808. He died in Calais, France, June 11, 

operate with Admiral Cervera. This 1826. 

Spanish fleet for several weeks was vari- Watson, Paul Babbon, author; born 

ously reported as being at the Cape Verde in Morristown, N. J., March 25, 1861 ; 

Islands and at other points near the graduated at Harvard College in 1881; 

American seaboard, and at one time it admitted to the bar in 1885, and prac- 

started to go through the Suez Canal and tised in Boston. He published a Bibliog- 

to Manila Bay for the purpose of attack- raphy of the Pre - Columbian Discoveries 

ing Dewey's fleet. After the destruction °f America. 

of Cervera's fleet it was reported in the Watson, Thomas E., lawyer; born in 
United States that Commodore Watson Columbia county, Ga., Sept. 5, 1856; ad- 
had received orders to proceed with all mitted to the bar in 1875 and practised 
haste to the Spanish coast and to begin in Thomson, Ga. ; member of the Georgia 
offensive operations there. This avowed legislature in 1882-83; and of Congress 
purpose on the part of the United States (as a Populist) in 1891-93. During the 
government, taken in connection with the latter period he had a bill passed granting 
destruction of Cervera's fleet and the sur- the first appropriation for the free delivery 
render of the Spanish army at Santiago, of mail in rural districts. In 1896 he was 
led the Spanish government to authorize the Populist nominee for Vice-President, 
the French ambassador in Washington to and for President in 1904. He is the 
make overtures for peace. He was author of The Story of France; Life of 
promoted rear-admiral, March 3, 1899; Thomas Jefferson; The Life of Napoleon; 
was commander-in-chief of the Asiatic etc 

Station from June 15, 1899, to April 19, Watson, Winslow Cossottl, author; 

1900; and was appointed president of the born in Albany, N. Y., Dec. 22, 1803. He 

naval examining board, Oct. 15, 1900. published Pioneer History of the Cham- 

Watson, JonN Fanning, historian; plain Valley, Giving an Account of the 

born in Burlington county, N. J., Juno Settlement of the Town of Willsboro, 

13, 1779; was a clerk in the War Depart- by William Gilliland, together with his 

nient in 1798, and afterwards went to Journal and Other Papers, and a Memoir; 

New Orleans, where, in 1804, he was pur- The History of Essex County, N. Y., and 

veyor of subsistence for the United States Military Annals of Ticonderoga and Crown 

troops stationed there. Returning to Phil- Point, etc. 

adelphia, he was a bookseller there for Watterson, Henry, journalist; born in 
many years. From 1814 until 1847 he was Washington, D. O, Feb. 16, 1840; re- 
cashier of a bank in Germantown, and ceived a private education; was a staff 
afterwards was treasurer of a railroad officer in the Confederate army, during the 
company. He was an industrious delver Civil War. After the war he engaged 
in antiquarian lore, and in 1830 he pub- in journalism; became editor of the Lou- 
lished Annals of Philadelphia. In 1846 isville Courier -Journal. He is the au- 
he published Annals of Neu York City and thor of History of the Spanish-American 
State. He had already published Historic War; Abraham Lincoln, etc. 



Watts, Frederick, military officer; Wauhatchie, Battle of. When Gen- 
born in Wales, June 1, 1719; emigrated to eral Grant arrived at Chattanooga and 
the United States and settled in Cumber- took chief command, Oct. 23, 1863, he 
land county, Pa., in 1760. He served in saw the necessity of opening a more direct 
the Revolutionary War as lieutenant-colo- way to that post for its supplies. General 
nel, and had command of the battalion Hooker, who had been sent with a large 
that was assigned to Cumberland county, force under Howard and Slocum from 
At the surrender of Fort Washington this Virginia, was then at Bridgeport, on the 
division was captured. After his exchange Tennessee, and Grant ordered him to cross 
he was made a justice of the peace; a that stream and advance to the Look- 
representative in the Assembly in 1779; out Valley and menace Bragg's left. He 
sub-lieutenant of Cumberland county in did so, and reached Wauhatchie, in that 
1780; commissioned brigadier-general of valley, on the 28th, after some sharp skir- 
volunteers in 1782; and was a member of mishing. Being anxious to hold the road 
the supreme executive council in 1787- leading from Lookout Valley to Kelly's 
90. He died on his farm on Juniata Ferry, Hooker sent General Geary to en- 
River, Oct. 3, 1795. camp at Wauhatchie. Hooker's move- 
Watts, John, legislator; born in New ments had been keenly watched by Mc- 
York City, April 16, 1715; married a Laws's division of Longstreet's corps, then 
daughter of Stephen De Laneey in July, holding Lookout Mountain. McLaws 
1742; represented New York City in the swept down the fugged hills and struck 
Provincial Assembly for many years, and Geary's small force at 1 a.m., on Oct. 29, 
was a member of the council eighteen hoping to crush it and capture Hooker's 
years (1757-75), when, taking sides with whole army. The attack was made with 
the crown, he went to England. His prop- great fury on three sides of the camp, while 
erty was confiscated; but the most valu- batteries on the mountain-sides sent down 
able part of it was afterwards reconveyed screaming shells. 

to his sons, Robert and John, in July, Geary was not surprised. He met the 
1784. He died in Wales in August, 1789. assailants with a steady, deadly fire. 
Watts, Stephen, lawyer; born about Hearing the noise of battle, Hooker sent 
1743 ; graduated at the University of General Schurz's division of Howard's 
Pennsylvania in 1762; admitted to the corps to Geary's assistance. The Confed- 
bar in Philadelphia in 1769; removed to erates were repulsed after a sharp battle 
Louisiana in 1774; later became recorder of three hours. They fled, leaving 150 
of deeds of the English settlements on the of their number dead on Geary's front; 
Mississippi. He wrote an essay on Be- also 100 prisoners and several hundred 
ciprocal Advantage of a Perpetual Union small-arms. The National loss was 416 
between Great Britain and Her American killed and wounded. This result secured 
Colonies, which was published in 1766. a safe communication for supplies for the 
He died in Louisiana in 1788. Nationals between Bridgeport and Chat- 
Watts, Thomas Hill, legislator; born tanooga. An amusing incident occurred 
in Butler county, Ala., Jan. 3, 1820; grad- during the battle. When it began, about 
uated at the University of Virginia in 200 mules, frightened by the noise, dash- 
1840; admitted to the bar and began prac- ed into the ranks of Wade Hampton's 
tice in his native city; elected to the State legion and produced a great panic. The 
legislature in 1842 and to the State Senate incident inspired a mock-heroic poem, in 
in 1853; and represented Montgomery imitation of Tennyson's Charge of the 
county in the State convention of 1861. Light Brigade at Balaklava, two verses of 
He entered the Confederate service as which were as follows: 
colonel at the beginning of the Civil War; 

resigned his post in 1862 after the battle "™» [° «£ Xtf*™" 

of Shiloh, in which he greatly distinguished Mules all behind them— 

himself, on being appointed Attorney-Gen- B JS^hitf^dS T^ ! 

eral in President Davis's cabinet; and was Breaking through LongBtreet's lines, 

elected governor of Alabama in 1863. He S&'MS& tT" 

died in Montgomery, Ala., Sept. 16, 1892. Stormed the two hundred." 




Waxhaw (S. C), Battle op, May 29, Andover Theological Seminary in 1816; 

1780, usually known as the Waxhaw Mas- was instructor there for four years; or- 

sacre. See Buford, Abraham; Tarleton, dained in the Baptist Church, and be- 

Sir Banastre. came pastor of the First Baptist church 

Wayland, Francis, educator; born in in Boston, Mass., in 1821; was professor 

New York City, March 11, 1796; gradu- in Union College in 1826; president of 

ated at Union College in 1813; studied Brown University in 1827-55; pastor of 

medicine for three years; entered the the First Baptist church in Providence. 



R. I., in 1855; and author of Thoughts on 
the ^ Present Collegiate System of the 
United States; Domestic Slavery Con- 
sidered as a Spiritual Institution, etc. 
He died in Providence, R. I., Sept. 30, 

Wayne, Anthony, military officer; 
born in Easttown, Chester co., Pa., Jan. 
1, 1745. His grandfather, who came to 
America in 1722, was commander of a 
squadron of dragoons under William III. 
at the battle of the Boyne, in Ireland. 
Anthony, after receiving a good English 
education in Philadelphia, was appointed 
a land agent in Nova Scotia, where he re- 
mained a year. Returning, he married, 
and until 1774 was a farmer and sur- 
veyor in Pennsylvania. He was a mem- 
ber of the Pennsylvania legislature in 

Hudson, in July, 1779, was one of the 
most brilliant achievements of the war. 
In that attack he was wounded in the 
head, and Congress gave him a vote of 
thanks and a gold medal. In June, 1781, 
Wayne joined Lafayette in Virginia, where 
he performed excellent service until the 
surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 

After the surrender, the Pennsylvania 
line, under Wayne, marched to South 
Carolina, and their commander, with a 
part of them, was sent by General Greene 
to Georgia. On May 21, 1782, Colonel 
Brown marched out of Savannah in 
strong force to confront rapidly advancing 
Wayne. The latter got between Brown 
and Savannah, attacked him at midnight, 
and routed the whole party. This event 
occurred on the Ogeechee road, about 4 


1774-75; and in September of the latter 
year he raised the 4th Regiment, of the 
Pennsylvania line, and was appointed 
colonel in January, 1776. He went with 
his regiment to Canada; was wounded in 
the battle of Three Rivers; and in Febru- 
ary, 1777, was made brigadier-general. In 
the battle of Brandywine, in September, 
he was distinguished; and nine days after- 
wards he was surprised in the night near 
the Paoli Tavern, on the Lancaster road, 
in Pennsylvania, when his command was 
much cut up, but the remainder retreat- 
ed in safety. He led the right wing of 
the army in the attack at Germantown, 
and was slightly wounded. In the battle 
of Monmouth he was very distinguished; 
and his capture of Stony Point, on the 

miles southwest of Savannah, The van- 
guard of the Americans was composed of 
sixty horsemen and twenty infantry, led 
by Col. Anthony Walton White. These 
made a spirited charge, killing or wound- 
ing forty of the British and making 
twenty of them prisoners. The sword and 
bayonet did the work. The Americans lost 
five killed and two wounded. On June 
24 a part of Wayne's army, lying about 
5 miles from Savannah, was fiercely at- 
tacked by a body of Creek Indians, who 
first drove the troops and took two pieces 
of artillery; but they were soon utterly 
routed by a spirited charge. The brief 
battle was fought hand-to-hand with 
swords, bayonets, and tomahawks, and 
fourteen Indians and two white men were 


killed. Guristersigo, 
chief, was killed. The r< 


famous Creek vention that ratified the national Coiisti- 
lyalists coming tution. In April, 1792, he was made gen- 
out of Savannah to assist the Indians eral-in-chief of the army, 
were driven back, with the loss of a stand- The defeat of Gen. Aethtjb St. Claib 
ard and 127 horses with packs. The men (q. v.) spread alarm along the frontiers 
fled back to the city, and soon afterwards and indignation throughout the country, 
evacuated it. Wayne took possession of General Wayne was appointed his succes- 
sor. Apprehend- 
ing that pending 
negotiations with 
the Indians, if 
they failed, would 
be followed by im- 
mediate hostilities 
against the fron- 
tiers, Wayne 
marched into the 
Northwestern Ter- , 
ritory in the 
autumn of 1793 
with a competent 
force. He spent 
the winter at 
Greenvile, not far 
from the place of 
St. Clair's dis- 
aster, and built a 
stockade, which he 
named Fort Re- 
covery. The fol- 
lowing summer he 
pushed on through 
the wilderness 
towards the Mau- 
mee, and at its 
junction with the 
Auglaize he built 
Fort Defiance. On 
the St. Mary's he 
built Fort Adams 
as an intermediate 
post; and in Au- 
gust he went down 
the Maumee with 
1,000 men and en- 
camped near a 
British post at the 
foot of the Mau- 

the city, and of the province of Georgia, mee Rapids, called Fort Miami, or 
which had been held by the British mili- Maumee. Wayne, with a force ample to 
tary commanders about four years. It destroy the Indians in spite of British 
was estimated that Georgia lost in the influence, willing to spare bloodshed, 
war 1,000 of its citizens and 4,000 of its offered them peace and tranquillity if they 
slaves (see Georgia; Savannah, Evacua- would lay down their weapons. They re- 
tion of). In 1784-85 Wayne served in the fused. Wayne then advanced to the head 
Pennsylvania Assembly, and in the con- of the rapids, and at a place called 




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Fallen Timbers, not far above 
Maumee City, he attacked and 
the Indians on Aug. 20. Al- 
most all the dead warriors 
were found with British arms. 
Wayne laid waste their coun- 
try, and at the middle of 
September moved up to the 
junction of the St. Mary's 
and St. Joseph's rivers, near 
the (present) city of Fort 
Wayne, Ind., and built a 
strong fortification which he 
named Fort Wayne. The little 
army wintered at Greenville. 
The Indians perceived their 
own weakness and sued for 
peace. The following sum- 
mer about 1,100 sachems 
and warriors, representing 
twelve cantons, met (Aug. 3, 
1795) commissioners of the 
United States at Greenville, 
and made a treaty of peace. 

Brave to the verge of rashness, Wayne 
received the name of "Mad Anthony." 
Yet he was discreet and cautious, fruitful 
in resources, and prompt in the execution 
of plans. After his successful campaign 
against the Indians, he returned to Fort 
Presque Isle (now Erie), Pa., where he 
died, Dec. 15, 1796. His body was after- 
wards removed by his son and buried in 
Radnor church-yard, in his native county. 
Over his remains the Pennsylvania Society 
of the Cincinnati caused a neat marble 
monument to be erected in 1809. 

Wayne, Fort, Attack on. Forts Wayne 
and Harrison, the former at the junction 
of the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, 
where they formed the Maumee, and the 
latter on the Wabash, were strongholds of 
the Americans in the Northwest in 1812. 
General Proctor, in command at Fort 
Maiden, resolved to reduce them, with the 
assistance of Tecumseh, whom Brock had 
commissioned a brigadier-general. Major 
Muir, with British regulars and Indians, 
was to proceed up the Maumee Valley to 
co-operate with other Indians, and Sept. 1 
was appointed as the day when they should 
invest Fort Wayne. The garrison con- 
sisted of only seventy men under Capt. 
James Rhea. The Indians prosecuted raids 
in other directions to divert attention from 
Forts Wayne and Harrison and prevent 
(present) their being reinforced. A scalping-party 
defeated fell upon the " Pigeon-roost Settlement " 





in Scott county, Ind. ( Sept. 3 ) , and during 
the twilight they killed three men, five 
women, and sixteen children. Similar 
atrocities were committed by these allies 
of the British preparatory to the invest-^ 
ment of Fort Wayne. For several days 
the Indians had been seen hovering in the 
woods around the fort, and on the night 
of Sept. 5 they attacked the sentinels. 
The treacherous Miamis, who, since the 
massacre at Chicago, had resolved to join 

Wayne, James Moore, jurist; born in 
Savannah, 6a., in 1790; graduated at 
Princeton College in 1808; admitted to 
the bar in 1810, and began practice in his 
native city; was judge of the Georgia 
Supreme Court in 1824-29; member of 
Congress in 1829-35; and in the latter 
year was appointed an associate justice 
of the United States Supreme Court, 
where he sat till his death in Washington, 
D. C, July 5, 1867. 


the British, kept up a zealous pretence of 
friendship for the Americans, hoping by 
this to get possession of the fort by sur- 
prise. They joined the other Indians in 
an attack on the fort on the night of the 
6th, supposed to have been 600 strong. 
They attempted to scale the palisades, but 
were driven back. Then, under the direc- 
tion of a half-breed, they formed two logs 
into the shape of cannon, and demanded 
the instant surrender of the fort, which 
would be battered down in case of a re- 
fusal. The troops were not frightened. 
They knew friends were on their way to 
relieve them. The besiegers kept up as- 
saults until the 12th, when they fled pre- 
cipitately on the approach of a deliver- 
ing force that night which saved the fort. 
The Indians had destroyed the live-stock, 
crops, and dwellings outside of the fort. 
The city of Fort Wayne stands near the 


Wayne's Indian Campaign. See Ohio ; 

Wayne, Anthony. 

Weather Bureau. The United States 
weather bureau, from its organization in 
1870 until June 30, 1891, when it was 
transferred to the Department of Agri- 
culture, was a division of the United 
States signal service under the War De- 
partment. It was organized by Chief 
Signal Officer Brig. -Gen. Albert J. Myer, 
under act of Congress, Feb. 9, 1870, the 
first legislation of the United States for 
a national weather service. Meteorologi- 
cal reports had been collected and maps 
sent out daily by Professor Henry at the 
Smithsonian Institution in 1854, and 
European governments had issued storm 
warnings in Holland, France, and Eng- 
land; but Prof. Cleveland Abbe, meteo- 
rologist, of Cincinnati, originated the 
present system of weather forecasts. Pro- 
fessor Abbe began the publication of the 


Weather Bulletin of the Cincinnati Ob- transferred to the signal service at the 

servatory, for the benefit of the Cincinnati instance of Prof. Joseph Henry 

chamber of commerce, Sept. 1, 1869. His Feb. 2, 1874 

success led Professor Lapham, of Mil- Meteorological reports of army post sur- 

waukee, to cause memorials for a nation- geons ordered by the surgeon-general to 

al system, to be endorsed by all chambers be sent to the chief signal office 

of commerce and boards of trade, and pre- June 19, 1874 

sented to Congress with a bill by Gen. Daily publication of Bulletin of Inter- 

H. E. Paine, resulting in the act of national Simultaneous Meteorological 06- 

1870. The great value of the service servations of the Northern Hemisphere 

lies in simultaneous weather observations begun at Washington Jan. 1, 1875 

throughout the United States, trans- Publication of graphic synoptic Inter- 
mitted, twice daily by telegraph to Wash- national Weather Maps of Simultaneous 
ington, from which are made synoptic Observations begun by General Myer 
weather maps and press reports telegraph- July 1, 1878 
ed to all points. Cautionary storm-sig- Brig.-Gen. W. B. Hazen appointed chief 

nals are displayed for the shipping at signal officer Dec. 6, 1880 

all seaport and lake stations, and spe- Gen. A. W. Greely appointed chief sig- 

cial flood reports at river stations. For nal officer March 3, 1887 

the benefit of agriculture, special farmers' Weather bureau transferred to the De- 
bulletins are issued from the Washington partment of Agriculture, and Prof. Mark 
office at 1 a.m., and distributed by the W. Harrington appointed chief 
" railway weather bulletin service," so June 30, 1891 
that, in the remotest sections, the farmer Weatliersford, William, Indian chief; 
may know at an early hour the " proba- born on the Hickory Ground, in the 
bilities" for the day. The title "Old Creek nation, Ala., about 1770. His fa- 
Probabilities," familiarly applied to the ther was an itinerant white peddler, sordid, 
head' of the weather bureau, was first treacherous, and revengeful. His mother 
given in 1869 to Professor Abbe, chosen was a full-blooded Creek, of the tribe of 
in 1870 by General Myer to prepare the Seminoles. Weathersford inherited the 
"probabilities," or storm-warnings. bad qualities of each, but honor and hu- 

Chronology. — First weather bulletins of manity predominated in his character, 

simultaneous observations issued and tele- He was possessed of rare eloquence and 

graphed to more than twenty cities courage, and these, with his good judg- 

Nov. 4, 1870 ment, procured for him the respect of the 

First storm-warning bulletins along the old among his countrymen; while his 

lakes issued about Nov. 10-15, 1870 vices made him the idol of the young and 

Systematic tri-daily weather predictions unprincipled. He was of a commanding 

begun Feb. 12, 1871 person — tall, straight, and well propor- 

Display of cautionary signals on the tioned; his eyes black, lively, and pene- 

sea-coasts and lakes begun.. Oct. 24, 1871 trating in their glance; his nose promi- 

Signal service changed to extend its re- nent and thin, but elegant in formation, 

searches in the interest of agriculture, Passionately devoted to wealth, he had 

by act approved June 10, 1872 appropriated a fine tract of land, im- 

Signal - service stations established at proved and settled it, and had embellish- 

light-house and life-saving stations on the ed it from the profits of his father's pack. 

lakes and sea-coast, by act of He entered fully into the views of Tecum- 

March 3, 1873 seh (q. v.), and if there had been no 

Monthly Weather Review first publish- delay in perfecting the confederacy and 

ed 1873 opening war he might have overrun the 

System of international co - operative whole Mississippi Valley. He led in the 
simultaneous weather observation, pro- attack upon Fort Mims, and used all his 
posed by General Myer at the congress of power and persuasion to prevent the mas- 
meteorologists convened at Vienna, is sacre of the women and children, but 
begun September, 1873 without success. That massacre aroused 

All Smithsonian weather observers all the white people of the great valley 



against the Creek nation, and the sons of 
all Tennessee marched to their country 
and in the course of a few months de- 
stroyed the nation. 

It was made a condition of peace with 
the Creeks by Jackson that they should 
bring to him Weathersford, their great 
leauer, for he could not pardon him. He 
then Knew neither the great Creek chief 
nor his own plasticity. Weathersford did 
not wait to be caught and dragged like 
a felon to the feet of the leader of the 
pale-faces. He saw in the events at the 
Horseshoe Bend that all hope for his nation 
was gone. He mounted his fine gray 
horse, which had saved his life, and rode 
to Jackson's camp, where he arrived at 
sunset. He entered Jackson's tent and 
found the general alone. Drawing himself 
up to his full height and folding his 
arms, he said : " I am Weathersford, the 
chief who commanded at Port Mims. .1 
have nothing to request for myself. You 
can kill- me if you desire. I have come 
to beg you to send for the women and 
children of the war-party, who are now 
starving in the woods. Their fields and 
cribs have been destroyed by your peo- 
ple, who have driven them to the woods 
without an ear of corn. I hope that you 
will send out parties who will conduct 
them safely here, in order that they may 
be fed. I exerted myself in vain to save 
the women and children at Fort Mims. 
I have come now to ask peace for my 
people, but not for myself." Jackson 
expressed astonishment that one so guilty 
should dare to appear in his presence 
and ask for peace and protection. " I 
am in your power; do with me as you 
please," the chief haughtily replied. " I 
am a soldier. I have done the white peo- 
ple all the harm I could. I have fought 
them, and fought them bravely; and if 
I had an army I would yet fight and 
contend to the last. But I have none. 
My people are all gone. . I can now do 
no more than to weep over the misfortunes 
of my nation." Here was a man after 
Jackson's own heart — a patriot who 
fought bravely for his people and his 
land, and fearlessly expressed his patriot- 
ism in the presence of one who had power 
over his life. He was told that absolute 
submission and the acceptance of a home 
beyond the Mississippi for his nation was 

the only wise policy for him to pursue. 
" If, however," said Jackson, " you desire 
to continue the war, and feel prepared 
to meet the consequences, you may depart 
in peace and unite yourself with the war- 
party if you choose." Half scornfully, 
half sorrowfully, Weathersford replied: " I 
may well be addressed in such language 
now. There was a time when I had a 
choice and could have answered you; I 
have none now — even hope is ended. Once 
I could animate my warriors to battle ; but 
I cannot animate the dead. My warriors 
can no longer hear my voice. Their bones 
are at Talladega, Tallushatchee, Emuc- 
faw, and Tohopeka. I have not surren- 
dered myself thoughtlessly. While there 
was a chance for success I never left 
my post nor supplicated peace. But my 
people are gone, and I ask it for my 
nation, not for myself. On the miseries 
and misfortunes brought upon my country 
I look back with deepest sorrow, and 
wish to avert still greater calamities. If 
I had been left to contend with the Geor- 
gia army I would have raised my corn 
on one bank of the river and fought them 
on the other. But your people have de- 
stroyed my nation. You are a brave man ; 
I rely upon your generosity. You will ex- 
act no terms of a conquered people but 
such as they should agree to. Whatever 
they may be, it would now be folly and 
madness to oppose. If they are opposed, 
you will find me among the sternest sup- 
porters of obedience. Those who would 
still hold out can be influenced only by a 
mean spirit of Tevenge, and to this they 
must not and shall not sacrifice the last 
remnant of their country. You have told 
our nation where we might go and be safe. 
This is good talk, and they ought to listen 
to it. They shall listen to it." Thus spoke 
Weathersford for his nation. Words of 
honor responded to words of honor, and 
Weathersford was allowed to go freely 
to the forest to search for his scattered 
followers and counsel peace. 

The chief returned and became a re- 
spected citizen of Alabama. He settled 
on a farm in Monroe county, well sup- 
plied with negro slaves, where he main- 
tained the character of an honest man. 
Soon after his return he married, and 
Gen. Samuel Dale, with whom he had 
several encounters, was his groomsman 



He said he could not live there, for his in command of the prize slaver Ardennes; 
old comrades, the hostile Creeks, ate his served through the Civil War, winning 
cattle from starvation, the peace party distinction in the actions at Plaquemine, 
ate them for revenge, and the white squat- La., Donaldsonville, and in those which 
ters because he was a " damned red-skin " ; occurred below that place after the fall 
so he said, " I have come to live among of Port Hudson. In 1865, while in com- 
gentlemen." Weathersford died from the mand of the monitor Mahopac he took 
effects of fatigue caused by a desperate part in the capture of Port Fisher, and 
bear-hunt in 1824. with the same vessel was present at the 

Weather Signals. Gen. Albert J. surrender of Richmond. He commanded 
Myek {q. v.), the originator of the sig- the iron-clad Dictator in Cuban waters 
nal service of the United States, also in- during the threatened war with Spain on 
vented and organized a weather signal account of the Virginius affair in 1873; 
service, which has been the means of con- promoted captain in 1876; commodore in 
f erring great benefits upon agriculture and 1886 ; and rear-admiral, June 27, 1893 ; 
commerce especially. This system, as ar- and was retired Sept. 26 following, 
ranged by General Myer, was established Weaver, James B., lawyer; born in 
by Congress in 1870, and for twenty years Dayton. O., June 12, 1833; graduated at 
was a part of the signal service of the the Law School of the Ohio University in 
United States army. The Fifty-first Con- 1854; served in the National army in 
gress passed an act providing that while 1861-65; was promoted colonel of vol- 
the signal service should remain as a unteers and brevetted brigadier-general; 
branch of the army, the forecasting of the member of Congress in 1879-81 and in 
weather should become one of the duties 1885-89. In 1880 he was the candidate 
of the Agricultural Department and be of the Greenback party for President and 
conducted by a special bureau. This law received 307,306 popular votes; and in 
went into effect on July 1, 1891, and all 1892 was the candidate of the People's 
the duties connected with the system of party for the same office, and received 
weather signals were transferred to the 1,041,028 popular and twenty-two electoral 
new bureau. The first chief of the bureau votes. 

was Prof. Mark W. Harrington, of Michi- Webb, Alexander Stewart, military 
gan. Simultaneous weather reports from officer; born in New York City, Feb. 15, 
simultaneous observations, taken at differ- 1835; son of James Watson Webb; grad- 
ent places are transmitted to the bureau uated at West Point in 1855. Entering 
at Washington. Three of these simultane- the artillery, he served against the 
ous reports are made in each twenty-four Seminoles in Florida in 1856, and from 
hours, at intervals of eight hours; and 1857 to 1861 was assistant Professor of 
warnings are given by signals, maps, bul- Mathematics at West Point. In May, 
letins, and official despatches, furnished by 1861, he was made captain of infantry, 
the bureau, three times a day, to nearly all and in June, 1863, brigadier-general of 
the newspapers in the land. So thorough- volunteers. He was one of the defenders 
ly is this work done, by means of the tele- of Fort Pickens ; fought at Bull Bun and 
graph, the perfect organization of the sys- through the campaign on the Peninsula; 
tern, and the discipline of the operators, was chief of staff of the 5th Corps at An- 
that it is estimated one-third of all the tietam and Chaneellorsville ; served with 
families in our country are in possession, distinction at Gettysburg, and commanded 
each day, of the information issued from a brigade in the 2d Corps, in Virginia, 
the weather bureau. Fully 90 per cent, from October, 1863, to April, 1864. He 
of the predictions is verified by actual re- commanded a brigade in the campaign 
suits. against Richmond in 1864-65, and in Janu- 

Weaver, Aaron Ward, naval officer; ary, 1865, was General Meade's chief of 
born in the District of Columbia, July 1, staff. In March he was brevetted major- 
1832; graduated at the United States general, United States army, and was dis- 
Naval Academy in 1854; commissioned charged in 1870. In 1869-1903 he was 
lieutenant in 1855; cruised along the coast president of the College of the City of 
of Africa in 1858-59 and returned home New York. His publications include The 



Peninsula: MeClellan's Campaign of about the same time. In 1767 he went 

1862; and a number of articles relating to New York City, and there aided Philip 

to the Civil War in the Century Mag- Embury in the work of the Methodist So- 

azine. ciety. After being retired from the army 

Webb, James Watson, journalist; with the rank- of captain, he devoted his 

born in Claverack, N. Y., Feb. 8, 1802; time to missionary work in New Jersey, 

entered the army in 1819, was first lieu- Delaware, and Maryland. In 1767 he es- 

tenant irr 1823, and resigned in 1827, when tablished the first Methodist Society in 

he became a journalist, soon taking a lead- Philadelphia, Pa. He visited England sev- 

ing position in that profession as editor eral times, and permanently settled there 

and proprietor of the New York Courier at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. 

and Enquirer. In 1850 he waB appointed He died in Bristol, England, Dec. 20, 

chargi d'affaires at the Court of Vienna, 1796. 

but the Senate did not confirm the Webb, William Henby, ship-builder; 
nomination. In 1861 he was appointed born in New York City, June 19, 1816; 
minister to Brazil, where he settled long- received a private education; learned the 
pending claims against that government; ship-builders' trade in his father's yard, 
and he was chiefly instrumental, through and started in business for himself in 
his personal intimacy with Napoleon III., 1843. He built over 150 vessels; devised 
in procuring the withdrawal of the French a new model for navy vessels; and con- 
troops from Mexico. For many years he structed many vessels of great speed and 
exerted a powerful influence in the politics capacity. He built and endowed the Webb 
of the United States. Among his special Academy and Home for Ship-builders, 
publications are Altowan, or Incidents of Fordham Heights, N. Y. He died in New 
Life and Adventure in the Rocky Moun- York City, Oct. 30, 1899. 
tains; Slavery and Its Tendency; and a Webber, Chables Wilkins, journalist; 
treatise on 'National Currency. He died born in Eusselville, Ky., May 29, 1819. 
in New York City, June 7, 1884. He went to Texas when that Territory was 

Webb, Samuel Blatchley, military struggling for independence (1838); was 

officer ; born at Weathersfield, Conn., Dec. for several years connected with the Texan 

15, 1753; father of the preceding and Rangers; returned to Kentucky, where he' 

step-son of Silas Deane; was thanked for studied medicine; later entered Princeton 

his gallantry in the battle of Bunker Theological Seminary; and subsequently 

(Breed's) Hill, where he was wounded, settled in New York and engaged in 

and in June, 1776, was appointed aide-de- literary work. He contributed to The 

camp to Washington. In the battle of New World, The Democratic Review, and 

White Plains he was again wounded; also The Sunday Despatch; and was asso- 

at Trenton. He was in the battle of ciate editor and joint proprietor of The 

Brandywine, and in 1778 raised and took Whig Review. In 1849 he attempted to 

command of the 3d Connecticut Regiment, lead an exploring and mining expedition, 

In 1779 he, with most of his men, were but failed; in 1855 went to Central Amer- 

captured by the British fleet while cross- ica, where he joined William Walkeb 

ing to Long Island with General Parsons, {q. v.) in Nicaragua. He was killed in 

and was not released until 1780, when he a skirmish, April 11, 1856. He wrote 

took command of the light infantry, with Old Hicks the Guide, or Adventures in 

the brevet rank of brigadier-general. He the Comanche Country in Search of a 

lived in New York City after the war, Qold Mine; The Oold Mines of the Gila, 

until 1789, when he removed to Claverack, etc. 
N. Y., where he died, Dec. 3, 1807. Webber, Samuel, educator; born in 

Webb, Thomas, clergyman; born in Byfield, Mass., in 1759; graduated at 

England in 1724; was an officer in the Harvard College in 1784; entered the 

British army; served with the Royal ministry; and became a tutor in Harvard 

American forces, being wounded at Louis- in 1787 ; was Professor of Mathematics 

burg and Quebec; became a Methodist in and Natural Philosophy there in 1789- 

1765, and was licensed to preach; and was 1804, and then became president. He was 

made barrack master at Albany, N. Y., one of the commissioners appointed to set- 



tie the boundary-line between the United on President Willard; and reviser of 

States and the British provinces; vice- Jedidiah Morse's American Universal 

president of the American Academy; au- Geography. He died in Cambridge, Mass., 

thor of System of Mathematics; Eulogy July 17, 1810. 


Webster, Daniel, statesman; born in 
Salisbury (now Franklin), N. H., Jan. 18, 
1782; graduated at Dartmouth in 1801, 
defraying a portion of his expenses by 
teaching school. After teaching in Maine 
he studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1805. He soon rose to eminence in 
his profession at Portsmouth, N. H., and 
was a member of Congress in 1813—17, 
where he soon took a foremost rank in 
debate. In 1816 he settled in Boston, and, 
by his services in the Dartmouth College 
case, which was carried to the Supreme 
Court (1817), he was placed in the front 
rank in his profession. In that court he 
ably argued many important cases, in 
which he exhibited superior skill and 
ability. In 1820 he was a member of the 
Massachusetts constitutional convention. 
He again entered Congress in 1823, when 
he made a famous speech on the Greek Rev- 
olution, and, as chairman of the judiciary 
committee, effected measures for a com- 
plete revision of the criminal law of the 
United States. While John Quincy Adams 
was President he was the leader of the 
friends of the administration, first in the 
House and afterwards in the Senate, of 
which he was a member in 1827-39. 

His celebrated speech in reply to Hayne, 
of South Carolina, delivered in the Senate 
in 1832, is considered the most correct and 
complete exposition ever given of the 
true powers and functions of the national 
government (see below). In 1839 he 
visited Europe, and in March, 1841, Presi- 
dent Harrison appointed him Secretary of 
State, which office he held until May, 
1843, when he retired from President 
Tyler's cabinet. Again in the United 
States Senate, in 1845, he strongly opposed 
the annexation of Texas and the war with 
Mexico, and in 1850 he supported the Com- 
promise measure (see Omnibus Bill, 
The). By his concessions to the demands 
of the slave-holders, in a speech, March 7, 
1850, he greatly weakened his influence in 
the free-labor States. He was called to the 

cabinet of Mr. Fillmore the same year as 
Secretary of State, which post he filled, 
with great distinction, until his death. 
Mr. Webster delivered many remarkable 
orations on occasions, notably on laying 
the corner-stone of the Bunker Hill monu- 
ment (June 17, 1825), and on the comple- 
tion of the monument (June 17, 1843). 
He paid much attention to agriculture at 
Marshfield, and was fond of hunting and 
fishing. His last great effort in the courts 
was in January, 1852, when he argued an 
important India-rubber patent case at 
Trenton, N. J. He died in Marshfield, 
Mass., Oct. 24, 1852. 

Webster's Reply to Hayne. — The follow- 
ing is the text of Senator Webster's reply 
to the speech of Senator Robert Y. 
Hayne (q. v.) : 

Mr. President, — When the mariner has 
been tossed for many days in thick 
weather and on an unknown sea, he nat- 
urally avails himself of the first pause 
in the storm, the earliest glance of the 
sun, to take his latitude, and ascertain 
how far the elements have driven him from 
his true course. Let us imitate this 
prudence, and before we float farther re- 
fer to the point from which we departed, 
that we may at least be able to conjecture 
where we now are. I ask for the reading 
of the resolution. 

[The secretary read the resolution, as 

"Resolved, that the committee on pub- 
lic lands be instructed to inquire and re- 
port the quantity of the public lands re- 
maining unsold within each State and 
Territory, and whether it be expedient to 
limit, for a certain period, the sales of 
the public lands to such lands only as 
have heretofore been offered for sale and 
are now subject to entry at the minimum 
price. And, also, whether the office of 
surveyor-general, and some of the land 
offices, may not be abolished without det- 
riment to the public interest; or whether 

X. — B 




it be expedient to adopt measures to two days, by which the Senate has been 

hasten the sales, and extend more rapidly now entertained by the gentleman from 

the surveys of the public lands."] South Carolina. Every topic in the wide 

We have thus heard, sir, what the reso- range of our public affairs, whether past 

lution is, which is actually before us for or present — everything, general or local, 

consideration ; and it will readily occur whether belonging to national politics or 

to every one that it is almost the only party politics — seems to have attracted 

subject about which something has not more or less of the honorable member's 

been said in the speech, running through attention, save only the resolution before 



ue. He has spoken of everything but the able member. Some passages, it is true, 
public lands. They have escaped his had occurred, since our acquaintance in 
notice. To that subject, in all his ex- this body, which I could have wished 
cursions, he has not paid even the cold might have been otherwise; but I had used 
respect of a passing glance. philosophy, and forgotten them. When 

When this debate, sir, was to be re- the honorable member rose, in his first 
sumed, on Thursday morning, it so hap- speech, I paid him the respect of attentive 
pened that it would have been convenient listening; and when he sat down, though 
for me to be elsewhere. The honorable surprised, and I must say even astonished, 
member, however, did not incline to put at some of his opinions-, nothing was 
off the discussion to another day. He had further from my intention than to' com- 
a shot, he said, to return, and he wished mence any personal warfare; and through 
to discharge it. That shot, sir, which it the whole of the few remarks I made in 
was kind thus to inform us was coming, answer, I avoided, studiously and care- 
that we might stand out of the way, or fully, everything which I thought possible 
prepare .ourselves to fall before it, and to be construed into disrespect. And, sir, 
die with decency, has now been received, while there is thus nothing originating 
Under all advantages, and with expecta- here, which I wished at any time, or now 
tion awakened by the tone which pre- wish, to discharge, I must repeat, also, 
ceded it, it has been discharged, and has that nothing has been received here, which 
spent its force. It may become me to rankles or in any way gives me annoyance, 
say no more of its effect than that, if I will not accuse the honorable member of 
nobody is found, after all, either killed violating the rules of civilized war — I will 
or wounded by it, it is not the first time not say that he poisoned his arrows. But 
in the history of human affairs that the whether his shafts were, or were not, 
vigor and success of the war have not dipped in that which would have caused 
quite come up to the lofty and sounding rankling if they had reached, there was 
phrase of the manifesto. not, as it happened, quite strength 

The gentleman, sir, in declining to post- enough in the bow to bring them to their 
pone the debate, told the Senate, with the mark. If he wishes now to find those 
emphasis of his hand upon his heart, that shafts, he must look for them elsewhere; 
there was something rankling here, which they will not be found fixed and quiver- 
he wished to relieve. [Mr. Hayne rose ing in the object at which they are aimed, 
and disclaimed having used the word The honorable member complained that 
" rankling."] It would not, Mr. President, I had slept on his speech. I must have 
be safe for the honorable member to ap- slept on it, or not slept at all. The moment 
peal to those around him, upon the ques- the honorable member sat down, his friend 
tion whether he did, in fact, make use of from Missouri rose, and, with much 
that word. But he may have been uncon- honeyed commendation of the speech, sug- 
scious of it. At any rate, it is enough gested that the impressions which it had 
that he disclaims it. But still, with or produced were too charming and delight- 
without the use of that particular word, ful to be disturbed by other sentiments or 
he had yet something here, he said, of other sounds, and proposed that the 
which he wished to rid himself by an im- Senate should adjourn. Would it have 
mediate reply. In this respect, sir, I have been quite amiable in me, sir, to interrupt 
a great advantage over the honorable this excellent good-feeling? Must I not 
gentleman. There is nothing" here, sir, have been absolutely malicious, if I could 
which gives me the slightest uneasiness; have thrust myself forward to destroy 
neither fear nor anger, nor that which is sensations thus pleasing? Was it not 
sometimes more troublesome than either — much better and kinder, both to sleep 
the consciousness of having been in the upon them myself, and to allow others, 
wrong. There is nothing either .origi- also, the pleasure of sleeping upon them 1 
nating here or now received here by the But if it be meant, by sleeping upon his 
gentleman's shot — nothing original, for speech, that I took time to prepare a 
I had not the slightest feeling of dis- reply to it, it is quite a mistake; owing 
respect or unkindness towards the honor- to other engagements, I could not employ 



even the interval between the adjournment notice. It was put as a question for me 
of the Senate and its meeting the next to answer, and so put as if it were dif- 
morning in attention to the subject of ficult for me to answer, whether I deemed 
this debate. Nevertheless, sir, the mere the member from Missouri an overmatch 
matter of fact is undoubtedly true — I did for myself in debate here. It seems to 
sleep on the gentleman's speech, and slept me, sir, that is extraordinary language, 
soundly. And I slept equally well on and an extraordinary tone for the dis- 
his speech of yesterday, to which I am now cussion of this body, 
replying. It is quite possible that, in this Matches and overmatches! Those terms 
respect also, I possess some advantage are more applicable elsewhere than here, 
over the honorable member, attributable, and fitter for other assemblies than this, 
doubtless, to a cooler temperament on my Sir, the gentleman seems to forget where 
part ; for, in truth, I slept upon his speeches and what we are. This is a senate ; a sen- 
remarkably well. But the gentleman in- ate of equals; of men of individual honor 
quires why he was made the object of such and personal character, and of absolute 
a reply. Why was he singled out? If an independence. We know no masters; we 
attack had been made on the East, he, acknowledge no dictators. This is a hall 
he assures us, did not begin it — it was the for mutual consultation and discussion, 
gentleman from Missouri. Sir, I an- not an arena for the exhibition of cham- 
swered the gentleman's speech because I pions. I offer myself, sir, as a match 
happened to hear it; and because, also, I for no man; I throw the challenge of de- 
chose to give an answer to that speech, bate at no man's feet. But then, sir, 
which, if unanswered, I thought most since the honorable member has put the 
likely to produce injurious impressions, question in a manner that calls for an 
I did not stop to inquire who was the answer, I will give him an answer; and 
original drawer of the ■ bill. I found a I tell him that, holding myself to be the 
responsible endorser before me, and it humblest of the members here, I yet know 
was my purpose to hold him liable, and nothing in the arm of his friend from Mis- 
to bring him to his just responsibility souri, either alone or when aided by the 
without delay. But, sir, this interroga- arm of his friend from South Carolina, 
tory of the honorable member was only in- that need deter even me from espousing 
troductory to another. He proceeded to whatever opinions I may choose to espouse, 
ask me whether I had turned upon him in from debating whenever I may choose to 
this debate from consciousness that I debate, or from speaking whatever I may 
should find an overmatch if I ventured see fit to say on the floor of the Senate, 
on a contest with his friend from Mis- Sir, when uttered as matter of commenda- 
souri. If, sir, the honorable member, ex tion or compliment, I should dissent from 
gratia modestia;, had chosen thus to defer nothing which the honorable member 
to his friend, and to pay him a compli- might say of his friend. Still less do I 
ment, without intentional disparagement put forth any pretensions of my own. Bui 
to others, it would have been quite ac- when put to me as matter of taunt, I 
cording to the friendly courtesies of de- throw it back, and say to the gentleman 
bate, and not at all ungrateful to my that he could possibly say nothing less 
own feelings. I am not one of those, sir, likely than such a comparison to wound 
who esteem any tribute of regard, whether my pride of personal character. The anger 
light and occasional, or more serious and of its tone rescued the remark from inten- 
deliberate, which may be bestowed on tional irony, which otherwise, probably, 
others as so much unjustly withholden would have been its general acceptation, 
from themselves. But the tone and man- But, sir, if it be imagined that by this 
ner of the gentleman's question forbid mutual quotation and commendation; if 
me thus to interpret it. I am not at it be supposed that, by casting the charac- 
liberty to consider it as nothing more ters of the drama, assigning to each his 
than a civility to his friend. It had an part — to one the attack, to another the 
air of taunt and disparagement, a little of cry of onset — or if it be thought that hy 
the loftiness of asserted superiority, which a loud and empty vaunt of anticipated 
does not allow me to pass it over without victory any laurels are to be won here* 



if it be imagined, especially, that_any or less press. Incapable of further mischief, 
all these things will shake any purpose of it lies in the sewer, lifeless and despised, 
mine, I can tell the honorable member, It is not now, sir, in the power of the 
once for all, that he is greatly mistaken, honorable member to give it dignity or 
and that he is dealing with one of whose decency, by attempting to elevate it, and 
temper and character he has yet much to introduce it into the Senate. He can- 
to learn. Sir, I shall not allow myself, not change it from what it is — an object 
on this occasion — I hope on no occasion of general disgust and scorn. On the 
— to be betrayed into a loss of temper; contrary, the contact, if he choose to touch 
but if provoked, as I trust I shall never it, is more likely to drag him down, down, 
allow myself to be, into crimination and to the place where it lies itself, 
recrimination, the honorable member may, But, sir, the honorable member was 
perhaps, find that in that contest there not, for other reasons, entirely happy in 
will be blows to take as well as blows to his allusion to the story of Banquo's mur- 
give; that others can state comparisons der and Banquo's ghost. It was not, I 
as significant, at least, as his own; and think, the friends, but the enemies of 
that his impunity may, perhaps, demand the murdered Banquo at whose bidding 
of him whatever powers of taunt and sar- his spirit would not down. The honorable 
casm he may possess. I commend him gentleman is fresh in his reading of the 
to a prudent husbandry of his resources. English classics, and can put me right 
But, sir, the coalition! The coalition! if I am wrong; but according to my poor 
Ay, "the murdered coalition!" The gen- recollection, it was at those who had 
Ueman asks if I were led or frightened^ begun with caresses, and ended with foul 
into this debate by the sceptre of the and treacherous murder, that the gory 
coalition. " Was it the ghost of the mur- locks were shaken. The ghost of Banquo, 
dered coalition," he exclaims, " which like that of Hamlet, was an honest ghost. 
haunted the member from Massachusetts, It disturbed no innocent man. It knew 
and which, like the ghost of Banquo, where its appearance would strike ter- 
would never down?" "The murdered ror, and who would cry out, "A ghost!" 
coalition!" Sir, this charge of a coali- It made itself visible in the right quar- 
tion, in reference to the late administra- ter, and compelled the guilty, and the 
tion, is not original with the honorable conscience - smitten, and none others, to 
member. It did not spring up in the start, with, 

Senate. Whether as a fact, as an argu- ,..,., , ... . 

x _i. in _-i„ 4. ;+ ;„ oil "Prithee, see there! behold! — look! Io ! 

ment, or as an embellishment, it is all „ j st ^ n(J herej j gaw him ,„ 

borrowed. He adopts it, indeed, from 

a very low origin, and a still lower pres- Their eyeballs were seared — was it not 

ent condition. It is one of the thousand so, sir? — who had thought to shield them- 

calumnies with -which the press teemed selves by concealing their own hands, and 

during an excited political canvass. It laying the imputation of the crime on 

was a charge of which there was not only a low and hireling agency in wickedness ; 

no proof or probability, but which was, who had vainly attempted to stifle the 

in itself, wholly impossible to be true, workings of their own coward consciences 

No man of common information ever be- by ejaculating, through white lips and 

lieved a syllable of it. Yet it was of that chattering teeth, " Thou canst not say I 

class of falsehoods which, by continued did it!" I have misread, the great poet if 

repetition through all the organs of de- it was those who had in no way partaken 

traction and abuse, are capable of mislead- in the deed of the death, who either found 

ing those who are already far misled, and that they were, or feared that they should 

of further fanning passion already kind- be, pushed from their stools by the ghost 

ling into flame. Doubtless it served its of the slain, or who cried out to a spectre 

day, and, in a greater or less degree, the created by their own fears, and their own 

end designed by it. Having done that, it remorse, "Avaunt! and quit our sight!" 

has sunk into the general mass of stale There is another particular, sir, in which 

and loathed calumnies. It is the very the honorable member's quick perception 

cast-off slough of a polluted and shame- of resemblances might, I should think, have 



seen something in the story of Banquo,mak- I had supposed. Let me tell him, however, 

ing it not altogether a subject of the most that a sneer from him at the mention of 

pleasant contemplation. Those who mur- the name of Mr. Dane is in bad taste. It 

dered Banquo, what did they win by it? may well be a high mark of ambition, 

Substantial good? Permanent power? Or sir, either with the honorable gentleman 

disappointment, rather, and sore mortifi- or myself, to accomplish as much to make 

cation — dust and ashes — the common fate our names known to advantage, and re- 

of vaulting ambition overleaping itself 1 membered with gratitude, as Mr. Dane has 

Did not even-handed justice, ere long, com- accomplished. But the truth is, sir, I 

mend the poisoned chalice to their own suspect that Mr. Dane lives a little too 

lips? Did they not soon find that for far north. He is of Massachusetts, and 

another they had "filled their mind"? — too near the north star to be reached 

that their ambition, though apparently for by the honorable gentleman's telescope. If 

the moment successful, had but put a bar- his sphere had happened to range south of 

ren sceptre in their grasp? Ay, sir, — Mason and Dixon's line, he might, prob- 
ably, have come within the scope of his 

" A barren sceptre in their gripe, vision ! 

Thence to be wrenched by an unlineal hand, j k j f th ordinance of 1787 

No son of theirs succeeding." , . , , ., .. , , . ™ . . 

which prohibited slavery in all future 

Sir, I need pursue the allusion no times northwest of the Ohio, as a measure 
further. I leave the honorable gentleman of great wisdom and foresight, and one 
to run it out at his leisure, and to derive which had been attended with highly 
from it all the gratification it is cal- beneficial and permanent consequences. I 
eulated to administer. If he finds him- supposed that on this point no two gentle- 
self pleased with the associations, and pre- men in the Senate could entertain differ- 
pared to be quite satisfied, though the ent opinions. But the simple expression 
parallel should be entirely completed, I of this sentiment has led the gentleman, 
had almost said I am satisfied also — but not only into a labored defence of slavery 
that I shall think of. Yes, sir, I will in the abstract, and on principle, but also 
think of that. into a warm accusation against me, as 

In the course of my observations the having attacked the system of domestic 

other day, Mr. President, I paid a pass- slavery now existing in the Southern 

ing tribute of respect to a very worthy States. For all this there was not the 

man, Mr. Dane, of Massachusetts. It so slightest foundation in anything said or 

happened that he drew the ordinance of intimated by me. I did not utter a single 

1787 for the government of the Northwest- word which any ingenuity could torture 

era Territory. A man of so much ability, into an attack on the slavery of the 

and so little pretence; of so great a ca- South. I said only that it was highly 

pacity to do good, and so unmixed a wise and useful in legislating for the 

disposition to do it for its own sake; a Northwestern country, while it was yet a 

gentleman who acted an important part, wilderness, to prohibit the introduction 

forty years ago, in a measure the in- of slaves; and added that I presumed, in 

fluence of which is still deeply felt in the neighboring State of Kentucky, there 

the very matter which was the subject was no reflecting and intelligent gentle- 

of debate, might, I thought, receive from man who would doubt that, if the same 

me a commendatory recognition. prohibition had been extended, at the same 

But the honorable member was inclined early period, over that commonwealth, 

to be facetious on the subject. He was her strength and population would at this 

rather disposed to make it a matter of day have been far greater than they are. 

ridicule that I had introduced into the If these opinions be thought doubtful, they 

debate the name of one Nathan Dane, of are, nevertheless, I trust, neither extraor- 

whom he assures us he had never heard dinary nor disrespectful. They attack no- 

before. Sir, if the honorable member had body and menace nobody. And yet, sir, 

never before heard of Mr. Dane, I am sor- the gentleman's optics have discovered, 

ry for it. It shows him less acquainted even in the mere expression of this senti- 

with the public men of the country than ment, what he calls the very spirit of the 



Missouri question. He represents mft as there were those who imagined that the 
making an onset on the whole South, and powers of the government which it pro- 
manifesting a spirit which would inter- posed to establish might, perhaps, in some 
fere with and disturb their domestic con- possible mode, be exerted in measures tend- 
dition. Sir, this injustice no otherwise ing to the abolition of slavery. This sug- 
surprises me than as it is here done, and gestion would, of course, attract much at- 
done without the slightest pretence of tention in the Southern conventions. In 
ground for it. I say it only surprises me that of Virginia, Governor Randolph said: 
as being done here ; for I know full well " I hope there is none here who, consider- 
that it is and has been the settled policy ing the subject in the calm light of phi- 
of some persons in the South for years to losophy, will make an objection dishonor- 
represent the people of the North as dis- able to Virginia — that, at the moment 
posed to interfere with them in their own they are securing the rights of their citi- 
exclusive and peculiar concerns. This is zens, an objection is started that there is a 
a delicate and sensitive point in South- spark of hope that those unfortunate men 
ern feeling, and of late years it has always now held in bondage may, by the operation 
been touched, and generally with effect, of the general government, be made free." 
whenever the object has been to unite the At the very first Congress petitions on 
whole South against Northern men or the subject were presented, if I mistake 
Northern measures. This feeling, always not, from different States. The Pennsyl- 
kept alive, and maintained at too in- vania Society for Promoting the Abolition 
tense a heat to admit discrimination or of Slavery took a lead and laid before Con- 
refleetion, is a lever of great power in our gress a memorial, praying Congress to pro- 
political machine. It moves vast bodies, mote the abolition by such powers as it 
and gives to them one and the same direc- possessed. This memorial was referred, 
tion. But the feeling is without adequate in the House of Representatives, to a 
cause, and the suspicion which exists select committee, consisting of Mr. Foster, 
wholly groundless. There is not, and' of New Hampshire; Mr. Gerry, of Massa- 
never has been, a disposition in the North chusetts; Mr. Huntington, of Connecti- 
to interfere with these interests of the cut; Mr. Lawrence, of New York; Mr. 
South. Such interference has never been Sinnickson, of New Jersey; Mr. Hartley, 
supposed to be within the power of of Pennsylvania, and Mr. Parker, of Vir- 
government, nor has it been in any way ginia; all of them, sir, as you will ob- 
attempted. It has always been regarded serve, Northern men, but the last. This 
as a matter of domestic policy, left with committee made a report, which was com- 
the States themselves, and with which the mitted to a committee of the whole House, 
federal government had nothing to do. and there considered and discussed on 
Certainly, sir, I am, and ever have been, several days; and being amended, although 
of that opinion. The gentleman, indeed, in no material respect, it was made to 
argues that slavery in the abstract is no express three distinct propositions on the 
evil. Most assuredly I need not say I differ subjects of slavery and the slave-trade, 
with him altogether and most widely on First, in the words of the Constitution, 
that point. I regard domestic slavery as that Congress could not, prior to the year 
one of the greatest evils, both moral and 1808, prohibit the migration or importa- 
political. But, though it be a malady, tion of such persons as' any of the States 
and whether it be curable, and if so, by then existing should think proper to 
what means; or, on the other hand, admit. Second, that Congress had au- 
whether it be the vulnus immedieabile of thority to restrain the citizens of the 
the social system, I leave it to those whose United States from carrying on the Afri- 
right and duty it is to inquire and to can slave-trade for the purpose of sup- 
decide. And this I believe, sir, is, and plying foreign countries. On this propo- 
uniformly has been, the sentiment of the sition our early laws against those who 
North. Let us look a little at the history engage in that traffic are founded. The 
of this matter. third proposition, and that which bears 
When the present Constitution was sub- on the present question, was expressed in 
mitted for the ratification of the people, the following terms: 



"Resolved, that Congress have no au- of their own governments. It is their 
thority to interfere in the emancipation of affair, not mine. Nor do I complain of the 
slaves, or in the treatment of them in any peculiar effect which the magnitude of 
of the States: it remaining with the sev- that population has had in the dis- 
eral States alone to provide rules and tribution of power under this federal gov- 
regulations therein, which humanity and ernment. We know, sir, that the repre- 
true policy may require." sentatipn of the States in the other House 

This resolution received the sanction is not equal. We know that great ad- 
of the House of Representatives so early vantage, in that respect, is enjoyed by the 
as March, 1790. And now, sir, the honor- slave-holding States; and we know, too, 
able member will allow me to remind that the intended equivalent for that ad- 
him that not only were the select vantage — that is to say, the imposition 
committee who reported the resolution, of direct taxes in the same ratio has be- 
with a single exception, all Northern come merely nominal; the habit of the 
men, but also that of the members then government being almost invariably to 
composing the House of Representatives, collect its revenues from other sources 
a large majority, I believe nearly two- and in other modes. Nevertheless, I do 
thiids, were Northern men also. not complain, nor would I countenance 

The House agreed to insert this resolu- any movement to alter this arrangement 
tion in its journal; and from that day to of representation. It is the original bar- 
this it has never been maintained or con- gain, the compact — let it stand; let the 
tended that Congress had any authority advantage of it be fully enjoyed. The 
to regulate or interfere with the condition Union itself is too full of benefit to be 
of slaves in the several States. No hazarded in propositions for changing its 
Northern gentleman, to my knowledge, has original basis. I go for the Constitution 
moved any such question in either House as it is, and for the Union as it is. 
of Congress. But I am -resolved not to submit, in 

The fears of the South, whatever fears silence, to accusations, either against 
they might have entertained, were allayed myself individually or against the North 
and quieted by this early decision; and — wholly unfounded and unjust accusa- 
so remained till they were excited afresh, tions which impute to us a disposi- 
without cause, but for collateral and in- tion to evade the constitutional compact, 
direct purposes. When it became neces- and to extend the power of the govern- 
sary, or was thought so, by some political ment over the internal laws and domestic 
persons, to find an unvarying ground for condition of the States. All such accusa- 
the exclusion of Northern men from con- tions, wherever and whenever made, all 
fidence and from lead in the affairs of the insinuations of the existence of any such 
republic, then, and not till then, the cry purposes, I know and feel to be ground- 
was raised and the feeling industriously less and injurious. And we must con- 
excited that the influence of Northern fide in Southern gentlemen themselves; we 
men in the public councils would endanger must trust to those whose integrity of 
the relation of master and slave. For heart and magnanimity of feeling will 
myself I claim no other merit than that lead them to a desire to maintain and 
this gross and enormous injustice towards disseminate truth, and who possess the 
the whole North has not wrought upon means of its diffusion with the Southern 
me to change my opinions or my political public; we must leave it to them to dis- 
conduct. I hope I am above violating abuse that public of its prejudices. But, 
my principles, even under the smart of in the mean time, for my own part, 1 
injury and false imputations. Unjust shall continue to act justly, whether those 
suspicions and undeserved reproach, what- towards whom justice is exercised receive 
ever pain I may experience from them, it with candor or with contumely, 
will not induce me, I trust, nevertheless, Having had occasion to recur to the 
to overstep the limits of constitutional ordinance of 1787, in order to defend my- 
duty or to encroach on the rights of self against the inferences which the hon- 
others. The domestic slavery of the South orable member has chosen to draw from 
I leave where I find it — in the hands my former observations on the subiect 

264 J 


i am not willing now entirely to take North Carolina, moved to strike out this 

leave of it without another remark. It paragraph. The question was put, ac- 

need hardly be said that that paper ex- cording to the form then practised : " Shall 

presses just sentiments on the great sub- these words stand as part of the plan," 

ject of civil and religious liberty. Such etc. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode 

sentiments were common, and abound in Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jer- 

all our state papers of that day. But sey, and Pennsylvania — seven States — 

this ordinance did that which was not voted in the affirmative; Maryland, Vir- 

so common, and which is not, even now, ginia, and South Carolina in the negative, 

universal; that is, it set forth and de- North Carolina was divided. As the con- 

clared, as a high and binding duty of sent of nine States was necessary, the 

government itself, to encourage schools words could not stand, and were struck 

and advance the means of education; on out accordingly. Mr. Jefferson voted for 

the plain reason that religion, morality, the clause, but was overruled by his col- 

and knowledge are necessary to good gov- leagues. 

ernment and to the happiness of mankind. In March of the next year (1785), Mr. 
One observation further. The important King, of Massachusetts, seconded by Mr. 
provision incorporated into the Consti- Ellery, of Rhode Island, proposed the for- 
tution of the United States, and several merly rejected article, with this addition: 
of the States, and recently, as we have " And that this regulation shall be an 
seen, adopted into the reformed consti- article of compact, and remain a funda- 
tution of Virginia, restraining legislative mental principle of the Constitution be- 
power, in questions of private right, and tween the thirteen original States and 
from impairing the obligation of con- each of the States described in the re- 
tracts, is first introduced and established, solve," etc. On this clause, which pro- 
as far as I am informed, as matter of ex- vided the adequate and thorough security, 
press written constitutional law, in this the eight Northern States at that time 
ordinance of 1787. And I must add, also, voted affirmatively, and the four South- 
in regard to the author of the ordinance, em States negatively. The votes of nine 
who has not had the happiness to attract States were not yet obtained, and thus 
the gentleman's notice heretofore, nor to the provision was again rejected by the 
avoid his sarcasm now, that he was chair- Southern States. The perseverance of the 
man of that select committee of the old North held out, and two years afterwards 
Congress, whose report first expressed the the object was attained. It is no deroga- 
strong sense of that body, that the old tion from the credit, whatever that may 
confederation was not adequate to the be, of drawing the ordinance, that its 
exigencies of the country, and recommend- principles had before been prepared and 
ing to the States to send delegates to the discussed in the form of resolution. If 
convention which formed the present Con- one should reason in that way, what would 
stitution. become of the distinguished honor of the 
An attempt has been made to transfer author of the Declaration of Indepen- 
from the North to the South the honor of dence? There is not a sentiment in that 
this exclusion of slavery from the North- paper which had not been voted and re- 
western Territory. The journal, without solved in the assemblies, and other popu- 
argument or comment, refutes such at- lar bodies in the country, over and over 
tempt. The session of Virginia was held again. 

March, 1784. On April 19, following, a But the honorable member has now 

committee, consisting of Messrs. Jefferson, found out that this gentleman, Mr. Dane, 

Chase, and Howell, reported a plan for a was a member of the Hartford Convention, 

temporary government of the Territory, However uninformed the honorable mem- 

in which was this article: "That after ber may be of characters and occurrences 

the year 1800 there shall be neither sla- at the North, it would seem that he has 

very nor involuntary servitude in any of at his elbows, on this occasion, some high- 

the said States, otherwise than in punish- minded and lofty spirit, some magnani- 

ment of crimes, whereof the party shall mous and true-hearted monitor, possessing 

have been convicted." Mr. Speight, of the means of local knowledge, and ready 



to supply the honorable member with ev- have thought me routed and discomfited, 
erything, down even to forgotten and as the gentleman had promised. Sir, a 
moth - eaten twopenny pamphlets, which breath blows all this triumph away. There 
may be used to the disadvantage of his is not the slightest difference in the sent' - - 
mvn country. But, as to the Hartford nients of my remarks on the two occasions. 
Convention, sir, allow me to say that the What I said here on Wednesday is in ex- 
proceedings of that body seem now to be act accordance with the opini'ons expressed 
less read and studied in New England by me in the other House in 1825. Though 
than farther south. They appear to be the gentleman had the metaphysics of 
looked to, not in New England, but else- Hudibras — though he were able 

where, for the purpose of seeing how far ., ., .. 

to S6V6F and Qiviu6 

they may serve as a precedent. But they A halr - twlxt north and nort hwest side," 

will not answer the purpose — they are 

quite too tame. The latitude in which he could not yet insert his metaphysical 

they originated was too cold. Other con- scissors between the fair readings of my 

ventions, of more recent existence, have remarks in 1825 and what I said here last 

gone a whole bar's length beyond it. The week. There is not only no contradiction, 

learned doctors of Colleton and Abbeville no difference, but, in truth, too exact a 

have pushed their commentaries on the similarity, both in thought and language, 

Hartford collect so far that the original to be entirely in just taste. I had myself 

text writers are thrown entirely into the quoted the same speech; had recurred 

shade. I have nothing to do, sir, with the to it, and spoke with it open before 

Hartford Convention. Its journal, which me; and much of what I said was little 

the gentleman has quoted, I have never more than a repetition from it. In order 

read. So far as the honorable member to make finishing work with this alleged 

may discover in its proceedings a spirit contradiction, permit me to recur to the 

in any degree resembling that which was origin of this debate and review its course, 

avowed and justified in those other con- This seems expedient, and may be done 

ventions to which I have alluded, or so as well now as at any time. Well, then, 

far as those proceedings can be shown its history is this: The honorable member 

to be disloyal to the Constitution, or tend- from Connecticut moved a resolution, 

ing to disunion, so far I shall be as ready which constituted the first branch of that 

as any one to bestow on them reprehen- which is now before us — that is to say, 

sion and censure. a resolution instructing the committee 

Having dwelt long on this convention, on public lands to inquire into the ex- 

and other occurrences of that day, in the pedieney of limiting, for a certain period, 

hope, probably (which will not be grati- the sales of public lands to such as have 

fied), that I should leave the course of this heretofore been offered for sale; and 

debate to follow him at length in those whether sundry offices connected with the 

excursions, the honorable member return- sales of the lands might not be abol- 

ed, and attempted another object. He re- ished without detriment to the public 

ferred to a speech of mine in the other service. 

House, the same which I had occasion to In the progress of the discussion which 
allude to myself the other day; and has arose on this resolution, an honorable 
quoted a passage or two from it, with member from New Hampshire moved to 
a bold though uneasy and laboring air of amend the resolution so as entirely to- 
confidence, as if he had detected in me reverse its object — that is, to strike it all 
an inconsistency. Judging from the gentle- out, and insert a direction to the corn- 
man's manner, a stranger to the course mittee to inquire into the expediency of 
of the debate, and to the point in dis- adopting measures to hasten the sales and 
cussion, would have imagined, from so extend more rapidly the surveys of the 
triumphant a tone, that the honorable lands. 

member was about to overwhelm me with The honorable member from Maine 

a manifest contradiction. Any one who (Mr. Sprague) suggested that both these 

heard him — and who had not heard what propositions might well enough go for 

I had, in fact, previously said — must consideration to the committee: and in 



this state of the question the member from remembered only to be oppressed. Cai- 
South Carolina addressed the Senate in ried away again by the appearance of 
his first speech. He rose, he said, to give analogy, or struck with the eloquence of 
us his own free thoughts on the public the passage, the honorable member yes- 
lands. I saw him rise with pleasure, and terday observed that the conduct of gov- 
listened with expectation, though before ernment towards the Western emigrants, 
he concluded I was filled with surprise, or my representation of it, brought to 
Certainly I was never more surprised than his mind a celebrated speech in the Brit- 
to find him following up, to the extent he ish Parliament. It was, sir, the speech 
did, the sentiments and opinions which of Colonel BarrS. On the question of the 
the gentleman from Missouri had put Stamp Act, or tea tax, I forget which, 
forth, and which it is known he has long Colonel BarrS had heard a member on the 
entertained. treasury bench argue that the people of 

I need not repeat, at large, the general the United States, being British colonists, 
topics of the honorable gentleman's speech, planted by the maternal care, nourished by 
When he said, yesterday, that he did not the indulgence, and protected by the arms 
attack the Eastern States he certainly of England, would not grudge their mite 
must have forgotten not only particular to relieve the mother-country from the 
remarks, but the whole drift and tenor of heavy burden under which she groaned, 
his speech; unless he means by not attack- The language of Colonel Barre, in reply to 
ing that he did not commence hostilities, this, was, " They planted by your care ? 
but that another had preceded him in the Your oppression planted them in America, 
attack. He, in the first place, disap- They fled from your tyranny, and grew 
proved of the whole course of the govern- by your neglect of them. So soon as you 
ment for forty years in regard to its dis- began to care for them, you showed your 
positions of the public land; and then, care by sending persons to spy out their 
turning northward and eastward, and liberties, misrepresent their character, 
fancying he had found a cause for alleged prey upon them, and eat out their sub- 
narrowness and niggardliness in the " ac- stance." 

cursed policy " of the tariff, to which he And now does the honorable gentleman 
represented the people of New England as mean to maintain that language like this 
wedded, he went on for a full hour with is applicable to the conduct of the gov- 
remarks the whole scope of which was to ernment of the United States towards the 
exhibit the results of this policy in feel- Western emigrants, or to any representa- 
ings and in measures unfavorable to the tion given by me of that conduct? Were 
West. I thought his opinions unfounded the settlers in the West driven thither 
and erroneous, as to the general course of by our oppression? Have they flourish- 
the government, and ventured to reply to ed only by our neglect of them? Has 
them. the government done nothing but to 

The gentleman had remarked on the prey upon them; and eat out their sub- 
analogy of other cases, and quoted the stance? Sir, this fervid eloquence of the 
conduct of European governments towards British speaker, just when and where it 
their own subjects settling oil this con- was uttered, and fit to remain an exercise 
tinent, as in point to show that we had for the schools, is not a little out of place, 
been harsh and rigid in selling when we when it was brought thence to be applied 
should have given the public lands to here, to the conduct of our own country 
settlers. I thought the honorable member towards her own citizens. From America 
had suffered his judgment to be betrayed to England it may be true; from Ameri- 
by a false analogy; that he was struck cans to their own government it would 
with an appearance of resemblance where be strange language. Let us leave it to 
there was no real similitude. I think so be recited and declaimed by our boys 
still. The first settlers of North America against a foreign nation; not introduce it 
were enterprising spirits, engaged in here, to recite and declaim ourselves 
private adventure, or fleeing from tyranny against our own. 

at home. When arrived here they were But I come to the point of the alleged 
forgotten by the mother - country, or contradiction. In my remarks on Wednes- 



day, I contended that we could not give v The real question between me and him 
away gratuitously all the public lands; is, Where has the doctrine been advanced, 
that we held them in trust; that the at the South or the East, that the popu- 
government had solemnly pledged itself lation of the West should be retarded, or, 
to dispose of them as a common fund for at least, need not be hastened, on account 
the common benefit, and to sell and settle of its effect to drain off the people from 
them as its discretion should dictate, the Atlantic States? Is this doctrine, 
Now, sir, what contradiction does the as has been alleged, of Eastern origin? 
gentlemen find to this sentiment in the That is the question. Has the gentleman 
speech of 1825? He quotes me as having found anything by which he can make 
then said that we ought not to hug these good his accusation? I submit to the 
lands as a very great treasure. Very Senate that he has entirely failed; and, 
well, sir. Supposing me to be accurately as far as this debate has shown, the only 
reported in that expression, what is the person who has advanced such sentiments 
contradiction? I have not now said that is a gentleman from South Carolina, and 
we should hug these lands as a favorite a friend to the honorable member him- 
source of pecuniary income. No such self. The honorable gentleman has given 
thing. It is not my view. What I have no answer to this; there is none which 
said, and what I do say, is that they can be given. This simple fact, while it 
are a common fund — to be disposed of for requires no comment to enforce it, defies 
the common benefit — to be sold at low all argument to refute it. I could refer to 
prices, for the accommodation of settlers, the speeches of another Southern gentle- 
keeping the object of settling the lands as man, in years before, of the same general 
much in view as that of raising money character, and to the same effect, as that 
from them. This I say now, and this 1 which has been quoted; but I will not con- 
have always said. Is this hugging them sume the time of the Senate by the read- 
as a favorite treasure? Is there no dif- ing of them. 

ference between hugging and hoarding So then, sir, New England is guiltless 
this fund, on the one hand as a great of the policy of retarding Western popu- 
treasure, and on the other of disposing lation, and of all envy and jealousy of 
of it at low prices, placing the proceeds the growth of the new States. Whatever 
in the general treasury of the Union ? My there be of that policy in the country, no 
opinion is that as much is to be made of part of it is hers. If it has a local 
the land as fairly and reasonably may habitation, the honorable member has 
be, selling it all the while at such rates as probably seen, by this time, where he is to 
to give the fullest effect to settlement, look for it; and if it now has received a 
This is not giving it all away to the name, he himself has christened it. 
States, as the gentleman would propose; We approach, at length, sir, to a more 
nor is it hugging the fund closely and important part of the honorable gentle- 
tenaciously, as a favorite treasure; but man's observations. Since it does not ac- 
it is, in my judgment, a just and wise cord with my views of justice and policy 
policy, perfectly according with all the to vote away the public lands altogether, 
various duties which rest on government, as mere matter of gratuity, I am asked 
So much for my contradiction. And what by the honorable gentleman on what 
is it? Where is the ground of the gentle- ground it is that I consent to give them 
man's triumph ? What inconsistency, in away in particular instances. How, he in- 
wor.d or doctrine, has he been able to de- quires, do I reconcile with these professed 
tect? Sir, if this be a sample of that sentiments my support of measures ap- 
discomfiture with which the honorable propriating portions of the lands to par- 
gentleman threatened me, commend me to tieular roads, particular rivers, and par- 
the word discomfiture for the rest of my tieular institutions of education in the 
,ife - West? This leads, sir, to the real and 

But, after all, that is not the point wide difference in political opinions be- 
of the debate; and I must bring the tween the honorable gentleman and myself, 
gentleman back to that which is the On my part, I look upon all these objects 
point, as connected with the common good', fairly 



embraced in its objects and its terms. He, and mountains, and lines of latitude, to 
on the contrary, deems them all, if good find boundaries beyond which public im- 
at all, only local good. This is our differ- provements do not benefit us. We do come 
ence. The interrogatory which he proceed- here as agents and representatives of those 
ed- to put at once explains this difference, narrow-minded and selfish men of New 
"What interest?" asks he, "has South Car- England, consider ourselves as bound to 
olina in a canal in Ohio?" Sir, this very regard, with equal eye, the good of the 
question is full of significance. It de- whole, in whatever is within our power 
velops the gentleman's whole political sys- of legislation. Sir, if a railroad or a ca- 
tem; and its answer expounds mine. Here nal, beginning in South Carolina, and 
we differ toto ccelo. I look upon a road ending in South Carolina, appeared to me 
over the Alleghany, a canal round the to be of national importance and national 
falls of the Ohio, or a canal or railway magnitude, believing, as I do, that the 
from the Atlantic to the Western waters, power of government extends to the en- 
as being objects large and extensiye couragement of works of that description, 
enough to be fairly said to be for the if I were to stand up here and ask, " What 
common benefit. The gentleman thinks interest has Massachusetts in a railroad 
otherwise, and this is the key to open hia in South Carolina?" I should not be will- 
construction of the powers of the govern- ing to face my constituents. These same 
ment. He may well ask, upon his sys- narrow-minded men would tell me that 
tern, What interest has South Carolina they had sent me to act for the whole 
in a canal in Ohio? On that system, it country, and that one who possessed too 
is true, she has no interest. On that little comprehension, either of intellect 
system, Ohio and Carolina are different or feeling — one who was not large 
governments and different countries, con- enough in mind and heart to em- 
nected here, it is true, by some slight and brace the whole — was not fit to be in- 
ill-defined bond of union, but in all main trusted with the interest of any part, 
respects separate and diverse. On that Sir, I do not desire to enlarge the powers 
system, Carolina has no more interest in a of the government by unjustifiable con- 
canal in Ohio than in Mexico. The gentle- struction, nor to exercise any not within 
man, therefore, only follows out his own a fair interpretation. But when it is be- 
principles; he does no more than arrive lieved that a power does exist, then it is, 
at the natural conclusions of his own doc- in my judgment, to be exercised for the 
trines; he only announces the true results general benefit of the whole; so far as 
of that creed which he has adopted him- respects the exercise of such a power, the 
self, and would persuade others to adopt, States are one. It was the very object 
when he thus declares that South Carolina of the Constitution to create unity of in- 
has no interest in a public work in Ohio, terests to the extent of the powers of the 
Sir, we narrow-minded people in New Eng- general government. In war and peace 
land do not reason thus. Our notion of we are one; in commerce one; because 
things is entirely different. We look upon the authority of the general government 
the States, not as separated, but as united, reaches to war and peace, and to regu- 
We love to dwell on that Union, and on lation of commerce. I have never seen 
the mutual happiness which it has so any more difficulty in erecting light-houses 
much promoted, and the common renown on the lakes than on the ocean, in im- 
which it has so greatly contributed to proving the harbors of inland seas than 
acquire. In our contemplation, Carolina if they were within the ebb and flow of 
and Ohio are parts of the same country — the tide; or of removing obstructions in 
States united under the same general gov- the vast streams of the West, more than 
ernment, having common interests, associ- in any other work to facilitate commerce 
ated, intermingled. In whatever is within on the Atlantic coast. If there be power 
the proper 'sphere of the constitutional for one, there is power also for the other; 
power of this government, we look upon and they are all and equally for the 
the States as one. We do not impose country. 

geographical limits to our patriotic feel- There are other objects, apparently more 

ings or regard; we do not follow rivers local, or the benefit of which is less gen- 



eral, towards which, nevertheless, I have from New England. Those who have a 
concurred with others to give aid by do- different view of the powers of the gov- 
nations of land. It is proposed to con- eminent, of course, come to different con- 
struct a road in or through one of the elusions on these as on other questions, 
new States in which this government pos- I observed, when speaking on this sub- 
sesses large quantities of land. Have the ject before, that if we looked to any 
United States no right, as a great land measure, whether for a road, a canal, or 
untaxed proprietor — are they under no anything else intended for the improve- 
obligation — to contribute to an object ment of the West, it would be found that 
thus calculated to promote the common if the New England ayes were struck oul 
good of all the proprietors, themselves in- of the list of votes, the Southern noes 
eluded? And even with respect to edu- would always have rejected the measure, 
cation, which is the extreme case, let the The truth of this has not been denied, and 
question be considered. In the first place, cannot be denied. In stating this, I thought 
as we have seen, it was made matter of it just to ascribe it to the constitutional 
compact with these States that they scruples of the South, rather than to any 
should do their part to promote educa- other less favorable or less charitable 
tion. In the next place, our whole sys- cause. But no sooner had I done this 
tem of land laws proceeds on the idea than the honorable gentleman asks if I 
that education is for the common good; reproach him and his friends with their 
because, in every division, a certain por- constitutional scruples. Sir, I reproach 
tion is uniformly reserved and appropri- nobody. I stated a fact, and gave the 
ated for the use of schools. And, finally, most respectful reason for it that occurred 
have not these new States singularly to me. The gentleman cannot deny the 
strong claims, founded on the ground al- fact — he may, if he choose, disclaim the 
ready stated, that the government is a reason. It is not long since I had oc- 
great untaxed proprietor in the owner- casion, in presenting a petition from his 
ship of the soil? It is a consideration of own State, to account for its being in- 
great importance that probably there is trusted to my hands by saying that the 
in no part of the country, or of the world, constitutional opinions of the gentleman 
so great a call for the means of education and his worthy colleague prevented them 
as in those new States, owing to the vast from supporting it. Sir, did I state this 
number of persons within those ages in as a matter of reproach? Far from it. 
which education and instruction are usu- Did I attempt to find any other cause 
ally received, if received at all. This is than an honest one for these scruples? 
the mutual consequence of recency of set- Sir, I did not. It did not become me to 
tlement and rapid increase. The census doubt, nor to insinuate that the gentle 
of these States shows how great a pro- man had either changed his sentiments 
portion of the whole population occupies or that he had made up a set of constitu- 
the classes between infancy and manhood, tional opinions accommodated to any par- 
These are the wide fields, and here is the ticular combination of political occur- 
deep and quick soil for the seeds of knowl- rences. Had I done so, I would have 
edge and virtue; and this is the favored felt that while I was entitled to little 
season, the spring-time for sowing them, respect in thus questioning other people's 
Let them be disseminated without stint, motives, I justified the whole world in sus- 
Let them be scattered with a bountiful pecting my own. 

broadcast. Whatever the government can But how has the gentleman returned 

fairly do towards these objects, in my this respect for others' opinions? His 

opinion, ought to be done. own candor and justice, how have they 

These, sir, are the grounds, succinctly been exhibited towards the motives of 

stated, on which my votes for grants of others, while he has been at so much 

land for particular objects rest, while pains to maintain — what nobody has dis- 

I maintain, at the same time, that it is all puted — the purity of his own? Why, sir, 

a common fund, for the common benefit, he has asked, when, and how, and why 

And reasons like these, I presume, have New England votes were found going for 

influenced the votes of other gentlemen measures favorable to the West; h« has 



demanded to be informed whether all this believe, at least; probably much more- 
did not begin in 1825, and while the were relinquished by this law. On this bill 
election of President was still pending. New England, with her forty members, gave 
Sir, to these questions retort would be more affirmative votes than the four South- 
justified; and it is both cogent and at em States with their fifty-two or three 
hand. Nevertheless, I will answer the members. These two are far the most im- 
inquiry not by retort, but by facts. I will portant measures respecting the public 
tell the gentleman when, and how, and lands which have been adopted within the 
why New England has supported meas- last twenty years. They took place in 
ures favorable to the West. I have al- 1820 and 1821. That is the time when, 
ready referred to the early history of the And as to the manner how, the gentleman 
government — to the first acquisition of already sees that it was by voting in 
the lands — to the original laws for dis- solid column for the required relief. And, 
posing of them and for governing the lastly, as to the cause why, I tell the 
Territories where they lie ; and have shown gentleman it was because the members 
the influence of New England men and from New England thought the measures 
New England principles in all these just and salutary; because they enter- 
leading measures. I should not be par- tained towards the West neither envy, 
doned were I to go over that ground hatred, nor malice; because they deemed 
again. Coming to more recent times, it becoming them, as just and enlightened 
and to measures of a less general char- public men, to meet the exigency which 
after, I have endeavored to prove that had arisen in the West with the appro- 
everything of this kind designed for West- priate measure of relief; because they 
ern improvement has depended on the felt it due to their own characters, and the 
votes of New England. All this is true characters of their New England prede- 
beyond the power of contradiction. cessors in this government, to act towards 
And now, sir, there are two measures the new States in a spirit of liberal, 
to which I will refer, not so ancient as to patronizing, magnanimous policy. So 
belong to the early history of the public much, sir, for the cause why; and 1 
lands, and not so recent as to be on this hope that by this time, sir, the honor- 
side of the period when the gentleman able gentleman is satisfied. If not, I do 
charitably imagines a new direction may not know when, or how, or why he ever 
have been given to New England feeling will be. 

and New England votes. These measures, Having recurred to these two important 

and the New England votes in support of measures, in answer to the gentleman's in- 

them, may be taken as samples and speci- quiries, I must now beg permission to go 

mens of all the rest. In 1820 — observe, back to a period still something earlier, 

Mr. President, in 1820 — the people of the for the purpose still further of showing 

West besought Congress for a reduction how much, or rather how little, reason 

'n the price of lands. In favor of that re- there is for the gentleman's insinuation 

duction, New England, with a delegation that political hopes, or fears, or party as- 

of forty members in the other House, gave sociations were the grounds of these New 

thirty- three votes, and only one against it. England votes. And, after what has been 

The four Southern States, with fifty mem- said, I hope it may be forgiven me if I 

bers, gave thirty-two votes for it and allude to some political opinions and votes 

seven against it. Again, in 1821 — observe of my own, of very little public impor- 

again, sir, the time — the law passed for tance, certainly, but which, from the time 

the relief of the purchasers of the public at which they were given and expressed, 

lands. This was a measure of vital im- may pass for good witnesses on this oc- 

portance to the West, and more especially casion. 

to the Southwest. It authorized the re- This government, Mr. President, from 

linquishment of contracts for lands which its origin to the peace of 1815, had been 

had been entered into at high prices, and too much engrossed with various other 

a reduction, in other cases, of not less than important concerns to be able to turn its 

37% per cent, on the purchase money, thoughts inward, and look to the develop- 

Many millions of dollars — six or seven, I ment of its vast internal resources. In 



the early part of President Washington's 
administration it was fully occupied with 
organizing the government, providing for 
the public debt, defending the frontiers, 
and maintaining domestic peace. Before 
the termination of that administration 
the fires of the French Revolution blazed 
forth as from a new-opened volcano, and 
the whole breadth of the ocean did not 
entirely secure us from its effects. The 
smoke and the cinders reached us, though 
not the burning lava. Difficult and agi- 
tating questions, embarrassing to govern- 
ment and dividing public opinion, sprung 
out of the new state of our foreign rela- 
tions, and were succeeded by others, and 
yet again by others, equally embarrassing, 
and equally exciting division and discord, 
through the long series of twenty years, 
till they finally issued in the war with 
England. Down to the close of that war 
no distinct, marked, and deliberate atten- 
tion had been given, or could have been 
given, to the internal condition of the 
country, its capacities of improvement, or 
the constitutional power of the govern- 
ment in regard to objects connected with 
such improvement. 

The peace, Mr. President, brought about 
an entirely new and most interesting state 
of things; it opened to us other prospects, 
and suggested other duties; we ourselves 
were changed, and the whole world was 
changed. The pacification of Europe, after 
June, 1815, assumed a firm and perma- 
nent aspect. The nations evidently mani- 
fested that they were disposed for peace; 
some agitation of the waves might be ex- 
pected, even after the storm had subsided; 
but the tendency was, strongly and 
rapidly, towards settled repose. 

It so happened, sir, that I was at that 
time a member of Congress, and, like others, 
naturally turned my attention to the con- 
templation of the newly altered condition 
of the country and of the world. It ap- 
peared plainly enough to me, as well as 
to wiser and more experienced men, that 
ihe policy of the government would neces- 
sarily take a start in a new direction, be- 
cause new directions would necessarily be 
given to the pursuits and occupations of 
the people. We had pushed our commerce 
far and fast under the advantage of a 
neutral flag. But there were now no longer 
flags, either neutral or belligerent. The 

harvest of neutrality had been great, but 
we had gathered it all. With the peace of 
Europe it was obvious there would spring 
up, in her circle of nations, a revived ar>d 
invigorated spirit of trade, arid a new 
activity in all the business and objects of 
civilized life. Hereafter our commercial 
gains were to be earned only by success in 
a close and intense competition. Other 
nations would produce for themselves, and 
carry for themselves, and manufacture for 
themselves to the full extent of their 
abilities. The crops of our plains would 
no longer sustain European armies, nor 
our ships longer supply those whom war 
had rendered unable to supply themselves. 
It was obvious that under these circum- 
stances the country would begin to survey 
itself and to estimate its own capacity of 
improvements. And this improvement, 
how was it to be accomplished and who 
was to accomplish it? 

We were ten or twelve millions of 
people, spread over almost half a world. 
We were twenty-four States, some stretch- 
ing along the same seaboard, some along 
the same line of inland frontier, and 
others on opposite banks of the same vast 
rivers. Two considerations at once pre- 
sented themselves in looking at this state 
of things, with great force. One was that 
that great branch of improvement, which 
consisted in furnishing new facilities of 
intercourse, necessarily ran into different 
States, in every leading instance, and 
would benefit the citizens of all such 
States. No one State, therefore, in such 
cases, would assume the whole expense, 
nor was the co-operation of several States 
to be expected. Take the instance of the 
Delaware breakwater. It will cost several 
millions of money. Would Pennsylvania 
alone have ever constructed it? Certainly 
never while this Union lasts, because it is 
not for her sole benefit. Would Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, and Delaware have 
united to accomplish it, at their joint ex- 
pense? Certainly not, for the same reason. 
It could not be done, therefore, but by the 
general government. The same may be 
said of the large inland undertakings, ex- 
cept that in them government, instead of 
bearing the whole expense, co-operates 
with others who bear a part. The other 
consideration is that the United States 
have the means. They enjoy the revenues 



derived from commerce, and the States lina votes. But for these votes it could 
have no abundant and easy sources of